Abstract

For more than 40 years, we have studied the effect of the low-frequency spectral range of atmospheric turbulence on optical characteristics. We also have looked at the influence of the turbulence models as well as an outer scale of turbulence on the parameters of telescopes and systems of laser beam formations. This question is important mainly for ground-based astronomy. Here we propose what we believe is a new optical method that uses the phase fluctuations of optical image jitter to estimate both the integral (along an atmospheric path) value of the structure parameter of atmospheric turbulence and effective outer scales of turbulence.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. V. P. Lukin, “Optical measurements of the outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 5, 229–242 (1992).
  9. V. P. Lukin, “Intercomparison of models of the atmospheric turbulence spectrum,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 6, 628–631 (1993).
  10. J. Vernin, “Mechanism of formation of optical turbulence,” ASP Conference Series 266, 2–17 (2002).
  11. E. M. Dewan and N. Grossbard, “The inertial range ‘outer scale’ and optical turbulence,” Environ. Fluid Mech. 7, 383–396 (2007).
  12. V. P. Lukin, “Atmospheric turbulence parameters measurements,” ASP Conference Series 266, 18–27 (2002).
  13. V. P. Lukin, “Investigation of some peculiarities in the structure of large-scale atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 5, 834–840 (1992).
  14. O. N. Emaleev, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. F. Potanin, “Phase measurements in the surface air layer,” in Proc. V All-Russian Symposium on Laser Radiation Propagation in the Atmosphere, Tomsk (1979), Part 2, pp. 144–147.
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  16. A. S. Monin and A. M. Obukhov, “Nondimentional characteristics of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer,” Dokl. AN SSSR 93, 223–226 (1953).
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  20. V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Mathematical Models of Non-linear Phenomena, Processes and Systems (Nova Science, 2009), pp. 120–152.
  21. V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in mountain atmospheric boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (2010), pp. 408–411.
  22. V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, and A. V. Torgaev, “Turbulent scales in the anisotropic boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 412–414.
  23. V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Some practical recommendations of site selection for the astronomical telescopes,” Abstract, Comprehensive Characterization of Astronomical Sites Conference (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. C. E. Coulman, J. Vernin, Y. Coquegniot, and J. L. Caccia, “Outer scale of turbulence appropriate to modeling refractive-index structure profiles,” Appl. Opt. 27, 155–160 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. S. Gurvich and M. E. Gracheva, “Simple models of turbulence,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 16, 1107–1111 (1980).
  30. D. L. Fried, “Limiting resolution looking down through the atmosphere,” Proc. IEEE 55, 57–77 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  31. V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” in Abstracts of Reports at the Third Interrepublic Symposium on Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (1996), pp. 31–33.
  32. V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 10, 162–171 (1997).
  33. L. A. Bolbasova, P. G. Kovadlo, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Features of optical image jitter in a random medium with a finite outer scale,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 26(2), 79–84 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Sarazin, “Site Testing for the VLT. Data Analysis Part I,” European Southern Observatory, , 1987.
  35. D. T. Kyrazis, J. B. Wissler, D. D. B. Keating, A. J. Preble, and K. P. Bishop, “Measurement of optical turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2120, 43–55 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. Ziad, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Agabi, “Experimental estimation of the spatial-coherence outer scale from a wavefront statistical analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. 282, 1021–1033 (1994).
  37. Z.-S. Wu, H.-Y. Wei, R.-K. Yang, and L.-X. Guo, “Study on scintillation considering inner-and outer-scales for laser beam propagation on the slant path through the atmosphere,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 80, 277–293 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Ziad, M. Schock, G. A. Chanan, T. Mitchell, R. Dekany, B. F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2013

L. A. Bolbasova, P. G. Kovadlo, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Features of optical image jitter in a random medium with a finite outer scale,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 26(2), 79–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z.-S. Wu, H.-Y. Wei, R.-K. Yang, and L.-X. Guo, “Study on scintillation considering inner-and outer-scales for laser beam propagation on the slant path through the atmosphere,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 80, 277–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. M. Dewan and N. Grossbard, “The inertial range ‘outer scale’ and optical turbulence,” Environ. Fluid Mech. 7, 383–396 (2007).

