Abstract

The ability to fabricate 4-level diffractive structures with 1 µm critical dimensions has been demonstrated for the creation of fast (f/3.1 at 633 nm) Fresnel zone lenses (FZLs) with >60% diffraction efficiency into the 1 focusing order and nearly complete suppression of 0 and +1 orders. This is done using tooling capable of producing optics with 800 mm apertures. A 4-level grating fabricated in glass at 300 mm aperture is shown to have <15nm rms holographic phase error. Glass FZLs have also been used as mandrels for casting zero-thermal-expansion, 20 µm thick polymer films created with the 4-level structure as a route to mass replication of efficient diffractive membranes for ultralight segmented space-based telescope applications.

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References

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  1. http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/TTO/Programs/Membrane_Optic_Imager_Real-Time_Exploitation_%28MOIRE%29.aspx .
  2. P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Honolulu, HI, April23–26 (AIAA, 2012), paper 1224028.
  4. P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, and B. Farmer, “MOIRE—ground demonstration of a large aperture diffractive transmissive telescope,” presented at the SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Review, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, 22–27 June, 2014.
  5. J. L. Domber, P. D. Atcheson, and J. Kommers, “MOIRE: ground test bed results for a large membrane telescope,” AIAA-2014-1510, presented at the 55th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference at AIAA SciTech, National Harbor, Maryland, January, 2014.
  6. http://nexolvematerials.com/low-and-zero-cte-polyimides/novastrat-905 .
  7. I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, L. J. Summers, I. M. Thomas, M. C. Rushford, K. Lu, R. A. Hyde, and M. D. Perry, “Fabrication of large-aperture lightweight diffractive lenses for use in space,” Appl. Opt. 40, 447–451 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Early, R. Hyde, and R. Baron, “Twenty meter space telescopes based on diffractive Fresnel lens,” Proc SPIE 5166, 148–156 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Hyde, S. N. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. C. Rushford, “Eyeglass, a very large aperture diffraction space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Goodman and A. M. Silvestri, “Some effects of Fourier-domain phase quantization,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 478–484 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Swanson and W. B. Veldkamp, “High-efficiency multilevel diffractive optical elements,” U. S. patent4,895,790 (23January, 1990).
  12. M. Ferstl, B. Kuhiow, and E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Early, R. Hyde, and R. Baron, “Twenty meter space telescopes based on diffractive Fresnel lens,” Proc SPIE 5166, 148–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. A. Hyde, S. N. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. C. Rushford, “Eyeglass, a very large aperture diffraction space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Ferstl, B. Kuhiow, and E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. W. Goodman and A. M. Silvestri, “Some effects of Fourier-domain phase quantization,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 478–484 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Atcheson, P. D.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Honolulu, HI, April23–26 (AIAA, 2012), paper 1224028.

P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, and B. Farmer, “MOIRE—ground demonstration of a large aperture diffractive transmissive telescope,” presented at the SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Review, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, 22–27 June, 2014.

J. L. Domber, P. D. Atcheson, and J. Kommers, “MOIRE: ground test bed results for a large membrane telescope,” AIAA-2014-1510, presented at the 55th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference at AIAA SciTech, National Harbor, Maryland, January, 2014.

Baron, R.

J. Early, R. Hyde, and R. Baron, “Twenty meter space telescopes based on diffractive Fresnel lens,” Proc SPIE 5166, 148–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I. M.

Britten, J. A.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, L. J. Summers, I. M. Thomas, M. C. Rushford, K. Lu, R. A. Hyde, and M. D. Perry, “Fabrication of large-aperture lightweight diffractive lenses for use in space,” Appl. Opt. 40, 447–451 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, and B. Farmer, “MOIRE—ground demonstration of a large aperture diffractive transmissive telescope,” presented at the SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Review, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, 22–27 June, 2014.

Cole, J.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S. N.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hyde, S. N. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. C. Rushford, “Eyeglass, a very large aperture diffraction space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Barton, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, L. J. Summers, I. M. Thomas, M. C. Rushford, K. Lu, R. A. Hyde, and M. D. Perry, “Fabrication of large-aperture lightweight diffractive lenses for use in space,” Appl. Opt. 40, 447–451 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, and B. Farmer, “MOIRE—ground demonstration of a large aperture diffractive transmissive telescope,” presented at the SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Review, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, 22–27 June, 2014.

Domber, J. L.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, and B. Farmer, “MOIRE—ground demonstration of a large aperture diffractive transmissive telescope,” presented at the SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Review, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, 22–27 June, 2014.

W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Honolulu, HI, April23–26 (AIAA, 2012), paper 1224028.

J. L. Domber, P. D. Atcheson, and J. Kommers, “MOIRE: ground test bed results for a large membrane telescope,” AIAA-2014-1510, presented at the 55th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference at AIAA SciTech, National Harbor, Maryland, January, 2014.

Early, J.

J. Early, R. Hyde, and R. Baron, “Twenty meter space telescopes based on diffractive Fresnel lens,” Proc SPIE 5166, 148–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, B.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, and B. Farmer, “MOIRE—ground demonstration of a large aperture diffractive transmissive telescope,” presented at the SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Review, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, 22–27 June, 2014.

Ferstl, M.

