Abstract

The fast-growing market of organic electronics stimulates the development of versatile technologies for structuring thin-film materials. Ultraviolet lasers have proven their full potential for patterning organic thin films, but only a few studies report on interaction with thin-film barrier layers. In this paper, we present an approach in which the laser patterning process is optimized together with the barrier film, leading to a highly selective patterning technology without introducing barrier damage. This optimization is crucial, as the barrier damage would lead to moisture and oxygen ingress, with accelerated device degradation as a result. Following process optimization, a laser processed flexible organic LED has been fabricated and thin-film encapsulated and its operation is shown for the first time in atmospheric conditions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913–915 (1987).
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leoa, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518, 3042–3045 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Pardo, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Application of screen printing in the fabrication of organic Light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1249–1252 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Harkema, H. Rooms, J. S. Wilson, and T. van Mol, “Large area ITO-free flexible white OLEDs with Orgacon PEDOT:PSS and printed metal shunting lines,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74150T (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. E. Jabbour, R. Radspinner, and N. Peyghambarian, “Screen printing for the fabrication of organic light emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 769–773 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. H. Tak, C.-N. Kim, M.-S. Kim, K.-B. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and S.-T. Kim, “Novel patterning method using Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers for organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 138, 497–500 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Liu, G. Zhu, and D. Liu, “Patterning cathode for organic light-emitting diode by pulsed laser ablation,” Displays 29, 536–540 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Bityurin and A. Malyshev, “Bulk photothermal model for laser ablation of polymers by nanosecond and subpicosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 605–613 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. Campbell, “Surface charging and impulsive ion ejection during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Mandamparambil, H. Fledderus, G. Van Steenberge, and A. Dietzel, “Patterning of flexible organic light emitting diode (FOLED) stack using an ultrafast laser,” Opt. Express 18, 7575–7583 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leoa, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518, 3042–3045 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Mandamparambil, H. Fledderus, G. Van Steenberge, and A. Dietzel, “Patterning of flexible organic light emitting diode (FOLED) stack using an ultrafast laser,” Opt. Express 18, 7575–7583 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Harkema, H. Rooms, J. S. Wilson, and T. van Mol, “Large area ITO-free flexible white OLEDs with Orgacon PEDOT:PSS and printed metal shunting lines,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74150T (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Liu, G. Zhu, and D. Liu, “Patterning cathode for organic light-emitting diode by pulsed laser ablation,” Displays 29, 536–540 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. H. Tak, C.-N. Kim, M.-S. Kim, K.-B. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and S.-T. Kim, “Novel patterning method using Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers for organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 138, 497–500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Bityurin and A. Malyshev, “Bulk photothermal model for laser ablation of polymers by nanosecond and subpicosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 605–613 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. Campbell, “Surface charging and impulsive ion ejection during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853–3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. E. Jabbour, R. Radspinner, and N. Peyghambarian, “Screen printing for the fabrication of organic light emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 769–773 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. A. Pardo, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Application of screen printing in the fabrication of organic Light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1249–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Allott, R.

D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. Campbell, “Surface charging and impulsive ion ejection during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bharathan, J.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bityurin, N.

N. Bityurin and A. Malyshev, “Bulk photothermal model for laser ablation of polymers by nanosecond and subpicosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 605–613 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Böhlen, K.

D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, A.

D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bulgakova, N. M.

R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. Campbell, “Surface charging and impulsive ion ejection during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. E.

R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. Campbell, “Surface charging and impulsive ion ejection during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chae, H.

J. S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. C.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H. K.

J. S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dietzel, A.

Eritt, M.

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leoa, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518, 3042–3045 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fieret, J.

D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fledderus, H.

Fleddreus, H.

S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giebeler, C.

D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harkema, S.

S. Harkema, H. Rooms, J. S. Wilson, and T. van Mol, “Large area ITO-free flexible white OLEDs with Orgacon PEDOT:PSS and printed metal shunting lines,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74150T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. Campbell, “Surface charging and impulsive ion ejection during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jabbour, G. E.

G. E. Jabbour, R. Radspinner, and N. Peyghambarian, “Screen printing for the fabrication of organic light emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 769–773 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Pardo, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Application of screen printing in the fabrication of organic Light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1249–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.-N.