2004

2002

V. P. Lukin, “Atmospheric turbulence parameters measurements,” ASP Conference Series 266, 18–27 (2002).

J. Vernin, “Mechanism of formation of optical turbulence,” ASP Conference Series 266, 2–17 (2002).

1997

V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 10, 162–171 (1997).

1995

1994

D. T. Kyrazis, J. B. Wissler, D. D. B. Keating, A. J. Preble, and K. P. Bishop, “Measurement of optical turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2120, 43–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ziad, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Agabi, “Experimental estimation of the spatial-coherence outer scale from a wavefront statistical analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. 282, 1021–1033 (1994).

1993

V. P. Lukin, “Intercomparison of models of the atmospheric turbulence spectrum,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 6, 628–631 (1993).

1992

T. McKeckney and T. Stewart, “Atmospheric turbulence and the resolution limits of large ground-based telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1937–1954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Lukin, “Optical measurements of the outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 5, 229–242 (1992).

V. P. Lukin, “Investigation of some peculiarities in the structure of large-scale atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 5, 834–840 (1992).

J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Ziad, “Effect of a finite spatial-coherence outer scale on the covariances of angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 91, 267–279 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1988

R. E. Good, R. R. Beland, E. A. Murphy, J. H. Brown, and E. M. Dewan, “Atmospheric models of optical turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 928, 165–186 (1988).

C. E. Coulman, J. Vernin, Y. Coquegniot, and J. L. Caccia, “Outer scale of turbulence appropriate to modeling refractive-index structure profiles,” Appl. Opt. 27, 155–160 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

A. S. Gurvich and M. E. Gracheva, “Simple models of turbulence,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 16, 1107–1111 (1980).

1973

1972

V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, “Investigation of temporal characteristics of optical waves phase propagating in ground-boundary layer,” Izv. VUZov. Radiofizika 15(12), 1861–1866 (1972).

G. W. Reinhard and S. A. Collins, “Outer-scale effects in turbulence-degraded light-beam spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1526–1528 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

1967

D. L. Fried, “Limiting resolution looking down through the atmosphere,” Proc. IEEE 55, 57–77 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1953

A. S. Monin and A. M. Obukhov, “Nondimentional characteristics of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer,” Dokl. AN SSSR 93, 223–226 (1953).

Agabi, A.

A. Ziad, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Agabi, “Experimental estimation of the spatial-coherence outer scale from a wavefront statistical analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. 282, 1021–1033 (1994).

Beland, R. R.

R. E. Good, R. R. Beland, E. A. Murphy, J. H. Brown, and E. M. Dewan, “Atmospheric models of optical turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 928, 165–186 (1988).

Bishop, K. P.

D. T. Kyrazis, J. B. Wissler, D. D. B. Keating, A. J. Preble, and K. P. Bishop, “Measurement of optical turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2120, 43–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bolbasova, L. A.

L. A. Bolbasova, P. G. Kovadlo, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Features of optical image jitter in a random medium with a finite outer scale,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 26(2), 79–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Borgnino, J.

A. Ziad, M. Schock, G. A. Chanan, T. Mitchell, R. Dekany, B. F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ziad, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Agabi, “Experimental estimation of the spatial-coherence outer scale from a wavefront statistical analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. 282, 1021–1033 (1994).

J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Ziad, “Effect of a finite spatial-coherence outer scale on the covariances of angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 91, 267–279 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Borgnino, “Estimation of the spatial coherence outer scale relevant to long baseline interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1863–1865 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bouricius, G. M. B.

Brown, J. H.

R. E. Good, R. R. Beland, E. A. Murphy, J. H. Brown, and E. M. Dewan, “Atmospheric models of optical turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 928, 165–186 (1988).

Caccia, J. L.

Chanan, G. A.

Clifford, S. F.

Collins, S. A.

Consortini, A.

Coquegniot, Y.

Coulman, C. E.

Dekany, R.

Dewan, E. M.

E. M. Dewan and N. Grossbard, “The inertial range ‘outer scale’ and optical turbulence,” Environ. Fluid Mech. 7, 383–396 (2007).

