Abstract

The clinical diagnosis of most cancers is based on evaluation of histology microscopic slides to view the size and shape of cellular nuclei and morphological structure of tissue. To achieve this goal for in vivo and in-deep tissues, near infrared dyes-bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G conjugates were synthesized. The spectral study shows that the absorption and fluorescence of the dye conjugates are in the “tissue optical window” spectral ranges between 650 and 900 nm. The internalization and pinocytosis of the synthesized compounds were investigated at cell level using fluorescence microscopy to obtain the optimal concentration and staining time.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescence contrast agent for in vivo tumor imaging,” Investigat. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).
  3. C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).
  4. L. C. Zanetti-Domingues, C. J. Tynan, D. J. Rolfe, D. T. Clarke, and M. Martin-Fernandez, “Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding,” PLoS One 8, e74200 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).
  6. S. Gadde, E. K. Batchelor, and A. E. Kaifer, “Controlling the formation of cyanine dye H- and J-aggregates with cucurbituril hosts in the presence of anionic polyelectrolytes,” Chemistry 15, 6025–6031 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Uchino, H. Kojima, K. W. Mika Imada, F. Onoda, H. Satofuka, T. Utsugi, and Y. Murakami, “Nuclear b-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer 10, 414 (2012).
  8. R. E. Sobel and M. D. Sadar, “Cell lines used in prostate cancer research: a compendium of old and new lines—part 2,” J. Urol. 173, 360–372 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Shen, K. Liang, Y. Ye, E. Tetteh, and S. Achilefu, “Modulation of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by fluorescent dyes and receptor-avid peptides,” FEBS Lett. 581, 1793–1799 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. S. Navratil, S. C. Watkins, J. J. Wisnieski, and J. M. Ahearn, “The globular heads of C1q specifically recognize surface blebs of apoptotic vascular endothelial cells,” J. Immunol. 166, 3231–3239 (2001).
  11. N. Aoki, K. Furukawa, K. Iwatsuki, A. Noda, T. Sato, R. Nakamura, and T. Matsuda, “A bovine IgG heavy chain contains N-acetylgalactosaminylated N-linked sugar chains,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 275–280 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, “Optical detection of meat spoilage using Fluorescence spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelength,” Appl. Spectrosc. 67, 210–213 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93, 2892–2899 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. El-Faham and F. Albericio, “Peptide coupling reagents, more than a letter soup,” Chem. Rev. 111, 6557–6602 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Pu, W. Wang, M. Xu, J. Eastham, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Characterization and three-dimensional localization of cancerous prostate tissue using backscattering scanning polarization imaging and independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081419 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS One 5, e11218 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Murari, Y. Zhang, S. Li, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Compensation-free, all-fiber-optic, two-photon endomicroscopy at 1.55  μm,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1299–1301 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Pu, L. Shi, S. Pratavieira, and R. Alfano, “Two-photon excitation microscopy using the second singlet state of fluorescent agents within the ‘tissue optical window’,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 153102 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013

L. C. Zanetti-Domingues, C. J. Tynan, D. J. Rolfe, D. T. Clarke, and M. Martin-Fernandez, “Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding,” PLoS One 8, e74200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, “Optical detection of meat spoilage using Fluorescence spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelength,” Appl. Spectrosc. 67, 210–213 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, L. Shi, S. Pratavieira, and R. Alfano, “Two-photon excitation microscopy using the second singlet state of fluorescent agents within the ‘tissue optical window’,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 153102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Y. Pu, W. Wang, M. Xu, J. Eastham, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Characterization and three-dimensional localization of cancerous prostate tissue using backscattering scanning polarization imaging and independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Uchino, H. Kojima, K. W. Mika Imada, F. Onoda, H. Satofuka, T. Utsugi, and Y. Murakami, “Nuclear b-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer 10, 414 (2012).

2011

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

A. El-Faham and F. Albericio, “Peptide coupling reagents, more than a letter soup,” Chem. Rev. 111, 6557–6602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Murari, Y. Zhang, S. Li, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Compensation-free, all-fiber-optic, two-photon endomicroscopy at 1.55  μm,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1299–1301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS One 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).