Y. H. Tak, C.-N. Kim, M.-S. Kim, K.-B. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and S.-T. Kim, “Novel patterning method using Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers for organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 138, 497–500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-B.

Y. H. Tak, C.-N. Kim, M.-S. Kim, K.-B. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and S.-T. Kim, “Novel patterning method using Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers for organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 138, 497–500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-S.

Y. H. Tak, C.-N. Kim, M.-S. Kim, K.-B. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and S.-T. Kim, “Novel patterning method using Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers for organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 138, 497–500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-T.

Y. H. Tak, C.-N. Kim, M.-S. Kim, K.-B. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and S.-T. Kim, “Novel patterning method using Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers for organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 138, 497–500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krasnov, A. N.

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853–3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

Y. H. Tak, C.-N. Kim, M.-S. Kim, K.-B. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and S.-T. Kim, “Novel patterning method using Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers for organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 138, 497–500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. I.

J. S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leoa, K.

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leoa, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518, 3042–3045 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lidzey, D. G.

D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, G. Zhu, and D. Liu, “Patterning cathode for organic light-emitting diode by pulsed laser ablation,” Displays 29, 536–540 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

C. Liu, G. Zhu, and D. Liu, “Patterning cathode for organic light-emitting diode by pulsed laser ablation,” Displays 29, 536–540 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malyshev, A.

N. Bityurin and A. Malyshev, “Bulk photothermal model for laser ablation of polymers by nanosecond and subpicosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 605–613 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mandamparambil, R.

S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Mandamparambil, H. Fledderus, G. Van Steenberge, and A. Dietzel, “Patterning of flexible organic light emitting diode (FOLED) stack using an ultrafast laser,” Opt. Express 18, 7575–7583 (2010).
[CrossRef]

May, C.

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leoa, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518, 3042–3045 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naithani, S.

S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Onohara, J.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, D. A.

D. A. Pardo, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Application of screen printing in the fabrication of organic Light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1249–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

J. S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

G. E. Jabbour, R. Radspinner, and N. Peyghambarian, “Screen printing for the fabrication of organic light emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 769–773 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Pardo, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Application of screen printing in the fabrication of organic Light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1249–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prenen, A.

S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Radehaus, C.

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leoa, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518, 3042–3045 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Radspinner, R.

G. E. Jabbour, R. Radspinner, and N. Peyghambarian, “Screen printing for the fabrication of organic light emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 769–773 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rooms, H.

S. Harkema, H. Rooms, J. S. Wilson, and T. van Mol, “Large area ITO-free flexible white OLEDs with Orgacon PEDOT:PSS and printed metal shunting lines,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74150T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. Campbell, “Surface charging and impulsive ion ejection during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schaubroeck, D.

S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steenberge, G. V.

S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. Campbell, “Surface charging and impulsive ion ejection during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tak, Y. H.

Y. H. Tak, C.-N. Kim, M.-S. Kim, K.-B. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and S.-T. Kim, “Novel patterning method using Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers for organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 138, 497–500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Toerker, M.

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leoa, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518, 3042–3045 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Assche, F.

S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Mol, T.

S. Harkema, H. Rooms, J. S. Wilson, and T. van Mol, “Large area ITO-free flexible white OLEDs with Orgacon PEDOT:PSS and printed metal shunting lines,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74150T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Steenberge, G.

Vanfleteren, J.

S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, M.

D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. S.

S. Harkema, H. Rooms, J. S. Wilson, and T. van Mol, “Large area ITO-free flexible white OLEDs with Orgacon PEDOT:PSS and printed metal shunting lines,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74150T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J.