R. E. Good, R. R. Beland, E. A. Murphy, J. H. Brown, and E. M. Dewan, “Atmospheric models of optical turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 928, 165–186 (1988).

Emaleev, O. N.

O. N. Emaleev, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. F. Potanin, “Phase measurements in the surface air layer,” in Proc. V All-Russian Symposium on Laser Radiation Propagation in the Atmosphere, Tomsk (1979), Part 2, pp. 144–147.

Fortes, B. V.

V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 10, 162–171 (1997).

V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” in Abstracts of Reports at the Third Interrepublic Symposium on Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (1996), pp. 31–33.

Fried, D. L.

D. L. Fried, “Limiting resolution looking down through the atmosphere,” Proc. IEEE 55, 57–77 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Good, R. E.

R. E. Good, R. R. Beland, E. A. Murphy, J. H. Brown, and E. M. Dewan, “Atmospheric models of optical turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 928, 165–186 (1988).

Gracheva, M. E.

A. S. Gurvich and M. E. Gracheva, “Simple models of turbulence,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 16, 1107–1111 (1980).

Grigoriev, V. M.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Comprehensive characterization of astronomical sites, Kislovodsk, Russia, October 4–9 (2010), 5 c.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Mathematical Models of Non-linear Phenomena, Processes and Systems (Nova Science, 2009), pp. 120–152.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in mountain atmospheric boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (2010), pp. 408–411.

Grossbard, N.

E. M. Dewan and N. Grossbard, “The inertial range ‘outer scale’ and optical turbulence,” Environ. Fluid Mech. 7, 383–396 (2007).

Guo, L.-X.

Z.-S. Wu, H.-Y. Wei, R.-K. Yang, and L.-X. Guo, “Study on scintillation considering inner-and outer-scales for laser beam propagation on the slant path through the atmosphere,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 80, 277–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gurvich, A. S.

A. S. Gurvich and M. E. Gracheva, “Simple models of turbulence,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 16, 1107–1111 (1980).

Keating, D. D. B.

D. T. Kyrazis, J. B. Wissler, D. D. B. Keating, A. J. Preble, and K. P. Bishop, “Measurement of optical turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2120, 43–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khmelevtsov, S. S.

V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, “Investigation of temporal characteristics of optical waves phase propagating in ground-boundary layer,” Izv. VUZov. Radiofizika 15(12), 1861–1866 (1972).

Kovadlo, P. G.

L. A. Bolbasova, P. G. Kovadlo, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Features of optical image jitter in a random medium with a finite outer scale,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 26(2), 79–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in mountain atmospheric boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (2010), pp. 408–411.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Mathematical Models of Non-linear Phenomena, Processes and Systems (Nova Science, 2009), pp. 120–152.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Comprehensive characterization of astronomical sites, Kislovodsk, Russia, October 4–9 (2010), 5 c.

Kyrazis, D. T.

D. T. Kyrazis, J. B. Wissler, D. D. B. Keating, A. J. Preble, and K. P. Bishop, “Measurement of optical turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2120, 43–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lane, B. F.

Lukin, V. P.

L. A. Bolbasova, P. G. Kovadlo, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Features of optical image jitter in a random medium with a finite outer scale,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 26(2), 79–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Lukin, “Atmospheric turbulence parameters measurements,” ASP Conference Series 266, 18–27 (2002).

V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 10, 162–171 (1997).

V. P. Lukin, “Intercomparison of models of the atmospheric turbulence spectrum,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 6, 628–631 (1993).

V. P. Lukin, “Investigation of some peculiarities in the structure of large-scale atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 5, 834–840 (1992).

V. P. Lukin, “Optical measurements of the outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 5, 229–242 (1992).

V. P. Lukin and V. V. Pokasov, “Optical wave phase fluctuations,” Appl. Opt. 20, 121–135 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, “Investigation of temporal characteristics of optical waves phase propagating in ground-boundary layer,” Izv. VUZov. Radiofizika 15(12), 1861–1866 (1972).