2009

S. Gadde, E. K. Batchelor, and A. E. Kaifer, “Controlling the formation of cyanine dye H- and J-aggregates with cucurbituril hosts in the presence of anionic polyelectrolytes,” Chemistry 15, 6025–6031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

2007

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93, 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Shen, K. Liang, Y. Ye, E. Tetteh, and S. Achilefu, “Modulation of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by fluorescent dyes and receptor-avid peptides,” FEBS Lett. 581, 1793–1799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Sobel and M. D. Sadar, “Cell lines used in prostate cancer research: a compendium of old and new lines—part 2,” J. Urol. 173, 360–372 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. S. Navratil, S. C. Watkins, J. J. Wisnieski, and J. M. Ahearn, “The globular heads of C1q specifically recognize surface blebs of apoptotic vascular endothelial cells,” J. Immunol. 166, 3231–3239 (2001).

2000

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescence contrast agent for in vivo tumor imaging,” Investigat. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

N. Aoki, K. Furukawa, K. Iwatsuki, A. Noda, T. Sato, R. Nakamura, and T. Matsuda, “A bovine IgG heavy chain contains N-acetylgalactosaminylated N-linked sugar chains,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 275–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Achilefu, S.

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

D. Shen, K. Liang, Y. Ye, E. Tetteh, and S. Achilefu, “Modulation of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by fluorescent dyes and receptor-avid peptides,” FEBS Lett. 581, 1793–1799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93, 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescence contrast agent for in vivo tumor imaging,” Investigat. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahearn, J. M.

J. S. Navratil, S. C. Watkins, J. J. Wisnieski, and J. M. Ahearn, “The globular heads of C1q specifically recognize surface blebs of apoptotic vascular endothelial cells,” J. Immunol. 166, 3231–3239 (2001).

Akers, W.

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93, 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Albericio, F.

A. El-Faham and F. Albericio, “Peptide coupling reagents, more than a letter soup,” Chem. Rev. 111, 6557–6602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R.

Y. Pu, L. Shi, S. Pratavieira, and R. Alfano, “Two-photon excitation microscopy using the second singlet state of fluorescent agents within the ‘tissue optical window’,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 153102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, “Optical detection of meat spoilage using Fluorescence spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelength,” Appl. Spectrosc. 67, 210–213 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, W. Wang, M. Xu, J. Eastham, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Characterization and three-dimensional localization of cancerous prostate tissue using backscattering scanning polarization imaging and independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

Amadio, P. C.

C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).

An, K. N.

C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).

Anandasabapathy, S.

T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, N.

N. Aoki, K. Furukawa, K. Iwatsuki, A. Noda, T. Sato, R. Nakamura, and T. Matsuda, “A bovine IgG heavy chain contains N-acetylgalactosaminylated N-linked sugar chains,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 275–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. K.

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

Batchelor, E. K.

S. Gadde, E. K. Batchelor, and A. E. Kaifer, “Controlling the formation of cyanine dye H- and J-aggregates with cucurbituril hosts in the presence of anionic polyelectrolytes,” Chemistry 15, 6025–6031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berezin, M. Y.

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93, 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Black, K. C.

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

Bloch, S.

S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Budansky, Y.

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

Bugaj, J. E.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescence contrast agent for in vivo tumor imaging,” Investigat. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Clarke, D. T.

L. C. Zanetti-Domingues, C. J. Tynan, D. J. Rolfe, D. T. Clarke, and M. Martin-Fernandez, “Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding,” PLoS One 8, e74200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dorshow, R. B.

S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescence contrast agent for in vivo tumor imaging,” Investigat. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eastham, J.

Y. Pu, W. Wang, M. Xu, J. Eastham, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Characterization and three-dimensional localization of cancerous prostate tissue using backscattering scanning polarization imaging and independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eastham, J. A.

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

El-Faham, A.

A. El-Faham and F. Albericio, “Peptide coupling reagents, more than a letter soup,” Chem. Rev. 111, 6557–6602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, K.

N. Aoki, K. Furukawa, K. Iwatsuki, A. Noda, T. Sato, R. Nakamura, and T. Matsuda, “A bovine IgG heavy chain contains N-acetylgalactosaminylated N-linked sugar chains,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 275–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gadde, S.

S. Gadde, E. K. Batchelor, and A. E. Kaifer, “Controlling the formation of cyanine dye H- and J-aggregates with cucurbituril hosts in the presence of anionic polyelectrolytes,” Chemistry 15, 6025–6031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gillenwater, A. M.

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS One 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gillies, R. J.

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

Harpaz, N.

