Abstract

The future of plasmonic devices depends on effective reduction of losses of surface plasmon-polariton waves propagating along metal–dielectric interfaces. Energy dissipation is caused by resistive heating at the skin-deep-thick outer layer of metal and scattering of surface waves on rough metal–dielectric interfaces. Fabrication of noble metal nanolayers with a smooth surface still remains a challenge. In this paper, Ag layers of 10, 30, and 50 nm thickness deposited directly on fused-silica substrates and with a 1 nm wetting layer of Ge, Ti, and Ni are examined using an atomic-force microscope and four-probe resistivity measurements. In the case of all three wetting layers, the specific resistivity of silver film decreases as the thickness increases. The smallest, equal 0.4 nm root mean squared roughness of Ag surface of 10 nm thickness is achieved for Ge interlayer; however, due to Ge segregation the specific resistivity of silver film in Ag/Ge/SiO2 structures is about twice higher than that in Ag/Ti/SiO2 and Ag/Ni/SiO2 sandwiches.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  3. U. Jacob, J. Vancea, and H. Hoffmann, “Surface-roughness contributions to the electrical resistivity of polycrystalline metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 11852–11857 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. F. Mayadas, M. Shatzkes, and J. F. Janak, “Electrical resistivity model for polycrystalline films: the case of specular reflection at external surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 345–347 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
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  8. J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 17930–17935 (2004).
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  9. P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 484–588 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Melpignano, C. Cioarec, R. Clergereaux, N. Gherardi, C. Villeneuve, and L. Datas, “E-beam deposited ultra-smooth silver thin film on glass with different nucleation layers: an optimization study for OLED micro-cavity application,” Org. Electron. 11, 1111–1119 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Cioarec, P. Melpignano, N. Gherardi, R. Clergereaux, and C. Villeneuve, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film electrodes with high polar liquid wettability for OLED microcavity application,” Langmuir 27, 3611–3617 (2011).
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  16. D. Flötotto, Z. M. Wang, L. P. H. Jeurgens, E. Bischoff, and E. J. Mittemeijer, “Effect of adatom surface diffusivity on microstructure and intrinsic stress evolutions during Ag film growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 043503 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  26. C. Durkan and M. E. Welland, “Size effects in the electrical resistivity of polycrystalline nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14215–14218 (2000).
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  27. J. M. Camacho and A. I. Oliva, “Morphology and electrical resistivity of metallic nanostructures,” Microelectron. J. 36, 555–558 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Lacy, “Developing a theoretical relationship between electrical resistivity, temperature, and film thickness for conductors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 636 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. S. Chawla, F. Gstrein, K. P. O’Brien, J. S. Clarke, and D. Gall, “Electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries in Cu thin films and wires,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235423 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. L. Wachs, T. Miller, and T.-C. Chiang, “Evidence for germanium segregation on thin films of Ag on Ge(111),” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8870–8873 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  31. C. H. Gan and G. Gbur, “Extraordinary optical transmission through multi-layered systems of corrugated metallic thin films,” Opt. Express 17, 20553–20566 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing radially polarized light by a concentrically corrugated silver film without a hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183902 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

M. Mayy, G. Zhu, E. Mayy, A. Webb, and M. A. Noginov, “Low temperature studies of surface plasmon polaritons in silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Flötotto, Z. M. Wang, L. P. H. Jeurgens, E. Bischoff, and E. J. Mittemeijer, “Effect of adatom surface diffusivity on microstructure and intrinsic stress evolutions during Ag film growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 043503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Ke, S. C. Lai, H. Liu, C. K. N. Peh, B. Wang, and J. H. Teng, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film on PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer for extended surface plasmon propagation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 1247–1253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shivanand, A. Ludwig, and K. J. Webb, “Impact of surface roughness on the effective dielectric constants and subwavelength image resolution of metal–insulator stack lenses,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4317–4319 (2012).

