Abstract

We analyze physical models accounting for deep-level conduction band transitions to describe impurity absorption spectra in tetrahedral-structured semiconductors. The investigations were carried out for ZnSe crystals doped with transition metals (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) from a vapor phase. It was shown that the impurities provide acceptor centers with ground state energy offset by 0.3–0.6 eV from the edge of the conduction band, forming long-wave bands in the absorption spectra of the materials studied.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. G. Milnes, Deep Impurities in Semiconductors (Wiley, 1973).
  2. J. C. Inkson, “Deep impurities in semiconductors. II. The optical cross sections,” J. Phys. C 14, 1093–1101 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Lucovsky, “On the photo-ionisation of deep impurity centres in semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 3, 299–302 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient lasing of a Cr2+:ZnSe crystal grown from a vapour phase,” Quantum Electron. 33, 408–410 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. N. Il’ichev, V. P. Danilov, V. P. Kalinushkin, M. I. Studenikin, P. V. Shapkin, and A. S. Nasibov, “Superluminescent room-temperature Fe2+:ZnSe IR radiation source,” Quantum Electron. 38, 95–96 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. P. Mikhailov, V. I. Levchenko, and V. N. Yakimovich, “Cr2+:ZnSe and Co2+:ZnSe saturable-absorber Q-switches for 1.54  μm Er:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 960–962 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3  μm lasers,” Quantum Electron. 36, 1–2 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Ziese and M. J. Thornton, Spin Electronics: Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer, 2001).
  9. O. V. Kinzerska, “Physical properties of zinc selenide crystals doped with transitional metals,” Ph.D. dissertation (Chernivtsi, 2012).
  10. O. V. Vakulenko and M. P. Lisitsa, Optical Recharge of Impurity in Semiconductors (Naukova, 1992).
  11. E. M. Omel’yanovskiy and V. I. Fistul’, Impurities of Transitional Metals in Semiconductors (Metallurgia, 1984).
  12. K. A. Kikoin, Electron Properties of Transition Metal Impurities in Semiconductors (Energoatomizdat, 1991).

2008 (1)

N. N. Il’ichev, V. P. Danilov, V. P. Kalinushkin, M. I. Studenikin, P. V. Shapkin, and A. S. Nasibov, “Superluminescent room-temperature Fe2+:ZnSe IR radiation source,” Quantum Electron. 38, 95–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3  μm lasers,” Quantum Electron. 36, 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient lasing of a Cr2+:ZnSe crystal grown from a vapour phase,” Quantum Electron. 33, 408–410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1981 (1)

J. C. Inkson, “Deep impurities in semiconductors. II. The optical cross sections,” J. Phys. C 14, 1093–1101 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

G. Lucovsky, “On the photo-ionisation of deep impurity centres in semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 3, 299–302 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Danilov, V. P.

N. N. Il’ichev, V. P. Danilov, V. P. Kalinushkin, M. I. Studenikin, P. V. Shapkin, and A. S. Nasibov, “Superluminescent room-temperature Fe2+:ZnSe IR radiation source,” Quantum Electron. 38, 95–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fistul’, V. I.

E. M. Omel’yanovskiy and V. I. Fistul’, Impurities of Transitional Metals in Semiconductors (Metallurgia, 1984).

Frolov, M. P.

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3  μm lasers,” Quantum Electron. 36, 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient lasing of a Cr2+:ZnSe crystal grown from a vapour phase,” Quantum Electron. 33, 408–410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Il’ichev, N. N.

N. N. Il’ichev, V. P. Danilov, V. P. Kalinushkin, M. I. Studenikin, P. V. Shapkin, and A. S. Nasibov, “Superluminescent room-temperature Fe2+:ZnSe IR radiation source,” Quantum Electron. 38, 95–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inkson, J. C.

J. C. Inkson, “Deep impurities in semiconductors. II. The optical cross sections,” J. Phys. C 14, 1093–1101 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kalinushkin, V. P.

N. N. Il’ichev, V. P. Danilov, V. P. Kalinushkin, M. I. Studenikin, P. V. Shapkin, and A. S. Nasibov, “Superluminescent room-temperature Fe2+:ZnSe IR radiation source,” Quantum Electron. 38, 95–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kikoin, K. A.

K. A. Kikoin, Electron Properties of Transition Metal Impurities in Semiconductors (Energoatomizdat, 1991).

Kinzerska, O. V.

O. V. Kinzerska, “Physical properties of zinc selenide crystals doped with transitional metals,” Ph.D. dissertation (Chernivtsi, 2012).

Korostelin, Y. V.

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3  μm lasers,” Quantum Electron. 36, 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient lasing of a Cr2+:ZnSe crystal grown from a vapour phase,” Quantum Electron. 33, 408–410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovskii, V. I.

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3  μm lasers,” Quantum Electron. 36, 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient lasing of a Cr2+:ZnSe crystal grown from a vapour phase,” Quantum Electron. 33, 408–410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

Landman, A. I.