T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

N. Aoki, K. Furukawa, K. Iwatsuki, A. Noda, T. Sato, R. Nakamura, and T. Matsuda, “A bovine IgG heavy chain contains N-acetylgalactosaminylated N-linked sugar chains,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 275–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jay, G. D.

C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).

Kaifer, A. E.

S. Gadde, E. K. Batchelor, and A. E. Kaifer, “Controlling the formation of cyanine dye H- and J-aggregates with cucurbituril hosts in the presence of anionic polyelectrolytes,” Chemistry 15, 6025–6031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, R. L.

C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).

Kirkpatrick, N. D.

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

Kojima, H.

M. Uchino, H. Kojima, K. W. Mika Imada, F. Onoda, H. Satofuka, T. Utsugi, and Y. Murakami, “Nuclear b-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer 10, 414 (2012).

Lee, H.

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93, 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.-J.

Li, S.

Li, X.

Liang, K.

D. Shen, K. Liang, Y. Ye, E. Tetteh, and S. Achilefu, “Modulation of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by fluorescent dyes and receptor-avid peptides,” FEBS Lett. 581, 1793–1799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Markiewicz, M. A.

S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Fernandez, M.

L. C. Zanetti-Domingues, C. J. Tynan, D. J. Rolfe, D. T. Clarke, and M. Martin-Fernandez, “Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding,” PLoS One 8, e74200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maru, D.

T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, T.

N. Aoki, K. Furukawa, K. Iwatsuki, A. Noda, T. Sato, R. Nakamura, and T. Matsuda, “A bovine IgG heavy chain contains N-acetylgalactosaminylated N-linked sugar chains,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 275–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mika Imada, K. W.

M. Uchino, H. Kojima, K. W. Mika Imada, F. Onoda, H. Satofuka, T. Utsugi, and Y. Murakami, “Nuclear b-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer 10, 414 (2012).

Moran, S. L.

C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).

Muldoon, T. J.

T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

M. Uchino, H. Kojima, K. W. Mika Imada, F. Onoda, H. Satofuka, T. Utsugi, and Y. Murakami, “Nuclear b-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer 10, 414 (2012).

Murari, K.

Nakamura, R.

N. Aoki, K. Furukawa, K. Iwatsuki, A. Noda, T. Sato, R. Nakamura, and T. Matsuda, “A bovine IgG heavy chain contains N-acetylgalactosaminylated N-linked sugar chains,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 275–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Navratil, J. S.

J. S. Navratil, S. C. Watkins, J. J. Wisnieski, and J. M. Ahearn, “The globular heads of C1q specifically recognize surface blebs of apoptotic vascular endothelial cells,” J. Immunol. 166, 3231–3239 (2001).

Noda, A.

N. Aoki, K. Furukawa, K. Iwatsuki, A. Noda, T. Sato, R. Nakamura, and T. Matsuda, “A bovine IgG heavy chain contains N-acetylgalactosaminylated N-linked sugar chains,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 275–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Onoda, F.

M. Uchino, H. Kojima, K. W. Mika Imada, F. Onoda, H. Satofuka, T. Utsugi, and Y. Murakami, “Nuclear b-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer 10, 414 (2012).

Pierce, M. C.

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS One 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Potack, J.

T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pratavieira, S.

Y. Pu, L. Shi, S. Pratavieira, and R. Alfano, “Two-photon excitation microscopy using the second singlet state of fluorescent agents within the ‘tissue optical window’,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 153102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Y.

Y. Pu, L. Shi, S. Pratavieira, and R. Alfano, “Two-photon excitation microscopy using the second singlet state of fluorescent agents within the ‘tissue optical window’,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 153102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, “Optical detection of meat spoilage using Fluorescence spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelength,” Appl. Spectrosc. 67, 210–213 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, W. Wang, M. Xu, J. Eastham, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Characterization and three-dimensional localization of cancerous prostate tissue using backscattering scanning polarization imaging and independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

Rajagopalan, R.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescence contrast agent for in vivo tumor imaging,” Investigat. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS One 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roblyer, D.

T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rolfe, D. J.

L. C. Zanetti-Domingues, C. J. Tynan, D. J. Rolfe, D. T. Clarke, and M. Martin-Fernandez, “Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding,” PLoS One 8, e74200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Romanowski, M.

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

Sadar, M. D.