2011 (4)

C. Cioarec, P. Melpignano, N. Gherardi, R. Clergereaux, and C. Villeneuve, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film electrodes with high polar liquid wettability for OLED microcavity application,” Langmuir 27, 3611–3617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacy, “Developing a theoretical relationship between electrical resistivity, temperature, and film thickness for conductors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Chawla, F. Gstrein, K. P. O’Brien, J. S. Clarke, and D. Gall, “Electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries in Cu thin films and wires,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235423 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Stefaniuk, G. Nowak, and R. Kotyński, “Effect of surface roughness on sub-wavelength imaging with layered metamaterial optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8070, 807010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

R. Kotyński, H. Baghdasaryan, T. Stefaniuk, A. Pastuszczak, M. Marciniak, A. Lavrinenko, K. Panajotov, and T. Szoplik, “Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 446–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Melpignano, C. Cioarec, R. Clergereaux, N. Gherardi, C. Villeneuve, and L. Datas, “E-beam deposited ultra-smooth silver thin film on glass with different nucleation layers: an optimization study for OLED micro-cavity application,” Org. Electron. 11, 1111–1119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Wu, W.-H. Huang, and C.-M. Tsai, “Fabrication and application of copper sub-microdoughnut with electroplating method on patterned nickel template,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, P59–P62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, M. D. Thoreson, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin ultra-smooth and low-loss silver films on a germanium wetting layer,” Opt. Express 18, 5124–5134 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

V. J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9, 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing radially polarized light by a concentrically corrugated silver film without a hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 484–588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Gan and G. Gbur, “Extraordinary optical transmission through multi-layered systems of corrugated metallic thin films,” Opt. Express 17, 20553–20566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 206806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Aithal, S. Yenamandra, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Electroless copper deposition on silicon with titanium seed layer,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98, 95–102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. M. Camacho and A. I. Oliva, “Morphology and electrical resistivity of metallic nanostructures,” Microelectron. J. 36, 555–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 17930–17935 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Durkan and M. E. Welland, “Size effects in the electrical resistivity of polycrystalline nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14215–14218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

U. Jacob, J. Vancea, and H. Hoffmann, “Surface-roughness contributions to the electrical resistivity of polycrystalline metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 11852–11857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. L. Wachs, T. Miller, and T.-C. Chiang, “Evidence for germanium segregation on thin films of Ag on Ge(111),” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8870–8873 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. F. Mayadas and M. Shatzkes, “Electrical-resistivity model for polycrystalline films: the case of arbitrary reflection at external surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 1382 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. F. Mayadas, M. Shatzkes, and J. F. Janak, “Electrical resistivity model for polycrystalline films: the case of specular reflection at external surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 345–347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

L. J. van der Pauw, “A method of measuring specific resistivity and Hall effect of discs of arbitrary shape,” Philips Res. Rep. 13, 1–9 (1958).

1952 (1)

E. H. Sondheimer, “The mean free path of electrons in metals,” Adv. Phys. 1, 1–42 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

K. Fuchs, “The conductivity of thin metallic films according to the electron theory of metals,” Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 34, 100–108 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Aithal, R. K.

R. K. Aithal, S. Yenamandra, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Electroless copper deposition on silicon with titanium seed layer,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98, 95–102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Antosiewicz, T. J.

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing radially polarized light by a concentrically corrugated silver film without a hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baghdasaryan, H.

R. Kotyński, H. Baghdasaryan, T. Stefaniuk, A. Pastuszczak, M. Marciniak, A. Lavrinenko, K. Panajotov, and T. Szoplik, “Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 446–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Bischoff, E.

D. Flötotto, Z. M. Wang, L. P. H. Jeurgens, E. Bischoff, and E. J. Mittemeijer, “Effect of adatom surface diffusivity on microstructure and intrinsic stress evolutions during Ag film growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 043503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blakestad, R. B.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bollinger, J. J.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Britton, J.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, J. M.