O. N. Emaleev, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. F. Potanin, “Phase measurements in the surface air layer,” in Proc. V All-Russian Symposium on Laser Radiation Propagation in the Atmosphere, Tomsk (1979), Part 2, pp. 144–147.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Comprehensive characterization of astronomical sites, Kislovodsk, Russia, October 4–9 (2010), 5 c.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Mathematical Models of Non-linear Phenomena, Processes and Systems (Nova Science, 2009), pp. 120–152.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in mountain atmospheric boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (2010), pp. 408–411.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Some practical recommendations of site selection for the astronomical telescopes,” Abstract, Comprehensive Characterization of Astronomical Sites Conference (2010).

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, and A. V. Torgaev, “Turbulent scales in the anisotropic boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 412–414.

V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” in Abstracts of Reports at the Third Interrepublic Symposium on Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (1996), pp. 31–33.

Martin, F.

A. Ziad, M. Schock, G. A. Chanan, T. Mitchell, R. Dekany, B. F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ziad, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Agabi, “Experimental estimation of the spatial-coherence outer scale from a wavefront statistical analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. 282, 1021–1033 (1994).

J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Ziad, “Effect of a finite spatial-coherence outer scale on the covariances of angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 91, 267–279 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McKeckney, T.

Mitchell, T.

Monin, A. S.

A. S. Monin and A. M. Obukhov, “Nondimentional characteristics of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer,” Dokl. AN SSSR 93, 223–226 (1953).

A. S. Monin and A. M. Yaglom, Statistical Fluid Mechanics: Mechanics of Turbulence (MIT, 1981).

A. S. Monin, Hydrodynamics of the Atmosphere, Ocean, and the Earth’s Interior (Gidrometeoizdat, 1954), p. 524.

Moroder, E.

Murphy, E. A.

R. E. Good, R. R. Beland, E. A. Murphy, J. H. Brown, and E. M. Dewan, “Atmospheric models of optical turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 928, 165–186 (1988).

Nosov, E. V.

V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 10, 162–171 (1997).

V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” in Abstracts of Reports at the Third Interrepublic Symposium on Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (1996), pp. 31–33.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Comprehensive characterization of astronomical sites, Kislovodsk, Russia, October 4–9 (2010), 5 c.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in mountain atmospheric boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (2010), pp. 408–411.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Mathematical Models of Non-linear Phenomena, Processes and Systems (Nova Science, 2009), pp. 120–152.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Some practical recommendations of site selection for the astronomical telescopes,” Abstract, Comprehensive Characterization of Astronomical Sites Conference (2010).

Nosov, V. V.

L. A. Bolbasova, P. G. Kovadlo, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Features of optical image jitter in a random medium with a finite outer scale,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 26(2), 79–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Some practical recommendations of site selection for the astronomical telescopes,” Abstract, Comprehensive Characterization of Astronomical Sites Conference (2010).

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in mountain atmospheric boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (2010), pp. 408–411.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, and A. V. Torgaev, “Turbulent scales in the anisotropic boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 412–414.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Mathematical Models of Non-linear Phenomena, Processes and Systems (Nova Science, 2009), pp. 120–152.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Comprehensive characterization of astronomical sites, Kislovodsk, Russia, October 4–9 (2010), 5 c.

Obukhov, A. M.

A. S. Monin and A. M. Obukhov, “Nondimentional characteristics of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer,” Dokl. AN SSSR 93, 223–226 (1953).

Pokasov, V. V.

V. P. Lukin and V. V. Pokasov, “Optical wave phase fluctuations,” Appl. Opt. 20, 121–135 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, “Investigation of temporal characteristics of optical waves phase propagating in ground-boundary layer,” Izv. VUZov. Radiofizika 15(12), 1861–1866 (1972).

O. N. Emaleev, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. F. Potanin, “Phase measurements in the surface air layer,” in Proc. V All-Russian Symposium on Laser Radiation Propagation in the Atmosphere, Tomsk (1979), Part 2, pp. 144–147.

Potanin, S. F.

O. N. Emaleev, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. F. Potanin, “Phase measurements in the surface air layer,” in Proc. V All-Russian Symposium on Laser Radiation Propagation in the Atmosphere, Tomsk (1979), Part 2, pp. 144–147.

Preble, A. J.

D. T. Kyrazis, J. B. Wissler, D. D. B. Keating, A. J. Preble, and K. P. Bishop, “Measurement of optical turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2120, 43–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, G. W.