R. E. Sobel and M. D. Sadar, “Cell lines used in prostate cancer research: a compendium of old and new lines—part 2,” J. Urol. 173, 360–372 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

N. Aoki, K. Furukawa, K. Iwatsuki, A. Noda, T. Sato, R. Nakamura, and T. Matsuda, “A bovine IgG heavy chain contains N-acetylgalactosaminylated N-linked sugar chains,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 275–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Satofuka, H.

M. Uchino, H. Kojima, K. W. Mika Imada, F. Onoda, H. Satofuka, T. Utsugi, and Y. Murakami, “Nuclear b-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer 10, 414 (2012).

Sharanov, M.

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

Shen, D.

D. Shen, K. Liang, Y. Ye, E. Tetteh, and S. Achilefu, “Modulation of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by fluorescent dyes and receptor-avid peptides,” FEBS Lett. 581, 1793–1799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

Y. Pu, L. Shi, S. Pratavieira, and R. Alfano, “Two-photon excitation microscopy using the second singlet state of fluorescent agents within the ‘tissue optical window’,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 153102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS One 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sobel, R. E.

R. E. Sobel and M. D. Sadar, “Cell lines used in prostate cancer research: a compendium of old and new lines—part 2,” J. Urol. 173, 360–372 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.-L.

C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).

Tang, G.

Y. Pu, W. Wang, M. Xu, J. Eastham, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Characterization and three-dimensional localization of cancerous prostate tissue using backscattering scanning polarization imaging and independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G. C.

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

Tetteh, E.

D. Shen, K. Liang, Y. Ye, E. Tetteh, and S. Achilefu, “Modulation of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by fluorescent dyes and receptor-avid peptides,” FEBS Lett. 581, 1793–1799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thekkek, N.

T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thoreson, A. R.

C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).

Troutman, T. S.

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

Tynan, C. J.

L. C. Zanetti-Domingues, C. J. Tynan, D. J. Rolfe, D. T. Clarke, and M. Martin-Fernandez, “Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding,” PLoS One 8, e74200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, M.

M. Uchino, H. Kojima, K. W. Mika Imada, F. Onoda, H. Satofuka, T. Utsugi, and Y. Murakami, “Nuclear b-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer 10, 414 (2012).

Utsugi, T.

M. Uchino, H. Kojima, K. W. Mika Imada, F. Onoda, H. Satofuka, T. Utsugi, and Y. Murakami, “Nuclear b-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer 10, 414 (2012).

Utzinger, U.

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

Vagner, J.

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

Wang, W.

Y. Pu, W. Wang, M. Xu, J. Eastham, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Characterization and three-dimensional localization of cancerous prostate tissue using backscattering scanning polarization imaging and independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. B.

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, and R. R. Alfano, “Optical detection of meat spoilage using Fluorescence spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelength,” Appl. Spectrosc. 67, 210–213 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

Watkins, S. C.

J. S. Navratil, S. C. Watkins, J. J. Wisnieski, and J. M. Ahearn, “The globular heads of C1q specifically recognize surface blebs of apoptotic vascular endothelial cells,” J. Immunol. 166, 3231–3239 (2001).

Williams, M. D.

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS One 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wisnieski, J. J.

J. S. Navratil, S. C. Watkins, J. J. Wisnieski, and J. M. Ahearn, “The globular heads of C1q specifically recognize surface blebs of apoptotic vascular endothelial cells,” J. Immunol. 166, 3231–3239 (2001).

Xu, L.

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

Xu, M.

Y. Pu, W. Wang, M. Xu, J. Eastham, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Characterization and three-dimensional localization of cancerous prostate tissue using backscattering scanning polarization imaging and independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

Ye, Y.

D. Shen, K. Liang, Y. Ye, E. Tetteh, and S. Achilefu, “Modulation of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by fluorescent dyes and receptor-avid peptides,” FEBS Lett. 581, 1793–1799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zanetti-Domingues, L. C.

L. C. Zanetti-Domingues, C. J. Tynan, D. J. Rolfe, D. T. Clarke, and M. Martin-Fernandez, “Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding,” PLoS One 8, e74200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).

Zhong, T.

S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.

N. Aoki, K. Furukawa, K. Iwatsuki, A. Noda, T. Sato, R. Nakamura, and T. Matsuda, “A bovine IgG heavy chain contains N-acetylgalactosaminylated N-linked sugar chains,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210, 275–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

M. Y. Berezin, H. Lee, W. Akers, and S. Achilefu, “Near infrared dyes as lifetime solvatochromic probes for micropolarity measurements of biological systems,” Biophys. J. 93, 2892–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

BMC Cancer

M. Uchino, H. Kojima, K. W. Mika Imada, F. Onoda, H. Satofuka, T. Utsugi, and Y. Murakami, “Nuclear b-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer 10, 414 (2012).