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3  μm lasers,” Quantum Electron. 36, 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient lasing of a Cr2+:ZnSe crystal grown from a vapour phase,” Quantum Electron. 33, 408–410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levchenko, V. I.

Lisitsa, M. P.

O. V. Vakulenko and M. P. Lisitsa, Optical Recharge of Impurity in Semiconductors (Naukova, 1992).

Lucovsky, G.

G. Lucovsky, “On the photo-ionisation of deep impurity centres in semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 3, 299–302 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V. P.

Milnes, A. G.

A. G. Milnes, Deep Impurities in Semiconductors (Wiley, 1973).

Nasibov, A. S.

N. N. Il’ichev, V. P. Danilov, V. P. Kalinushkin, M. I. Studenikin, P. V. Shapkin, and A. S. Nasibov, “Superluminescent room-temperature Fe2+:ZnSe IR radiation source,” Quantum Electron. 38, 95–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Omel’yanovskiy, E. M.

E. M. Omel’yanovskiy and V. I. Fistul’, Impurities of Transitional Metals in Semiconductors (Metallurgia, 1984).

Podlipensky, A. V.

Podmar’kov, Y. P.

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3  μm lasers,” Quantum Electron. 36, 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient lasing of a Cr2+:ZnSe crystal grown from a vapour phase,” Quantum Electron. 33, 408–410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polushkin, V. G.

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3  μm lasers,” Quantum Electron. 36, 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shapkin, P. V.

N. N. Il’ichev, V. P. Danilov, V. P. Kalinushkin, M. I. Studenikin, P. V. Shapkin, and A. S. Nasibov, “Superluminescent room-temperature Fe2+:ZnSe IR radiation source,” Quantum Electron. 38, 95–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

Studenikin, M. I.

N. N. Il’ichev, V. P. Danilov, V. P. Kalinushkin, M. I. Studenikin, P. V. Shapkin, and A. S. Nasibov, “Superluminescent room-temperature Fe2+:ZnSe IR radiation source,” Quantum Electron. 38, 95–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, M. J.

M. Ziese and M. J. Thornton, Spin Electronics: Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer, 2001).

Vakulenko, O. V.

O. V. Vakulenko and M. P. Lisitsa, Optical Recharge of Impurity in Semiconductors (Naukova, 1992).

Voronov, A. A.

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3  μm lasers,” Quantum Electron. 36, 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yakimovich, V. N.

Ziese, M.

M. Ziese and M. J. Thornton, Spin Electronics: Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer, 2001).

J. Phys. C (1)

J. C. Inkson, “Deep impurities in semiconductors. II. The optical cross sections,” J. Phys. C 14, 1093–1101 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Quantum Electron. (3)

V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient lasing of a Cr2+:ZnSe crystal grown from a vapour phase,” Quantum Electron. 33, 408–410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Il’ichev, V. P. Danilov, V. P. Kalinushkin, M. I. Studenikin, P. V. Shapkin, and A. S. Nasibov, “Superluminescent room-temperature Fe2+:ZnSe IR radiation source,” Quantum Electron. 38, 95–96 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. G. Polushkin, and M. P. Frolov, “Passive Fe2+:ZnSe single-crystal Q switch for 3  μm lasers,” Quantum Electron. 36, 1–2 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

G. Lucovsky, “On the photo-ionisation of deep impurity centres in semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 3, 299–302 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A. G. Milnes, Deep Impurities in Semiconductors (Wiley, 1973).

M. Ziese and M. J. Thornton, Spin Electronics: Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer, 2001).

O. V. Kinzerska, “Physical properties of zinc selenide crystals doped with transitional metals,” Ph.D. dissertation (Chernivtsi, 2012).

O. V. Vakulenko and M. P. Lisitsa, Optical Recharge of Impurity in Semiconductors (Naukova, 1992).

E. M. Omel’yanovskiy and V. I. Fistul’, Impurities of Transitional Metals in Semiconductors (Metallurgia, 1984).

K. A. Kikoin, Electron Properties of Transition Metal Impurities in Semiconductors (Energoatomizdat, 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of electron transitions involving a deep level Et.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission of ZnSe (1) and ZnSe:V (2) at 300 K.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical absorption spectra for ZnSe:Me samples measured at 300 K.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Low-energy tail of impurity absorption band in ZnSe:V (open circles) fitted with Eqs. (1)–(4) for αωB, αωA, αωD, and αωC, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Ionization Energy of Deep Impurity Centers

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

αωB(ωEt)1/2ω(ωEt+2γ2/2m*)2,
αωA(ωEt)3/2ω(ωEt+2γ2/2m*)2,
αωD(ωEt)1/2·(ω)1,
αωC(ωEt)3/2·(ω)1.
αωA(ωEgEt)1/2·(ω)1,
αωA(ωEt)3/2·(ω)3.
Tω+αω+Rω=1.
αω1Tω,

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