Abstract

The ground-based airglow imaging interferometer (GBAII) observes the nighttime airglow of the O2(01) 867.7 nm line, peaked at 94 km altitude, to measure the upper atmospheric wind and temperature field. Its forward model, a code package in interactive data language (IDL), is developed to simulate the expected imaging interference fringes. It includes eight modules to simulate the light source, the atmospheric radiation transmission, the wide-angle Michelson interferometer, the interference filter, the optical system decay function, the responsivity, the imaging CCD, and the noises. The inverse method is also developed for obtaining the rest phase calibration, temperature, and wind. By means of both theoretical tools, we carry out a comparison of theoretical results with a field observation case. The apparent quantities J1p from the forward model has the deviation of 1.5%–2.5% compared with that from the observation image. The temperature falls mainly in the range of 167–196 K with the precision of 2 K. The zonal and meridional winds are mainly in the region of 5.1 to 46.5m/s and 12.5 to 48.3m/s respectively, with errors of 13.2 to 21.5m/s. The consistent trends between the observation results and standard models (MSISE90 and HWM93) suggest that the forward model and inverse method are suitable for GBAII.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

Y. H. Tang, X. G. Cao, H. C. Liu, G. G. Shepherd, S. L. Liu, H. Y. Gao, X. S. Yang, Y. Wu, and S. W. Wang, “Partially light-controlled imager based on liquid crystal plate and image intensifier for aurora and airglow measurement,” Appl. Opt. 51, 1968–1975 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2007 (2)

C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7297–7307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

2006 (1)

P. Rahnama, Y. J. Rochon, I. C. McDade, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, and A. Scott, “Satellite measurement of stratospheric winds and ozone using Doppler Michelson interferometry. Part I: instrument model and measurement simulation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 753–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2001 (3)

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, I. C. McDade, W. A. Gault, Y. J. Rochon, A. Scott, N. Rowlands, and G. Buttner, “The stratospheric wind interferometer for transport studies (SWIFT),” Adv. Space Res. 27, 1071–1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. P. Wu, “Research into theoretical calculation method on engineering of transmittance of infrared radiation (in Chinese),” Opt. Precis. Eng. 6, 35–43 (1998).

1995 (1)

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wrens, and G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA’89 campaign II: numerical modeling of the emission rate/temperature ratio,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 55, 377–395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

M. N. M. Rao, G. S. N. Murty, and V. C. Jain, “Altitude of peak emission of (Ol) 5577 A in the lower thermosphere: Chapman versus Barth mechanisms,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 44, 559–566 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Alunni, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, D. L.

Babcock, D. D.

Bird, J. C.

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

Brun, J.-F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buttner, G.

G. G. Shepherd, I. C. McDade, W. A. Gault, Y. J. Rochon, A. Scott, N. Rowlands, and G. Buttner, “The stratospheric wind interferometer for transport studies (SWIFT),” Adv. Space Res. 27, 1071–1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. G.

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, Infrared Physics (in Chinese) (National Defence Industrial, 1985).

Cho, Y. M.

Cho, Y.-M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Desaulniers, D.-L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. D.

Duboin, M.-L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Englert, C. R.

Evans, W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H. Y.

Gault, W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Rahnama, Y. J. Rochon, I. C. McDade, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, and A. Scott, “Satellite measurement of stratospheric winds and ozone using Doppler Michelson interferometry. Part I: instrument model and measurement simulation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 753–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, I. C. McDade, W. A. Gault, Y. J. Rochon, A. Scott, N. Rowlands, and G. Buttner, “The stratospheric wind interferometer for transport studies (SWIFT),” Adv. Space Res. 27, 1071–1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, D.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Harlander, J. M.

Haslett, J. W.

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hilliard, R. L.

Hua, D. X.

H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, Y. H. Tang, X. G. Cao, H. C. Liu, and W. L. Jia, “Wide angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap based on LCoS,” Opt. Commun. 292, 36–41 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “Ground-based airglow imaging interferometer. Part 1: instrument and observation” Appl. Opt. 52, 8650–8660 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, L. Qing, and C. Zhu, “Modified super-wide-angle Sagnac imaging interferometer based on LCoS for atmospheric wind measurement,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 268–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V. C.