Ronchi, L.

Sarazin, M.

M. Sarazin, “Site Testing for the VLT. Data Analysis Part I,” European Southern Observatory, , 1987.

Schock, M.

Stewart, T.

Tatarskii, V. I.

V. I. Tatarskii, Wave Propagation in the Turbulent Atmosphere (Nauka, 1967).

Torgaev, A. V.

L. A. Bolbasova, P. G. Kovadlo, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Features of optical image jitter in a random medium with a finite outer scale,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 26(2), 79–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, and A. V. Torgaev, “Turbulent scales in the anisotropic boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 412–414.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Some practical recommendations of site selection for the astronomical telescopes,” Abstract, Comprehensive Characterization of Astronomical Sites Conference (2010).

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Comprehensive characterization of astronomical sites, Kislovodsk, Russia, October 4–9 (2010), 5 c.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in mountain atmospheric boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (2010), pp. 408–411.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Mathematical Models of Non-linear Phenomena, Processes and Systems (Nova Science, 2009), pp. 120–152.

Vernin, J.

Voitsekhovich, V. V.

Wei, H.-Y.

Z.-S. Wu, H.-Y. Wei, R.-K. Yang, and L.-X. Guo, “Study on scintillation considering inner-and outer-scales for laser beam propagation on the slant path through the atmosphere,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 80, 277–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wissler, J. B.

D. T. Kyrazis, J. B. Wissler, D. D. B. Keating, A. J. Preble, and K. P. Bishop, “Measurement of optical turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2120, 43–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.-S.

Z.-S. Wu, H.-Y. Wei, R.-K. Yang, and L.-X. Guo, “Study on scintillation considering inner-and outer-scales for laser beam propagation on the slant path through the atmosphere,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 80, 277–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yaglom, A. M.

A. S. Monin and A. M. Yaglom, Statistical Fluid Mechanics: Mechanics of Turbulence (MIT, 1981).

Yang, R.-K.

Z.-S. Wu, H.-Y. Wei, R.-K. Yang, and L.-X. Guo, “Study on scintillation considering inner-and outer-scales for laser beam propagation on the slant path through the atmosphere,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 80, 277–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ziad, A.

A. Ziad, M. Schock, G. A. Chanan, T. Mitchell, R. Dekany, B. F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ziad, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Agabi, “Experimental estimation of the spatial-coherence outer scale from a wavefront statistical analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. 282, 1021–1033 (1994).

J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Ziad, “Effect of a finite spatial-coherence outer scale on the covariances of angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 91, 267–279 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zilitinkevich, S. S.

S. S. Zilitinkevich, Dynamics of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (Gidrometeoizdat, 1970).

Appl. Opt.

ASP Conference Series

V. P. Lukin, “Atmospheric turbulence parameters measurements,” ASP Conference Series 266, 18–27 (2002).

J. Vernin, “Mechanism of formation of optical turbulence,” ASP Conference Series 266, 2–17 (2002).

Astron. Astrophys.

A. Ziad, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Agabi, “Experimental estimation of the spatial-coherence outer scale from a wavefront statistical analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. 282, 1021–1033 (1994).

Atmos. Oceanic Opt.

V. P. Lukin, “Investigation of some peculiarities in the structure of large-scale atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 5, 834–840 (1992).

V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 10, 162–171 (1997).

L. A. Bolbasova, P. G. Kovadlo, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Features of optical image jitter in a random medium with a finite outer scale,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 26(2), 79–84 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Lukin, “Optical measurements of the outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 5, 229–242 (1992).

V. P. Lukin, “Intercomparison of models of the atmospheric turbulence spectrum,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 6, 628–631 (1993).

Dokl. AN SSSR

A. S. Monin and A. M. Obukhov, “Nondimentional characteristics of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer,” Dokl. AN SSSR 93, 223–226 (1953).

Environ. Fluid Mech.

E. M. Dewan and N. Grossbard, “The inertial range ‘outer scale’ and optical turbulence,” Environ. Fluid Mech. 7, 383–396 (2007).

