Abstract

A compact polarization rotator (PR) for silicon-based slot waveguides is proposed, where the slot region including the upper claddings is filled with liquid crystals (LCs). With the anisotropic features of the LCs, the transverse field components of eigenmodes have almost identical amplitudes, leading to a high modal hybridness. As a result, the TE (TM) polarization can be rotated efficiently to the TM (TE) polarization within a short length. The numerical results show that a PR 11.3 μm in length at an operating wavelength of 1.55 μm is achieved with an extinction ratio (ER) (insertion loss) of 12.6 (0.22) dB for TE-to-TM and 11.5 (0.30) dB for TM-to-TE. Moreover, the optical bandwidth for TE-to-TM (TM-to-TE) mode must be 64 (29)nm to keep the ER over 12 (10) dB. In addition, fabrication tolerances to the structural parameters are investigated, and field evolution along the propagation distance through the PR is also demonstrated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (10)

A. Barh, B. M. A. Rahman, R. K. Varshney, and B. P. Pal, “Design and performance study of a compact SOI polarization rotator at 1.55  μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 3687–3693 (2013).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. N. Caspers, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Experimental demonstration of an integrated hybrid plasmonic polarization rotator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4054–4057 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter composed of a multiple-slotted waveguide and a silicon nanowire,” J. Opt. 15, 035501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact silicon-based slot-waveguide crossing,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3737–3744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, J. S. Kee, and M. K. Park, “A refractive index sensor design based on grating-assisted coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide,” Opt. Express 21, 5897–5909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Dar, J. Homola, B. M. A. Rahman, and M. Rajarajan, “Label-free slot-waveguide biosensor for the detection of DNA hybridization,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8195–8202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Komatsu, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Compact polarization rotator based on surface plasmon polariton with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 707–714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

J. Xiao and X. Sun, “Full-vectorial mode solver for anisotropic optical waveguides using multidomain spectral collocation method,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2835–2840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal polarization conversion in asymmetric magnetooptic waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1662–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

1994 (1)

C. L. Xu, W. P. Huang, J. Chrostowski, and S. K. Chaudhuri, “A full-vectorial beam propagation method for anisotropic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1926–1931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abdelrazzak, M.

Abe, K.

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal polarization conversion in asymmetric magnetooptic waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1662–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Alloatti, L.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Amemiya, T.

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal polarization conversion in asymmetric magnetooptic waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1662–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barh, A.

Barrios, C. A.

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1, 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, C.

Caspers, J. N.

Chaudhuri, S. K.

C. L. Xu, W. P. Huang, J. Chrostowski, and S. K. Chaudhuri, “A full-vectorial beam propagation method for anisotropic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1926–1931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Chen, S.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, J.

C. L. Xu, W. P. Huang, J. Chrostowski, and S. K. Chaudhuri, “A full-vectorial beam propagation method for anisotropic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1926–1931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang and D. Dai, “Ultrasmall Si-nanowire-based polarization rotator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 747–753 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dar, T.

Das, S.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.

Ding, Y.

Dinu, R.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

J. Fan, C. Huang, and L. Zhu, “A compact, broadband slot waveguide polarization rotator,” AIP Adv. 1, 042136 (2011).

Farrell, G.

Fedeli, J. M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

Fournier, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Gunter, P.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hameed, M. F. O.

Hashimoto, T.

Heinonen, E.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hiltunen, J.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hiltunen, M.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

Huang, C.

J. Fan, C. Huang, and L. Zhu, “A compact, broadband slot waveguide polarization rotator,” AIP Adv. 1, 042136 (2011).

Huang, W. P.

C. L. Xu, W. P. Huang, J. Chrostowski, and S. K. Chaudhuri, “A full-vectorial beam propagation method for anisotropic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1926–1931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1, 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

Jazbinsek, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

Jiang, X.

Karioja, P.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1, 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kee, J. S.

Kimerling, L. C.

Komatsu, M.

M. Komatsu, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Compact polarization rotator based on surface plasmon polariton with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 707–714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Korn, D.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

M. Komatsu, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Compact polarization rotator based on surface plasmon polariton with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 707–714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lappalainen, J.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lauermann, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Liu, L.

Liu, Q.

Liu, X.

Lo, P. G. Q.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Mizumoto, T.

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal polarization conversion in asymmetric magnetooptic waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1662–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mojahedi, M.

Nakano, H.

Nakano, Y.

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal polarization conversion in asymmetric magnetooptic waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1662–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Palmer, R.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Park, M. K.

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J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1, 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, B. M. A.

Rajarajan, M.

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1, 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, K.

M. Komatsu, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Compact polarization rotator based on surface plasmon polariton with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 707–714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, Y.

Shinojima, H.

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1, 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Socci, L.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1, 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

Sun, X.

Y. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact silicon-based slot-waveguide crossing,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3737–3744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact silicon-based slot-waveguide crossing composed of an orthogonal strip waveguide and four logarithmical mode converters,” J. Phys. D 46, 455102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter composed of a multiple-slotted waveguide and a silicon nanowire,” J. Opt. 15, 035501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao and X. Sun, “Full-vectorial mode solver for anisotropic optical waveguides using multidomain spectral collocation method,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2835–2840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter in horizontal multiple-slotted structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748–3754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of polarization-independent optical couplers composed of three parallel slot waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2687–2695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 15, 8300–8308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, T.