M. N. M. Rao, G. S. N. Murty, and V. C. Jain, “Altitude of peak emission of (Ol) 5577 A in the lower thermosphere: Chapman versus Barth mechanisms,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 44, 559–566 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Q. J.

Jia, W. L.

H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, Y. H. Tang, X. G. Cao, H. C. Liu, and W. L. Jia, “Wide angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap based on LCoS,” Opt. Commun. 292, 36–41 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, S. F.

Katoh, T.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Katoh, Y.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kosteniuk, P. R.

Langille, J. A.

Lathuillère, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Liang, D. Y.

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liang, F.

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

Liu, H. C.

Liu, K.

Liu, S. L.

Lopez-Gonzalez, M. J.

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McDade, I. C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Rahnama, Y. J. Rochon, I. C. McDade, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, and A. Scott, “Satellite measurement of stratospheric winds and ozone using Doppler Michelson interferometry. Part I: instrument model and measurement simulation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 753–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, I. C. McDade, W. A. Gault, Y. J. Rochon, A. Scott, N. Rowlands, and G. Buttner, “The stratospheric wind interferometer for transport studies (SWIFT),” Adv. Space Res. 27, 1071–1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. W.

Murty, G. S. N.

M. N. M. Rao, G. S. N. Murty, and V. C. Jain, “Altitude of peak emission of (Ol) 5577 A in the lower thermosphere: Chapman versus Barth mechanisms,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 44, 559–566 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Ogawa, T.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Otsuka, Y.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Pasturczyk, Z.

Peterson, R. N.

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Qing, L.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, L. Qing, and C. Zhu, “Modified super-wide-angle Sagnac imaging interferometer based on LCoS for atmospheric wind measurement,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 268–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qu, O. Y.

Rahnama, P.

P. Rahnama, Y. J. Rochon, I. C. McDade, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, and A. Scott, “Satellite measurement of stratospheric winds and ozone using Doppler Michelson interferometry. Part I: instrument model and measurement simulation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 753–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rao, M. N. M.

M. N. M. Rao, G. S. N. Murty, and V. C. Jain, “Altitude of peak emission of (Ol) 5577 A in the lower thermosphere: Chapman versus Barth mechanisms,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 44, 559–566 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Rahnama, Y. J. Rochon, I. C. McDade, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, and A. Scott, “Satellite measurement of stratospheric winds and ozone using Doppler Michelson interferometry. Part I: instrument model and measurement simulation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 753–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, I. C. McDade, W. A. Gault, Y. J. Rochon, A. Scott, N. Rowlands, and G. Buttner, “The stratospheric wind interferometer for transport studies (SWIFT),” Adv. Space Res. 27, 1071–1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rowlands, N.

G. G. Shepherd, I. C. McDade, W. A. Gault, Y. J. Rochon, A. Scott, N. Rowlands, and G. Buttner, “The stratospheric wind interferometer for transport studies (SWIFT),” Adv. Space Res. 27, 1071–1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sargoytchev, S. I.

Satoh, M.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Scott, A.

J. A. Langille, W. E. Ward, A. Scott, and D. L. Arsenault, “Measurement of two-dimensional Doppler wind fields using a field widened Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1617–1628 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Rahnama, Y. J. Rochon, I. C. McDade, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, and A. Scott, “Satellite measurement of stratospheric winds and ozone using Doppler Michelson interferometry. Part I: instrument model and measurement simulation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 753–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, I. C. McDade, W. A. Gault, Y. J. Rochon, A. Scott, N. Rowlands, and G. Buttner, “The stratospheric wind interferometer for transport studies (SWIFT),” Adv. Space Res. 27, 1071–1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

She, C.-Y.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Shepherd, G. G.