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana

A. S. Gurvich and M. E. Gracheva, “Simple models of turbulence,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 16, 1107–1111 (1980).

Izv. VUZov. Radiofizika

V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. S. Khmelevtsov, “Investigation of temporal characteristics of optical waves phase propagating in ground-boundary layer,” Izv. VUZov. Radiofizika 15(12), 1861–1866 (1972).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

J. Borgnino, F. Martin, and A. Ziad, “Effect of a finite spatial-coherence outer scale on the covariances of angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” Opt. Commun. 91, 267–279 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

D. L. Fried, “Limiting resolution looking down through the atmosphere,” Proc. IEEE 55, 57–77 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. E. Good, R. R. Beland, E. A. Murphy, J. H. Brown, and E. M. Dewan, “Atmospheric models of optical turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 928, 165–186 (1988).

D. T. Kyrazis, J. B. Wissler, D. D. B. Keating, A. J. Preble, and K. P. Bishop, “Measurement of optical turbulence in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Proc. SPIE 2120, 43–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Electromagn. Res.

Z.-S. Wu, H.-Y. Wei, R.-K. Yang, and L.-X. Guo, “Study on scintillation considering inner-and outer-scales for laser beam propagation on the slant path through the atmosphere,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 80, 277–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. I. Tatarskii, Wave Propagation in the Turbulent Atmosphere (Nauka, 1967).

A. S. Monin, Hydrodynamics of the Atmosphere, Ocean, and the Earth’s Interior (Gidrometeoizdat, 1954), p. 524.

S. S. Zilitinkevich, Dynamics of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (Gidrometeoizdat, 1970).

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Comprehensive characterization of astronomical sites, Kislovodsk, Russia, October 4–9 (2010), 5 c.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in the turbulent atmosphere,” in Mathematical Models of Non-linear Phenomena, Processes and Systems (Nova Science, 2009), pp. 120–152.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, A. V. Torgaev, V. M. Grigoriev, and P. G. Kovadlo, “Coherent structures in mountain atmospheric boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (2010), pp. 408–411.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, and A. V. Torgaev, “Turbulent scales in the anisotropic boundary layer,” in Proc. 25th International Laser Radar Conference (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 412–414.

V. V. Nosov, V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and A. V. Torgaev, “Some practical recommendations of site selection for the astronomical telescopes,” Abstract, Comprehensive Characterization of Astronomical Sites Conference (2010).

V. P. Lukin, E. V. Nosov, and B. V. Fortes, “Effective outer scale of atmospheric turbulence,” in Abstracts of Reports at the Third Interrepublic Symposium on Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (1996), pp. 31–33.

M. Sarazin, “Site Testing for the VLT. Data Analysis Part I,” European Southern Observatory, , 1987.

O. N. Emaleev, V. P. Lukin, V. V. Pokasov, and S. F. Potanin, “Phase measurements in the surface air layer,” in Proc. V All-Russian Symposium on Laser Radiation Propagation in the Atmosphere, Tomsk (1979), Part 2, pp. 144–147.

A. S. Monin and A. M. Yaglom, Statistical Fluid Mechanics: Mechanics of Turbulence (MIT, 1981).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Correspondence between the optically measured outer scale of turbulence L0 (cm) and the instability (6) parameter B.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental non-normalized spectra of temperature fluctuations. The upper curve in the low-frequency range corresponds to the strongly unstable stratification and the lower one corresponds to the stable stratification. The spectra are not smoothed, the significant spread of the points in the high-frequency range is the result of discrete Fourier transform.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for the outer scale of turbulence L0T in the mountain anisotropic boundary layer: 1, experiment (from spectra by the 5/3 law); 2, experiment (from spectra by saturation); 3, experiment (by the Tatarskii’s definition); 4, semi-empirical theory for anisotropic layer; and 5, semi-empirical theory for anisotropic layer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Height profiles of the outer scale L0(h) (a) and turbulence intensities Cn2(h) (b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Standard deviation of astronomical image jitter of the solar limb as a function of the diameter of telescope input aperture 2at. Sayan Solar observatory; measurements in summer 2010.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Behavior of the Image Jitter Variance for Different Aperture Sizes of Telescope

Equations (32)