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal polarization conversion in asymmetric magnetooptic waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1662–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thong, J. T. L.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

Varshney, R. K.

Wahlbrink, T.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wakabayashi, Y.

Waldow, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter composed of a multiple-slotted waveguide and a silicon nanowire,” J. Opt. 15, 035501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact silicon-based slot-waveguide crossing composed of an orthogonal strip waveguide and four logarithmical mode converters,” J. Phys. D 46, 455102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact silicon-based slot-waveguide crossing,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3737–3744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Watanabe, T.

Watts, M. R.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1, 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wehrli, S.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J.

J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter composed of a multiple-slotted waveguide and a silicon nanowire,” J. Opt. 15, 035501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact silicon-based slot-waveguide crossing,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3737–3744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact silicon-based slot-waveguide crossing composed of an orthogonal strip waveguide and four logarithmical mode converters,” J. Phys. D 46, 455102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao and X. Sun, “Full-vectorial mode solver for anisotropic optical waveguides using multidomain spectral collocation method,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2835–2840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of polarization-independent optical couplers composed of three parallel slot waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2687–2695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter in horizontal multiple-slotted structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748–3754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 15, 8300–8308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

Y. Xiong and W. N. Ye, “Slotted silicon microring resonators with multimode interference couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 118–119.

Xu, C. L.

C. L. Xu, W. P. Huang, J. Chrostowski, and S. K. Chaudhuri, “A full-vectorial beam propagation method for anisotropic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1926–1931 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact silicon-based slot-waveguide crossing,” Appl. Opt. 52, 3737–3744 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact silicon-based slot-waveguide crossing composed of an orthogonal strip waveguide and four logarithmical mode converters,” J. Phys. D 46, 455102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yamanoue, M.

Yamauchi, J.

Yang, J.

Ye, W. N.

Y. Xiong and W. N. Ye, “Slotted silicon microring resonators with multimode interference couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 118–119.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Yevick, D. O.

Yu, H.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yvind, K.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Zhu, L.

J. Fan, C. Huang, and L. Zhu, “A compact, broadband slot waveguide polarization rotator,” AIP Adv. 1, 042136 (2011).

AIP Adv. (1)

J. Fan, C. Huang, and L. Zhu, “A compact, broadband slot waveguide polarization rotator,” AIP Adv. 1, 042136 (2011).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G. Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal polarization conversion in asymmetric magnetooptic waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1662–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 114–126 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

M. Komatsu, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Compact polarization rotator based on surface plasmon polariton with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 707–714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 5, 2200808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

J. Opt. (1)

J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter composed of a multiple-slotted waveguide and a silicon nanowire,” J. Opt. 15, 035501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

Y. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact silicon-based slot-waveguide crossing composed of an orthogonal strip waveguide and four logarithmical mode converters,” J. Phys. D 46, 455102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, “Design of a compact polarization splitter in horizontal multiple-slotted structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748–3754 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1, 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Xiao and X. Sun, “Full-vectorial mode solver for anisotropic optical waveguides using multidomain spectral collocation method,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2835–2840 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Other (2)

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Y. Xiong and W. N. Ye, “Slotted silicon microring resonators with multimode interference couplers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 118–119.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic configuration of the proposed PR including the cross-sectional views of the input/output region and conversion region, (b) schematic showing the LC molecule and its twist angle φ between the x axis and its director, where no and ne are the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of the LC, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effective indices and birefringence of the two lowest modes of the PR as a function of (a) slot width wS, (b) silicon-wire width wH, and (c) twist angle of the LC φ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Modal hybridness of the first mode of the PR as a function of the silicon wire width wH and slot width wS.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modal hybridness of the first mode of the PR as a function of the twist angle of the LC φ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Field distributions of the Hx and Hy components of the two lowest modes, where wS=100nm, wH=200nm, h=250nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of the ER for the designed PR with the conversion length LC.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

ER of the PR as a function of (a) slot width variation ΔwS and (b) silicon wire width variation ΔwH.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

ER of the PR as a function of the twist angle variation of the LC Δφ.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) ER and (b) IL of the designed PR as a function of the operating wavelength λ.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Evolution of the input (a) TE and (b) TM modes along the propagation distance through the designed PR.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

εr=[εxxεxy0εyxεyy000εzz].
z[ExEy]=[Pxxx+Pxxy+CxyPxyPyxPyyx+Pyyy+Cyx][ExEy],
εr=[no2+(ne2no2)cos2φ(ne2no2)cosφsinφ0(ne2no2)cosφsinφno2+(ne2no2)sin2φ000no2],
LC=λ2B=λ2(n1n2),
Hybridness=max|Hu|max|Hv|,
ER=10log10(PTMPTE),
IL=10log10(PTM+PTEPinputTE)
IL=10log10(PTE+PTMPinputTM)

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