Y. H. Tang, X. G. Cao, H. C. Liu, G. G. Shepherd, S. L. Liu, H. Y. Gao, X. S. Yang, Y. Wu, and S. W. Wang, “Partially light-controlled imager based on liquid crystal plate and image intensifier for aurora and airglow measurement,” Appl. Opt. 51, 1968–1975 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Rahnama, Y. J. Rochon, I. C. McDade, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, and A. Scott, “Satellite measurement of stratospheric winds and ozone using Doppler Michelson interferometry. Part I: instrument model and measurement simulation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 753–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, B. H. Solheim, Y. M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, and M. J. Lopez-Gonzalez, “Spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI): a ground-based instrument for the monitoring of mesosphere temperature,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5712–5721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, I. C. McDade, W. A. Gault, Y. J. Rochon, A. Scott, N. Rowlands, and G. Buttner, “The stratospheric wind interferometer for transport studies (SWIFT),” Adv. Space Res. 27, 1071–1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wrens, and G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA’89 campaign II: numerical modeling of the emission rate/temperature ratio,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 55, 377–395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Hilliard and G. G. Shepherd, “Wide-angle Michelson interferometer for measuring Doppler line widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 362–368 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, M. G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shimomai, T.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Shiokawa, K.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Solheim, B.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, B. H. Solheim, Y. M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, and M. J. Lopez-Gonzalez, “Spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI): a ground-based instrument for the monitoring of mesosphere temperature,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5712–5721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Taguchi, M.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Takahashi, H.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Tang, Y. H.

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. W.

Ward, W. E.

J. A. Langille, W. E. Ward, A. Scott, and D. L. Arsenault, “Measurement of two-dimensional Doppler wind fields using a field widened Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1617–1628 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. P.

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

Wimperis, J. R.

Wrens, R. H.

S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wrens, and G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA’89 campaign II: numerical modeling of the emission rate/temperature ratio,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 55, 377–395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. P.

H. P. Wu, “Research into theoretical calculation method on engineering of transmittance of infrared radiation (in Chinese),” Opt. Precis. Eng. 6, 35–43 (1998).

Wu, Y.

Yang, X. S.

Ye, N.

Zhang, C. M.

Zhang, R. X.

Zhang, S. P.

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wrens, and G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA’89 campaign II: numerical modeling of the emission rate/temperature ratio,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 55, 377–395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B. C.

Zhao, G. X.

Zhu, C.

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, L. Qing, and C. Zhu, “Modified super-wide-angle Sagnac imaging interferometer based on LCoS for atmospheric wind measurement,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 268–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H. C.

Adv. Space Res. (1)

G. G. Shepherd, I. C. McDade, W. A. Gault, Y. J. Rochon, A. Scott, N. Rowlands, and G. Buttner, “The stratospheric wind interferometer for transport studies (SWIFT),” Adv. Space Res. 27, 1071–1079 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Sargoytchev, S. Brown, B. H. Solheim, Y. M. Cho, G. G. Shepherd, and M. J. Lopez-Gonzalez, “Spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI): a ground-based instrument for the monitoring of mesosphere temperature,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5712–5721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Englert, D. D. Babcock, and J. M. Harlander, “Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH): concept and experimental demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7297–7307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, and H. C. Liu, “Study on the wide-angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5655–5661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tang, X. G. Cao, H. C. Liu, G. G. Shepherd, S. L. Liu, H. Y. Gao, X. S. Yang, Y. Wu, and S. W. Wang, “Partially light-controlled imager based on liquid crystal plate and image intensifier for aurora and airglow measurement,” Appl. Opt. 51, 1968–1975 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Langille, W. E. Ward, A. Scott, and D. L. Arsenault, “Measurement of two-dimensional Doppler wind fields using a field widened Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 52, 1617–1628 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, H. C. Liu, X. G. Cao, X. D. Duan, Q. J. Jia, O. Y. Qu, and Y. Wu, “Ground-based airglow imaging interferometer. Part 1: instrument and observation” Appl. Opt. 52, 8650–8660 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Earth Planets Space (1)

K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Suzuki, T. Katoh, Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, T. Ogawa, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, T. Nakamura, B. P. Williams, C.-Y. She, M. Taguchi, and T. Shimomai, “Development of airglow temperature photometers with cooled-CCD detectors,” Earth Planets Space 59, 585–599 (2007).