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Φn(κ,ξ)=0.0033Cn2(ξ)(κ2+L02)11/6,Φn(κ,ξ)=0.0033Cn2(ξ)L011/3(κ2L02+κL0)11/6,Φn(κ,ξ)=0.0033Cn2(ξ)κ11/3{1exp[κ2L02]},
T=T0γa(zz0)
Θ=T(1000p)γ1γ,
dT/dz=γa+dΘ/dz.
Ri=gΔΘTΔz/(ΔvΔz)2.
B=gh(T2T0.5)/T¯v2,
Ds(ρ)|ρ>L0=2σs22450.033π2k2Cn2XL05/3.
CT2|z1z2|2/3=(dT/dz)2|z1z2|2,L0T=|z1z2|/(αCΘ)3/4={CT2/[αCΘ(dT/dz)2]}3/4,
Dv(r)=2av2[121vΓ1(v)(r/r0)vKv(r/r0)],V(κ)=Γ1(v+1/2)Γ1(v)π1/2av2r0(1+κ2r02)v1/2,
D1/3(r)=α0r2/3α1r2+0((r/r0)8/3),V1/3(κ)=β0κ5/3β1κ11/3+0((κ0/κ)17/3),D4/3(r)=α2r2+0((r/r1)8/3),V4/3(κ)=β2κ11/3+0((κ1/κ)17/3).
L0V7.3L0T,L0D0.72L0T,L0K12.4L0T
L0V0.6L0K,L0D0.06L0K,L0T0.08L0K,
DT=0.49T/x+T/z.
L0T=κz[φ(ς)+φT(ς)]3/4[φ(ς)+φV(ς)ς]1/4|φ(ς)+0.49zT*1T/x|3/2.
L0T=κzφ(ς)3/4[φ(ς)ς]1/4.
1)L0K=4.8(W(0)V/CT2)3/5,2)L0K=(V/f){[W(0)/W(f)]6/51}1/2.
Δ(L0)=0ρmaxdρ[Dϕ(ρ,L0)Dϕ(ρ,L0(h))]2
ρFpl=FkΣΣS(ρ⃗1)d2ρ1.
S(ρ⃗1)=i0Xdξ1d2n(κ⃗1,Xξ1)κ⃗1exp(iκ⃗1ρ⃗1),
(ρFpl)2=F2Σ2Σd2ρ1Σd2ρ20Xdξ10Xdξ2(κ⃗1κ⃗2)exp(iκ⃗1ρ⃗1)exp(iκ⃗2ρ⃗2)×d2n(κ⃗1,Xξ1)d2n(κ⃗2,Xξ2).
d2n(κ⃗1,Xξ1)d2n(κ⃗2,Xξ2)=2πδ(κ⃗1κ⃗2)δ(ξ1ξ2)Φn(κ⃗1,ξ1)d2κ1d2κ2
(ρFpl)2=2πF2Σ2Σd2ρ1Σd2ρ20Xdξd2κκ2Φn(κ⃗,ξ)exp(iκ⃗(ρ⃗1ρ⃗2)).
Σd2ρexp(iκ⃗ρ⃗)=2π0dρρJ(κρ)exp(ρ2/R2)=πR2exp(κ2R2/4),
Σ=Σd2ρ=2π0dρρexp(ρ2/R2)=πR2.
(ρFpl)2=2π2F20Xdξd2κκ2Φn(κ⃗,ξ)exp(κ2R2/2).
Φn(κ⃗,ξ)=0.033Cn2(ξ)(κ2+κ02)11/6exp(κ2/κm2)
Φn(κ⃗,ξ)=0.033Cn2(ξ)κ11/3{1exp(κ2/κ02)}exp(κ2/κm2).
(ρFpl)2=2π2F20.033Γ(1/6)0XdξCn2(ξ)[R1/321/6κ01/3].
(ρFpl)2/F2=(ϕFpl)23.23R1/30dξCn2(ξ)[1(κ02R2/2)1/6].
(κ0*)1=[0dξCn2(ξ)κ01/3/0dξCn2(ξ)]3.
r0(k20dξCn2(ξ))3/5,
(ϕFpl)23.23R1/3r05/3k2[121/6(κ0*R)1/3].

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