J. M. Camacho and A. I. Oliva, “Morphology and electrical resistivity of metallic nanostructures,” Microelectron. J. 36, 555–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chaturvedi, P.

V. J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9, 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chawla, J. S.

J. S. Chawla, F. Gstrein, K. P. O’Brien, J. S. Clarke, and D. Gall, “Electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries in Cu thin films and wires,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235423 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Chiang, T.-C.

A. L. Wachs, T. Miller, and T.-C. Chiang, “Evidence for germanium segregation on thin films of Ag on Ge(111),” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8870–8873 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chiaverini, J.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cioarec, C.

C. Cioarec, P. Melpignano, N. Gherardi, R. Clergereaux, and C. Villeneuve, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film electrodes with high polar liquid wettability for OLED microcavity application,” Langmuir 27, 3611–3617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Melpignano, C. Cioarec, R. Clergereaux, N. Gherardi, C. Villeneuve, and L. Datas, “E-beam deposited ultra-smooth silver thin film on glass with different nucleation layers: an optimization study for OLED micro-cavity application,” Org. Electron. 11, 1111–1119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, J. S.

J. S. Chawla, F. Gstrein, K. P. O’Brien, J. S. Clarke, and D. Gall, “Electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries in Cu thin films and wires,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235423 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clergereaux, R.

C. Cioarec, P. Melpignano, N. Gherardi, R. Clergereaux, and C. Villeneuve, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film electrodes with high polar liquid wettability for OLED microcavity application,” Langmuir 27, 3611–3617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Melpignano, C. Cioarec, R. Clergereaux, N. Gherardi, C. Villeneuve, and L. Datas, “E-beam deposited ultra-smooth silver thin film on glass with different nucleation layers: an optimization study for OLED micro-cavity application,” Org. Electron. 11, 1111–1119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coane, P.

R. K. Aithal, S. Yenamandra, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Electroless copper deposition on silicon with titanium seed layer,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98, 95–102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Datas, L.

P. Melpignano, C. Cioarec, R. Clergereaux, N. Gherardi, C. Villeneuve, and L. Datas, “E-beam deposited ultra-smooth silver thin film on glass with different nucleation layers: an optimization study for OLED micro-cavity application,” Org. Electron. 11, 1111–1119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durkan, C.

C. Durkan and M. E. Welland, “Size effects in the electrical resistivity of polycrystalline nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14215–14218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R. J.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N. X.

V. J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9, 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flötotto, D.

D. Flötotto, Z. M. Wang, L. P. H. Jeurgens, E. Bischoff, and E. J. Mittemeijer, “Effect of adatom surface diffusivity on microstructure and intrinsic stress evolutions during Ag film growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 043503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, K.

K. Fuchs, “The conductivity of thin metallic films according to the electron theory of metals,” Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 34, 100–108 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Gall, D.

J. S. Chawla, F. Gstrein, K. P. O’Brien, J. S. Clarke, and D. Gall, “Electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries in Cu thin films and wires,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235423 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gan, C. H.

Gbur, G.

Gherardi, N.

C. Cioarec, P. Melpignano, N. Gherardi, R. Clergereaux, and C. Villeneuve, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film electrodes with high polar liquid wettability for OLED microcavity application,” Langmuir 27, 3611–3617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Melpignano, C. Cioarec, R. Clergereaux, N. Gherardi, C. Villeneuve, and L. Datas, “E-beam deposited ultra-smooth silver thin film on glass with different nucleation layers: an optimization study for OLED micro-cavity application,” Org. Electron. 11, 1111–1119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Górecka, E.

T. Stefaniuk, P. Wróbel, E. Górecka, and T. Szoplik, “Optimum temperature for deposition of ultrasmooth silver nanolayers,” Nanoscale Res. Lett, in press (2014).

Gstrein, F.

J. S. Chawla, F. Gstrein, K. P. O’Brien, J. S. Clarke, and D. Gall, “Electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries in Cu thin films and wires,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235423 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gunasekaran, R. A.