M. Ferstl, B. Kuhiow, and E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman and A. M. Silvestri, “Some effects of Fourier-domain phase quantization,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 478–484 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, R.

J. Early, R. Hyde, and R. Baron, “Twenty meter space telescopes based on diffractive Fresnel lens,” Proc SPIE 5166, 148–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, R. A.

Kommers, J.

J. L. Domber, P. D. Atcheson, and J. Kommers, “MOIRE: ground test bed results for a large membrane telescope,” AIAA-2014-1510, presented at the 55th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference at AIAA SciTech, National Harbor, Maryland, January, 2014.

Kuhiow, B.

M. Ferstl, B. Kuhiow, and E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K.

Pawlowski, E.

M. Ferstl, B. Kuhiow, and E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

Rushford, M. C.

Seltzer, A.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Honolulu, HI, April23–26 (AIAA, 2012), paper 1224028.

Silvestri, A. M.

J. W. Goodman and A. M. Silvestri, “Some effects of Fourier-domain phase quantization,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 478–484 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spuhler, P.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, C.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Summers, L. J.

Swanson, H.

H. Swanson and W. B. Veldkamp, “High-efficiency multilevel diffractive optical elements,” U. S. patent4,895,790 (23January, 1990).

Tandy, W. D.

W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Honolulu, HI, April23–26 (AIAA, 2012), paper 1224028.

Thomas, I. M.

Veldkamp, W. B.

H. Swanson and W. B. Veldkamp, “High-efficiency multilevel diffractive optical elements,” U. S. patent4,895,790 (23January, 1990).

Weisberg, A.

R. A. Hyde, S. N. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. C. Rushford, “Eyeglass, a very large aperture diffraction space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whiteaker, K.

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, and B. Farmer, “MOIRE—ground demonstration of a large aperture diffractive transmissive telescope,” presented at the SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Review, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, 22–27 June, 2014.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

J. W. Goodman and A. M. Silvestri, “Some effects of Fourier-domain phase quantization,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 478–484 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Ferstl, B. Kuhiow, and E. Pawlowski, “Effect of fabrication errors on multilevel Fresnel zone lenses,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1229–1235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc SPIE (1)

J. Early, R. Hyde, and R. Baron, “Twenty meter space telescopes based on diffractive Fresnel lens,” Proc SPIE 5166, 148–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. A. Hyde, S. N. Dixit, A. Weisberg, and M. C. Rushford, “Eyeglass, a very large aperture diffraction space telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4849, 28–39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Atcheson, C. Stewart, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. Cole, P. Spuhler, A. Seltzer, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, B. Farmer, and L. Smith, “MOIRE: initial demonstration of a transmissive diffractive membrane optic for large lightweight optical telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

W. D. Tandy, P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, and A. Seltzer, “MOIRE Gossamer Space Telescope—structural challenges and solutions,” in 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Honolulu, HI, April23–26 (AIAA, 2012), paper 1224028.

P. D. Atcheson, J. L. Domber, K. Whiteaker, J. A. Britten, S. N. Dixit, and B. Farmer, “MOIRE—ground demonstration of a large aperture diffractive transmissive telescope,” presented at the SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Review, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, 22–27 June, 2014.

J. L. Domber, P. D. Atcheson, and J. Kommers, “MOIRE: ground test bed results for a large membrane telescope,” AIAA-2014-1510, presented at the 55th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference at AIAA SciTech, National Harbor, Maryland, January, 2014.

http://nexolvematerials.com/low-and-zero-cte-polyimides/novastrat-905 .

H. Swanson and W. B. Veldkamp, “High-efficiency multilevel diffractive optical elements,” U. S. patent4,895,790 (23January, 1990).

http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/TTO/Programs/Membrane_Optic_Imager_Real-Time_Exploitation_%28MOIRE%29.aspx .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Artist’s concept of the MOIRE telescope in geosynchronous orbit.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Process flow for a 4-level FZL fabrication.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AFM profiles of a 4-level pattern in FS. Note that the vertical scale is exaggerated relative to horizontal. Top: after etch in two locations top and bottom of optic. Bottom: after BOE (buffered oxide etchant) trim-etch in same location.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Full-aperture diffraction efficiency in focusing order for 635 nm light, TE polarization, 129 mm aperture, f/6.5 off-axis FZL, and 129 mm square patterned area.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Full-aperture diffraction efficiency in focusing order for 635 nm light, TE polarization, 129 mm aperture, f/3.1 on-axis FZL, 129 mm square patterned area, and 1 μm minimum linewidth.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmitted and holographic wavefronts of 300 mm circular aperture 4-level plane grating patterned on a 355 mm square FS photomask plate and 9.6 μm grating period.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

AFM traces showing feature preservation between master mandrel and replicated 20 μm thick membrane optic.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Replicated 4-level membrane grating.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Diffraction efficiency of replicated membrane plane grating, 20 μm thick Novastrat, at 633 nm, TM polarization (E-field perpendicular to grating lines), and 300 mm pattern area.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Diffraction Efficiency of Above Optic in Various Orders are Compared With Theoretical Values, Measured With 635 nm Diode Laser

Tables Icon

Table 2. Diffraction Efficiency of Two 4-Level Replicated Membrane Optics at 633 nma

Metrics