Abstract

We have developed a new method to analyze the amount and distribution of diffraction light for a diffraction grating lens. We have found that diffraction light includes each-order diffraction light and striped diffraction light. In this paper, we describe characteristics of striped diffraction light and suggest a way to analyze diffraction light. Our analysis method, which considers the structure of diffraction grating steps, can simulate the aberrations of an optical system, each-order diffraction light, and striped diffraction light simultaneously with high accuracy. A comparison between the simulation and experimental results is presented, and we also show how our analysis method can be used to optimize a diffraction grating lens with low flare light.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. H. Freeman, “Multifocal contact lenses utilizing diffraction and refraction,” U.S. patent4,637,697 (20January, 1987).
  2. S. Klein, “Understanding the diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 439–460 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Roberto, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 16, 33–37 (2005).
  4. T. Nakai and H. Ogawa, “Development of 3-layer diffractive optical elements employed for wide incident angle,” in Technical Digest of ICO’04 International Conference Optics and Photonics in Technology Frontier, Tokyo (2004).
  5. W. C. Sweatt, “Describing holographic optical elements as lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 803–808 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. H. Spencer and M. V. R. K. Murty, “General ray-tracing procedure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 672–676 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).
  8. D. A. Pommet, M. G. Moharam, and E. B. Grann, “Limits of scalar diffraction theory for diffractive phase elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1827–1834 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Ichikawa, “Electromagnetic analysis of diffraction gratings by the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 152–157 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Oka, N. Ebizuka, and K. Kodate, “Optimal design of the grating with reflective plate of comb type for astronomical observation using RCWA,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 168 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Phase function design of a diffraction grating lens for an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Appl. Opt. 52, 6543–6548 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number (Japanese),” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).
  14. T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. D. Boreman, Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-Optical Systems (SPIE, 2001).

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number (Japanese),” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).

2007 (1)

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Roberto, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 16, 33–37 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. Oka, N. Ebizuka, and K. Kodate, “Optimal design of the grating with reflective plate of comb type for astronomical observation using RCWA,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

S. Klein, “Understanding the diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 439–460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1962 (1)

Akazu, K.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Akiyama, T.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Ando, T.

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Phase function design of a diffraction grating lens for an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Appl. Opt. 52, 6543–6548 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number (Japanese),” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

G. D. Boreman, Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-Optical Systems (SPIE, 2001).

Ebizuka, N.

K. Oka, N. Ebizuka, and K. Kodate, “Optimal design of the grating with reflective plate of comb type for astronomical observation using RCWA,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. H.

M. H. Freeman, “Multifocal contact lenses utilizing diffraction and refraction,” U.S. patent4,637,697 (20January, 1987).

Fukuda, M.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Fukuda, T.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Grann, E. B.

Hayashi, Y.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Ichikawa, H.

Kawai, S.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Kawamoto, T.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Klein, S.

S. Klein, “Understanding the diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 439–460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kodate, K.

K. Oka, N. Ebizuka, and K. Kodate, “Optimal design of the grating with reflective plate of comb type for astronomical observation using RCWA,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korenaga, T.

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Phase function design of a diffraction grating lens for an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Appl. Opt. 52, 6543–6548 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number (Japanese),” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyatake, N.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Moharam, M. G.

Moriguchi, S.

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muranaka, M.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Murata, A.

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number (Japanese),” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).

Murty, M. V. R. K.

Nagashima, M.

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, T.

T. Nakai and H. Ogawa, “Development of 3-layer diffractive optical elements employed for wide incident angle,” in Technical Digest of ICO’04 International Conference Optics and Photonics in Technology Frontier, Tokyo (2004).

Nishiwaki, S.

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, K.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Ogawa, H.

T. Nakai and H. Ogawa, “Development of 3-layer diffractive optical elements employed for wide incident angle,” in Technical Digest of ICO’04 International Conference Optics and Photonics in Technology Frontier, Tokyo (2004).

Ohya, N.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Oka, K.

K. Oka, N. Ebizuka, and K. Kodate, “Optimal design of the grating with reflective plate of comb type for astronomical observation using RCWA,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okada, Y.

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number (Japanese),” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).

Oki, I.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Pommet, D. A.

Qi, H.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Roberto, B.

B. Roberto, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 16, 33–37 (2005).

Sakai, K.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Spencer, G. H.

Suenaga, T.

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number (Japanese),” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).

Suzuki, M.

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Phase function design of a diffraction grating lens for an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Appl. Opt. 52, 6543–6548 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number (Japanese),” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sweatt, W. C.

Takamasa, T.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Takami, F.

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takasu, Y.

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanizu, M.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Yamaguchi, S.

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

B. Roberto, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 16, 33–37 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Kobunshi Ronbunshu (1)

Y. Okada, A. Murata, T. Ando, T. Suenaga, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a diffraction lens for color imaging using a nanocomposite material with high refractive index and high Abbe number (Japanese),” Kobunshi Ronbunshu 67, 390–396 (2010).

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

S. Klein, “Understanding the diffractive bifocal contact lens,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 439–460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

T. Ando, T. Korenaga, and M. Suzuki, “Explication of diffraction lights on an optical imaging system from a Fraunhofer diffraction perspective,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 842916 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Korenaga, T. Ando, S. Moriguchi, F. Takami, Y. Takasu, S. Nishiwaki, M. Suzuki, and M. Nagashima, “Diffraction grating lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 65010T (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Oka, N. Ebizuka, and K. Kodate, “Optimal design of the grating with reflective plate of comb type for astronomical observation using RCWA,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. D. Boreman, Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-Optical Systems (SPIE, 2001).

M. Muranaka, S. Kawai, T. Akiyama, I. Oki, T. Takamasa, Y. Hayashi, K. Akazu, K. Sakai, N. Miyatake, T. Kawamoto, H. Qi, M. Tanizu, K. Nishizawa, M. Fukuda, T. Fukuda, S. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohya, “Shin Kougaku Lens Gijutsu (Japanese),” Sci. Tech., 71–87 (2013).

M. H. Freeman, “Multifocal contact lenses utilizing diffraction and refraction,” U.S. patent4,637,697 (20January, 1987).

T. Nakai and H. Ogawa, “Development of 3-layer diffractive optical elements employed for wide incident angle,” in Technical Digest of ICO’04 International Conference Optics and Photonics in Technology Frontier, Tokyo (2004).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of optical imaging system with diffraction grating lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Images of a point light source’s light captured by a diffraction grating lens.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental data of 3rd–4th striped interval from central main light.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Principle of real-shape analysis.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic of white grating lens.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavefront aberration on the exit pupil (white grating lens).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

PSF simulated by real-shape analysis.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Diffraction grating height dependence of PSF distribution.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of PSF intensity distribution between simulation and experiment (unoptimized diffraction grating).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Comparison of PSF intensity distribution between simulation and experiment (optimized diffraction grating).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

MTF (simulation).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Light loss simulation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specifications of Optical Imaging System

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n1(S1×E)=n0(S0×E)+mλλ0ψ(r)×E,
ψ(r)=a1·r2+a2·r4+a3·r6+a4·r8+a5·r10,
ϕ(r)=2πλ0ψ(r).
n1(S1×E)=n0(S0×E).
P(u,v)=x=1Nxy=1NyW(x,y)e2πi(uxNx+vyNy)u=1,,Nxv=1,,Ny.

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