R. K. Aithal, S. Yenamandra, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Electroless copper deposition on silicon with titanium seed layer,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98, 95–102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 17930–17935 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, H.

U. Jacob, J. Vancea, and H. Hoffmann, “Surface-roughness contributions to the electrical resistivity of polycrystalline metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 11852–11857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.-H.

S.-C. Wu, W.-H. Huang, and C.-M. Tsai, “Fabrication and application of copper sub-microdoughnut with electroplating method on patterned nickel template,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, P59–P62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hume, D. B.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, S.

Islam, M. S.

V. J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9, 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

J. B. Jackson and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 17930–17935 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, U.

U. Jacob, J. Vancea, and H. Hoffmann, “Surface-roughness contributions to the electrical resistivity of polycrystalline metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 11852–11857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Janak, J. F.

A. F. Mayadas, M. Shatzkes, and J. F. Janak, “Electrical resistivity model for polycrystalline films: the case of specular reflection at external surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 345–347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jeurgens, L. P. H.

D. Flötotto, Z. M. Wang, L. P. H. Jeurgens, E. Bischoff, and E. J. Mittemeijer, “Effect of adatom surface diffusivity on microstructure and intrinsic stress evolutions during Ag film growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 043503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jost, J. D.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ke, L.

L. Ke, S. C. Lai, H. Liu, C. K. N. Peh, B. Wang, and J. H. Teng, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film on PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer for extended surface plasmon propagation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 1247–1253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kobayashi, N. P.

V. J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9, 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kotynski, R.

T. Stefaniuk, G. Nowak, and R. Kotyński, “Effect of surface roughness on sub-wavelength imaging with layered metamaterial optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8070, 807010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Kotyński, H. Baghdasaryan, T. Stefaniuk, A. Pastuszczak, M. Marciniak, A. Lavrinenko, K. Panajotov, and T. Szoplik, “Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 446–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stolarek, A. Pastuszczak, P. Wrobel, T. Stefaniuk, and R. Kotynski, “Linear sub-diffraction spatial filtering with plasmonic materials,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013.

Lacy, F.

F. Lacy, “Developing a theoretical relationship between electrical resistivity, temperature, and film thickness for conductors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lai, S. C.

L. Ke, S. C. Lai, H. Liu, C. K. N. Peh, B. Wang, and J. H. Teng, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film on PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer for extended surface plasmon propagation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 1247–1253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Langer, C.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A.

R. Kotyński, H. Baghdasaryan, T. Stefaniuk, A. Pastuszczak, M. Marciniak, A. Lavrinenko, K. Panajotov, and T. Szoplik, “Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 446–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leibfried, D.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

L. Ke, S. C. Lai, H. Liu, C. K. N. Peh, B. Wang, and J. H. Teng, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film on PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer for extended surface plasmon propagation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 1247–1253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Logeeswaran, V. J.

V. J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9, 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, A.

Maier, S. A.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marciniak, M.

R. Kotyński, H. Baghdasaryan, T. Stefaniuk, A. Pastuszczak, M. Marciniak, A. Lavrinenko, K. Panajotov, and T. Szoplik, “Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 446–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mayadas, A. F.

A. F. Mayadas and M. Shatzkes, “Electrical-resistivity model for polycrystalline films: the case of arbitrary reflection at external surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 1382 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Mayadas, M. Shatzkes, and J. F. Janak, “Electrical resistivity model for polycrystalline films: the case of specular reflection at external surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 345–347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mayy, E.

M. Mayy, G. Zhu, E. Mayy, A. Webb, and M. A. Noginov, “Low temperature studies of surface plasmon polaritons in silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mayy, M.

M. Mayy, G. Zhu, E. Mayy, A. Webb, and M. A. Noginov, “Low temperature studies of surface plasmon polaritons in silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Melpignano, P.