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

P. Rahnama, Y. J. Rochon, I. C. McDade, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, and A. Scott, “Satellite measurement of stratospheric winds and ozone using Doppler Michelson interferometry. Part I: instrument model and measurement simulation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 753–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. (3)

S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wrens, and G. G. Shepherd, “Gravity waves from O2 nightglow during the AIDA’89 campaign II: numerical modeling of the emission rate/temperature ratio,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 55, 377–395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. N. M. Rao, G. S. N. Murty, and V. C. Jain, “Altitude of peak emission of (Ol) 5577 A in the lower thermosphere: Chapman versus Barth mechanisms,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 44, 559–566 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, Y. J. Rochon, S. P. Zhang, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, D. Y. Liang, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “Airglow intensity variations induced by gravity waves. Part 2: comparisons with observations,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 47–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys Res. (1)

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. Gault, B. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, and W. Evans, “WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on the upper atmosphere research satellite,” J. Geophys Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

H. Y. Gao, Y. H. Tang, D. X. Hua, L. Qing, and C. Zhu, “Modified super-wide-angle Sagnac imaging interferometer based on LCoS for atmospheric wind measurement,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 268–276 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. C. Bird, F. Liang, B. H. Solheim, and G. G. Shepherd, “A polarizing Michelson interferometer for measuring thermospheric winds,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1368–1378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Y. Gao, D. X. Hua, Y. H. Tang, X. G. Cao, H. C. Liu, and W. L. Jia, “Wide angle Michelson interferometer with large air gap based on LCoS,” Opt. Commun. 292, 36–41 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Precis. Eng. (1)

H. P. Wu, “Research into theoretical calculation method on engineering of transmittance of infrared radiation (in Chinese),” Opt. Precis. Eng. 6, 35–43 (1998).

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

R. H. Wiens, S. P. Zhang, R. N. Peterson, and G. G. Shepherd, “MORTI: a mesopause oxygen rotational temperature imager,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 1363–1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. E. Ward, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, and N. Rowlands, “Waves Michelson interferometer: a visible/near-IR interferometer for observing middle atmosphere dynamics and constituents,” Proc. SPIE 4540, 100–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. (1)

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D. Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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H. Chen, Infrared Physics (in Chinese) (National Defence Industrial, 1985).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout schematic of the GBAII prototype.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Profiles of εO2 with different temperatures (180 K, 200 K, and 220 K).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relative intensity variation of the lines emitted from the O2(01) band with different temperatures based on the HITRAN08 database.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distribution of τtran(λ) with regard to the atmospheric visibility and the source altitude.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Optical pathway diagram and structure of the wide-angle MI with a large air gap. (b) Simulated OPDs on all pixels. The OPD variations are within 0.4 wavelengths at an incident angle of 0°–6°.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Filter transmittance with regard to the wavelength and incident angle. The filter used here has λc=867.79nm, τc=37.88%, FWHM=0.28nm, and ne=2.05.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated images with four phase steps using the forward model of GBAII.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison between J1p from observation and the forward image. (a) The values of J1p from all bins. (b) The values of J1p from the bins of 28–92. (c) The relative deviations between these two data sequences.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Apparent quantities values of J1p from three peaks of the curves in Fig. 8(b) (top panel). The results of temperature measurement (bottom panel). The data from GBAII are drawn as red circles, while the data from MSISE90 are drawn as blue circles.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Results of the wind measurement. The top panel shows the comparison between the zonal wind and HWM93, while the bottom panel shows the comparison between the meridional wind and HWM93.

Equations (30)