D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

C. Liu, G. Zhu, and D. Liu, “Patterning cathode for organic light-emitting diode by pulsed laser ablation,” Displays 29, 536–540 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

D. A. Pardo, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Application of screen printing in the fabrication of organic Light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1249–1252 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Chang, J. Liu, J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, J. Onohara, and J. Kido, “Multicolor organic light-emitting diodes processed by hybrid inkjet printing,” Adv. Mater. 11, 734–737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853–3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Displays

C. Liu, G. Zhu, and D. Liu, “Patterning cathode for organic light-emitting diode by pulsed laser ablation,” Displays 29, 536–540 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

G. E. Jabbour, R. Radspinner, and N. Peyghambarian, “Screen printing for the fabrication of organic light emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 769–773 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. Bityurin and A. Malyshev, “Bulk photothermal model for laser ablation of polymers by nanosecond and subpicosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 605–613 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Org. Electron.

D. G. Lidzey, M. Voigt, C. Giebeler, A. Buckley, J. Wright, K. Böhlen, J. Fieret, and R. Allott, “Laser-assisted patterning of conjugated polymer light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 6, 221–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. Campbell, “Surface charging and impulsive ion ejection during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. Naithani, R. Mandamparambil, F. Van Assche, D. Schaubroeck, H. Fleddreus, A. Prenen, G. V. Steenberge, and J. Vanfleteren, “Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films,” Proc. SPIE 8435, 843505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Harkema, H. Rooms, J. S. Wilson, and T. van Mol, “Large area ITO-free flexible white OLEDs with Orgacon PEDOT:PSS and printed metal shunting lines,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74150T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

J. S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 034001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met.

Y. H. Tak, C.-N. Kim, M.-S. Kim, K.-B. Kim, M.-H. Lee, and S.-T. Kim, “Novel patterning method using Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers for organic light emitting diodes,” Synth. Met. 138, 497–500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leoa, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518, 3042–3045 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

www.holstcentre.com .

White paper on the characterization of thin-film barrier layers for protection of OLEDs, available for download at http://www.fast2light.org/news.html .

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Thin-films stack on flexible PEN substrate and multilayered barrier, prepared for the investigation of barrier influence on patterning (a) PEDOT:PSS, (b) LEP, (c) LEP and PEDOT:PSS, at the top. (d) A detailed multilayered barrier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for layer patterning.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Flexible OLED layered structure and various selective ablation steps for patterning: ablate PEDOT:PSS on (A) a barrier and on (B) a bus bar; ablate LEP on (C) the barrier and on (D) the bus bar.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical absorption spectra of different SiN barrier foils, indicating significant difference in the absorption at the wavelength of operation, i.e., 248 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical absorption spectra of the thin organic films indicating higher absorption by LEP compared to PEDOT:PSS at 248 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Selective ablation for PEDOT:PSS on two different kinds of barrier stacks: least absorbing SiN(1) in (a) clean removal, (b) and onset of damage at overlapping; and highest absorbing SiN(4) in (c) clean removal, and (d) start of damage at edges.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Graph of the ablation depth versus the laser fluence for multilayered SiN(1) barrier stack applying two pulses per location.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Graph of the ablation depth versus the laser fluence for PEDOT:PSS and LEP thin films on multilayered SiN(1) barrier (single pulse).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Multishot ablation of (a) PEDOT:PSS and (b) LEP on SiN(1) barrier indicating the depth measurement at various laser fluences.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) PEDOT:PSS layer removed at a fluence of 125mJ/cm2 with two pulses per location on SiN(1) barrier. (b) Corresponding white light interferometer (Wyko) depth profile.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) LEP layer removed at a fluence of 100mJ/cm2 with five pulses per location on SiN(1) barrier. (b) White light interferometer profile showing a depth of 89nm and indicating the removal of LEP.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Process flow for laser patterned flexible OLED. Process 1: PEDOT:PSS is deposited by spin coating on flexible barrier substrate. Process 2: PEDOT:PSS is removed by laser process forming encapsulation ring and contact isolation. Process 3: LEP is deposited by spin coating. Process 4: LEP is removed from encapsulation ring and contact cleaning for top electrode deposition. Process 5: metal cathode (Ba-Al) is evaporated through a mask. Process 6: device is thin-film encapsulated.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Functional flexible OLED device incorporating PEDOT:PSS and LEP selective ablation using excimer laser; demonstration under environmental conditions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Layer Composition, Thicknesses, and Deposition Methods of the OLED Stack

Tables Icon

Table 2. Damage Thresholds for Different Types of Multilayered SiN Barrier Foils

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