C. Cioarec, P. Melpignano, N. Gherardi, R. Clergereaux, and C. Villeneuve, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film electrodes with high polar liquid wettability for OLED microcavity application,” Langmuir 27, 3611–3617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Melpignano, C. Cioarec, R. Clergereaux, N. Gherardi, C. Villeneuve, and L. Datas, “E-beam deposited ultra-smooth silver thin film on glass with different nucleation layers: an optimization study for OLED micro-cavity application,” Org. Electron. 11, 1111–1119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T.

A. L. Wachs, T. Miller, and T.-C. Chiang, “Evidence for germanium segregation on thin films of Ag on Ge(111),” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8870–8873 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mittemeijer, E. J.

D. Flötotto, Z. M. Wang, L. P. H. Jeurgens, E. Bischoff, and E. J. Mittemeijer, “Effect of adatom surface diffusivity on microstructure and intrinsic stress evolutions during Ag film growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 043503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

M. Mayy, G. Zhu, E. Mayy, A. Webb, and M. A. Noginov, “Low temperature studies of surface plasmon polaritons in silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, G.

T. Stefaniuk, G. Nowak, and R. Kotyński, “Effect of surface roughness on sub-wavelength imaging with layered metamaterial optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8070, 807010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. S. Chawla, F. Gstrein, K. P. O’Brien, J. S. Clarke, and D. Gall, “Electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries in Cu thin films and wires,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235423 (2011).
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J. M. Camacho and A. I. Oliva, “Morphology and electrical resistivity of metallic nanostructures,” Microelectron. J. 36, 555–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozeri, R.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panajotov, K.

R. Kotyński, H. Baghdasaryan, T. Stefaniuk, A. Pastuszczak, M. Marciniak, A. Lavrinenko, K. Panajotov, and T. Szoplik, “Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 446–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pastuszczak, A.

R. Kotyński, H. Baghdasaryan, T. Stefaniuk, A. Pastuszczak, M. Marciniak, A. Lavrinenko, K. Panajotov, and T. Szoplik, “Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 446–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stolarek, A. Pastuszczak, P. Wrobel, T. Stefaniuk, and R. Kotynski, “Linear sub-diffraction spatial filtering with plasmonic materials,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013.

Peh, C. K. N.

L. Ke, S. C. Lai, H. Liu, C. K. N. Peh, B. Wang, and J. H. Teng, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film on PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer for extended surface plasmon propagation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 1247–1253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pniewski, J.

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing radially polarized light by a concentrically corrugated silver film without a hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reichle, R.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seidelin, S.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shatzkes, M.

A. F. Mayadas and M. Shatzkes, “Electrical-resistivity model for polycrystalline films: the case of arbitrary reflection at external surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 1382 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Mayadas, M. Shatzkes, and J. F. Janak, “Electrical resistivity model for polycrystalline films: the case of specular reflection at external surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 345–347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 206806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiga, N.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shivanand,

Si, G.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sondheimer, E. H.

E. H. Sondheimer, “The mean free path of electrons in metals,” Adv. Phys. 1, 1–42 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Stefaniuk, T.

T. Stefaniuk, G. Nowak, and R. Kotyński, “Effect of surface roughness on sub-wavelength imaging with layered metamaterial optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8070, 807010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Kotyński, H. Baghdasaryan, T. Stefaniuk, A. Pastuszczak, M. Marciniak, A. Lavrinenko, K. Panajotov, and T. Szoplik, “Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 446–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Stolarek, A. Pastuszczak, P. Wrobel, T. Stefaniuk, and R. Kotynski, “Linear sub-diffraction spatial filtering with plasmonic materials,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013.

T. Stefaniuk, P. Wróbel, E. Górecka, and T. Szoplik, “Optimum temperature for deposition of ultrasmooth silver nanolayers,” Nanoscale Res. Lett, in press (2014).

Stolarek, M.