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εO2=k1A1[O]2([O2]+[N2])[O2](A2+K2O2[O2]+K2N2[N2])(CO2[O2]+CO[O])(cm3·s1),
[O]z=5.0×1011exp[1z97.78.512exp(z97.7)8.5]cm3,[O2]z=5.1×1012exp[z95.05.4]cm3,[N2]z=2.0×1013exp[z95.05.6]cm3.
τtran(λ)=L(λ)L0(λ)=exp(μλS0),
S0=e0.5154H1e0.5154H20.5154cosθ,
μλ=μH2O(λ)+μs(λ)+μc(λ),
μs=3.91Vm·(0.55λ)q,
{q=0.585(Vm)1/3(V<6km),q=1.3(6kmV<80km),q=1.6(V80km).
μc(λ)=0.66Jr0.66+6.5JS0.7,
{θFm,n=arctan(am2+n2fCCD),θMIm,n=arctan(am2+n2·fFfCCD·fMI),
Δm,n=2(n1d1n2d2)sin2θMIm,n(d1n1d2n2)sin4θMIm,n4(d1n13d2n23).
τf(λ,θf)=τc1+[2(λλc)Δλc+λΔλcθf2ne2]2,
Rm,n=AΩηCCDτsys4πnpbCADU,
Nnoise=npb·Nsignal+npb·Ndark+Nreadout2,
Nm,n,k=Iabs·ITλ1·Rm,n·τf(m,n)(θFm,n)·τtrans·Dm,n·{1+V·U·cos[2π·Δm,n(θMIm,n)/λ1+ϕk]}·t+Iabs·ITλ2·Rm,n·τf(m,n)(θFm,n)·τtrans·Dm,n·{1+V·U·cos[2π·Δm,n(θMIm,n)/λ2+ϕk]}·t+Iabs·ITλ12·Rm,n·τf(m,n)(θFm,n)·τtrans·Dm,n·{1+V·U·cos[2π·Δm,n(θMIm,n)/λ12+ϕk]}·t+Ib(Nnoise)=ti=112IabsITλiRm,nτf(m,n)(θFm,n)τtransDm,n{1+VUcos[2πΔm,n(θMIm,n)/λi+ϕk]}+Ib(Nnoise),
J=(ATA)1ATg.
cos[2πσ0iΔm,n(θMIm,n)+2πσvΔm,n(θMIm,n)+ϕk]=cos(ϕi0+ϕv+ϕk),
cos(ϕi0+ϕv+ϕk)=cosϕvcos(ϕi0+ϕk)sinϕvsin(ϕi0+ϕk).
Nm,n,kIb(Nnoise)=i=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,n+Ucos(ϕ10+ϕk)i=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,nξiVcosϕvUsin(ϕ10+ϕk)i=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,nδiVsinϕv,
ξi=cos(ϕi0+ϕk)/cos(ϕ10+ϕk),δi=sin(ϕi0+ϕk)/sin(ϕ10+ϕk).
g=[I1I2I3I4]=[Nm,n,1Ib(Nnoise)Nm,n,2Ib(Nnoise)Nm,n,3Ib(Nnoise)Nm,n,4Ib(Nnoise)].
J=[J1J2J3]=[i=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,ni=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,nξiVcosϕvi=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,nδiVsinϕv].
A=[A11A12A13A21A22A23A31A32A33A41A42A43]=[1Ucos(ϕ10+ϕ1)Usin(ϕ10+ϕ1)1Ucos(ϕ10+ϕ2)Usin(ϕ10+ϕ2)1Ucos(ϕ10+ϕ3)Usin(ϕ10+ϕ3)1Ucos(ϕ10+ϕ4)Usin(ϕ10+ϕ4)].
Nm,n,kIb(Nnoise)=i=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,n+Ucos(ϕ10+ϕk)i=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,nξiV.
I1I2I3I4=(cosϕ1cosϕ2)cosϕ10(sinϕ1sinϕ2)sinϕ10(cosϕ3cosϕ4)cosϕ10(sinϕ3sinϕ4)sinϕ10.
ϕ10=arctan(sinϕ10cosϕ10)=(I1I2)(cosϕ3cosϕ4)(I3I4)(cosϕ1cosϕ2)(I1I2)(sinϕ3sinϕ4)(I3I4)(sinϕ1sinϕ2).
χ2=p=1128[J1pi=112IabsITλi(T)Rm,nτm,n,λiDm,n]2.
J3pJ2p=i=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,nδiVsinϕvi=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,nξiVcosϕv=γ3pγ2ptanϕv,
γ2p=i=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,nξi,γ3p=i=112IabsITλiRm,nτm,n,λiDm,nδi.
v=c·arctan[(J3pγ2p)/(J2pγ3p)]2π·σ1·Δm,n.
σv=cλ22πUVΔD(SNR),

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