Chem. Rev.

A. El-Faham and F. Albericio, “Peptide coupling reagents, more than a letter soup,” Chem. Rev. 111, 6557–6602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chemistry

S. Gadde, E. K. Batchelor, and A. E. Kaifer, “Controlling the formation of cyanine dye H- and J-aggregates with cucurbituril hosts in the presence of anionic polyelectrolytes,” Chemistry 15, 6025–6031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

FEBS Lett.

D. Shen, K. Liang, Y. Ye, E. Tetteh, and S. Achilefu, “Modulation of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by fluorescent dyes and receptor-avid peptides,” FEBS Lett. 581, 1793–1799 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Investigat. Radiol.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescence contrast agent for in vivo tumor imaging,” Investigat. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Pu, L. Shi, S. Pratavieira, and R. Alfano, “Two-photon excitation microscopy using the second singlet state of fluorescent agents within the ‘tissue optical window’,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 153102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Y. Pu, W. Wang, M. Xu, J. Eastham, G. Tang, and R. R. Alfano, “Characterization and three-dimensional localization of cancerous prostate tissue using backscattering scanning polarization imaging and independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Muldoon, N. Thekkek, D. Roblyer, D. Maru, N. Harpaz, J. Potack, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Evaluation of quantitative image analysis criteria for the high-resolution microendoscopic detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026027 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bone Joint Surg. Am.

C. Zhao, Y.-L. Sun, R. L. Kirk, A. R. Thoreson, G. D. Jay, S. L. Moran, K. N. An, and P. C. Amadio, “Effects of a lubricin-containing compound on the results of flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 92, 1453–1461 (2010).

J. Immunol.

J. S. Navratil, S. C. Watkins, J. J. Wisnieski, and J. M. Ahearn, “The globular heads of C1q specifically recognize surface blebs of apoptotic vascular endothelial cells,” J. Immunol. 166, 3231–3239 (2001).

J. Urol.

R. E. Sobel and M. D. Sadar, “Cell lines used in prostate cancer research: a compendium of old and new lines—part 2,” J. Urol. 173, 360–372 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Imag.

K. C. Black, N. D. Kirkpatrick, T. S. Troutman, L. Xu, J. Vagner, R. J. Gillies, J. K. Barton, U. Utzinger, and M. Romanowski, “Gold nanorods targeted to δ opioid receptor: plasmon-resonant contrast and photothermal agents,” Mol. Imag. 7, 50–57 (2008).

Opt. Lett.

PLoS One

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging,” PLoS One 5, e11218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Zanetti-Domingues, C. J. Tynan, D. J. Rolfe, D. T. Clarke, and M. Martin-Fernandez, “Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding,” PLoS One 8, e74200 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

S. Achilefu, S. Bloch, M. A. Markiewicz, T. Zhong, Y. Ye, R. B. Dorshow, B. Chance, and K. Liang, “Synergistic effects of light-emitting probes and peptides for targeting and monitoring integrin expression,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7976–7981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.

Y. Pu, W. B. Wang, M. Xu, G. C. Tang, Y. Budansky, M. Sharanov, S. Achilefu, J. A. Eastham, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared photonic finger imager for prostate cancer screening,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 10, 507–517 (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Molecular structure of (a) ICG, (b) dye cypate, and (c) dye cypate 3.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SDS-PAGE of cypate 3-protein conjugates. Lanes 1 and 7 for fluorescent ladder, lanes 2 and 3 for unconjugated cypate 3, and lanes 4, 5, and 6 for cypte 3-protein conjugates with different concentrations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OD (dashed line) and fluorescence (solid line) spectra of (a) cypate 3 and (b) cypate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intracellular distribution of 10 μM cypate 3-IgG conjugate in MCF 7 cells at 37°C at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h. The nuclei stained with DAPI is shown as blue, and cells stained with cypate 3 are shown as red. The unstained control cells were indexed as hour 0.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Staining time dependence of the synthesized cypate 3-IgG conjugate in MCF-7 cells and (b) concentration dependence of the synthesized cypate-IgG conjugate in PC-3 cells for studies of internalization and pinocytosis.

Equations (1)

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I=I010εcl=I010Kl,

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