M. Stolarek, A. Pastuszczak, P. Wrobel, T. Stefaniuk, and R. Kotynski, “Linear sub-diffraction spatial filtering with plasmonic materials,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013.

Szoplik, T.

R. Kotyński, H. Baghdasaryan, T. Stefaniuk, A. Pastuszczak, M. Marciniak, A. Lavrinenko, K. Panajotov, and T. Szoplik, “Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 446–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing radially polarized light by a concentrically corrugated silver film without a hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Stefaniuk, P. Wróbel, E. Górecka, and T. Szoplik, “Optimum temperature for deposition of ultrasmooth silver nanolayers,” Nanoscale Res. Lett, in press (2014).

Teng, J.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teng, J. H.

L. Ke, S. C. Lai, H. Liu, C. K. N. Peh, B. Wang, and J. H. Teng, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film on PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer for extended surface plasmon propagation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 1247–1253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thoreson, M. D.

Tsai, C.-M.

S.-C. Wu, W.-H. Huang, and C.-M. Tsai, “Fabrication and application of copper sub-microdoughnut with electroplating method on patterned nickel template,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, P59–P62 (2010).
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R. K. Aithal, S. Yenamandra, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Electroless copper deposition on silicon with titanium seed layer,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98, 95–102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, C.

C. Cioarec, P. Melpignano, N. Gherardi, R. Clergereaux, and C. Villeneuve, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film electrodes with high polar liquid wettability for OLED microcavity application,” Langmuir 27, 3611–3617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Melpignano, C. Cioarec, R. Clergereaux, N. Gherardi, C. Villeneuve, and L. Datas, “E-beam deposited ultra-smooth silver thin film on glass with different nucleation layers: an optimization study for OLED micro-cavity application,” Org. Electron. 11, 1111–1119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wachs, A. L.

A. L. Wachs, T. Miller, and T.-C. Chiang, “Evidence for germanium segregation on thin films of Ag on Ge(111),” Phys. Rev. B 33, 8870–8873 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

L. Ke, S. C. Lai, H. Liu, C. K. N. Peh, B. Wang, and J. H. Teng, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film on PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer for extended surface plasmon propagation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 1247–1253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 206806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Y.

V. J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9, 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. M.

D. Flötotto, Z. M. Wang, L. P. H. Jeurgens, E. Bischoff, and E. J. Mittemeijer, “Effect of adatom surface diffusivity on microstructure and intrinsic stress evolutions during Ag film growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 043503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A.

M. Mayy, G. Zhu, E. Mayy, A. Webb, and M. A. Noginov, “Low temperature studies of surface plasmon polaritons in silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094103 (2012).
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Webb, K. J.

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S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. S.

V. J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9, 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

S. Seidelin, J. Chiaverini, R. Reichle, J. J. Bollinger, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. H. Wesenberg, R. B. Blakestad, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, N. Shiga, and D. J. Wineland, “Microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wrobel, P.

M. Stolarek, A. Pastuszczak, P. Wrobel, T. Stefaniuk, and R. Kotynski, “Linear sub-diffraction spatial filtering with plasmonic materials,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013.

Wróbel, P.

P. Wróbel, J. Pniewski, T. J. Antosiewicz, and T. Szoplik, “Focusing radially polarized light by a concentrically corrugated silver film without a hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Stefaniuk, P. Wróbel, E. Górecka, and T. Szoplik, “Optimum temperature for deposition of ultrasmooth silver nanolayers,” Nanoscale Res. Lett, in press (2014).

Wu, S.-C.

S.-C. Wu, W.-H. Huang, and C.-M. Tsai, “Fabrication and application of copper sub-microdoughnut with electroplating method on patterned nickel template,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, P59–P62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

V. J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9, 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yenamandra, S.

R. K. Aithal, S. Yenamandra, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Electroless copper deposition on silicon with titanium seed layer,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98, 95–102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

M. Mayy, G. Zhu, E. Mayy, A. Webb, and M. A. Noginov, “Low temperature studies of surface plasmon polaritons in silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zong, Y.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

L. Ke, S. C. Lai, H. Liu, C. K. N. Peh, B. Wang, and J. H. Teng, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film on PEDOT:PSS nucleation layer for extended surface plasmon propagation,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 1247–1253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano 4, 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Adv. Phys. (1)

E. H. Sondheimer, “The mean free path of electrons in metals,” Adv. Phys. 1, 1–42 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. F. Mayadas, M. Shatzkes, and J. F. Janak, “Electrical resistivity model for polycrystalline films: the case of specular reflection at external surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 345–347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Mayy, G. Zhu, E. Mayy, A. Webb, and M. A. Noginov, “Low temperature studies of surface plasmon polaritons in silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 094103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Flötotto, Z. M. Wang, L. P. H. Jeurgens, E. Bischoff, and E. J. Mittemeijer, “Effect of adatom surface diffusivity on microstructure and intrinsic stress evolutions during Ag film growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 043503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S.-C. Wu, W.-H. Huang, and C.-M. Tsai, “Fabrication and application of copper sub-microdoughnut with electroplating method on patterned nickel template,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, P59–P62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

C. Cioarec, P. Melpignano, N. Gherardi, R. Clergereaux, and C. Villeneuve, “Ultrasmooth silver thin film electrodes with high polar liquid wettability for OLED microcavity application,” Langmuir 27, 3611–3617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. K. Aithal, S. Yenamandra, R. A. Gunasekaran, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, “Electroless copper deposition on silicon with titanium seed layer,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98, 95–102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. J. (1)

J. M. Camacho and A. I. Oliva, “Morphology and electrical resistivity of metallic nanostructures,” Microelectron. J. 36, 555–558 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

V. J. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9, 178–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

F. Lacy, “Developing a theoretical relationship between electrical resistivity, temperature, and film thickness for conductors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

R. Kotyński, H. Baghdasaryan, T. Stefaniuk, A. Pastuszczak, M. Marciniak, A. Lavrinenko, K. Panajotov, and T. Szoplik, “Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 446–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (1)

P. Melpignano, C. Cioarec, R. Clergereaux, N. Gherardi, C. Villeneuve, and L. Datas, “E-beam deposited ultra-smooth silver thin film on glass with different nucleation layers: an optimization study for OLED micro-cavity application,” Org. Electron. 11, 1111–1119 (2010).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three surface morphology parameters measured using AFM on 3μm×3μm area of 30 nm thick Ag layers deposited on sapphire substrates with Ge wetting monolayer at temperatures in the range 170400K [11].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM images of 10 nm thick silver films deposited at room temperature and deposition rate 0.5A/s directly on fused-silica substrate (a) and with Ge (b), Ti (c), and Ni (d) wetting layers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Voltage versus current curves measured on a 50 nm thick Ag film deposited on a 1 nm thick Ti adhesion layer. The insert shows the location of the electrical contacts on the sample. Radial scratches are made on the Ag surface in order to form a clover shape, which reduces the influence of contact dimensions on the value of measured resistance.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Surface Quality of Ag Films Deposited on 1 nm Ge, Ti, and Ni Wetting Layers on Fused-Silica Substrates Given in Terms of 10-Point Height (TPH), Average Height (AH), and Root Mean Square (RMS) Surface Roughness Values

Tables Icon

Table 2. Specific Resistivity of Ag Films Deposited on 1 nm Ge, Ti, and Ni Wetting Layers and Directly on Fused-Silica Substrates

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ=1NxNyj=1Nyi=1NxZij,
RMS=1NxNyj=1Nyi=1Nx(Zijμ)2.
σf=σb[13(1p)2k1dt(1t31t5)1exp(kt)1pexp(kt)],
σf=34σbklog(1k).
σgσb=ρbρg=3[13α2+α2α3ln(1+1α)],

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