Abstract

We compare both analytically and numerically the distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped (DSCCP) fiber lasers and double cladding fiber (DCF) lasers. We show that, through optimization of the coupling and absorbing coefficients, the optical-to-optical efficiency of DSCCP fiber lasers can be made as high as that of DCF lasers. At the same time, DSCCP fiber lasers are better than the DCF lasers in terms of thermal management.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Nilsson and D. Payne, “High-power fiber lasers,” Science 332, 921–922 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 273, 1–7 (2013).
  3. S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Jeong, J. Sahu, D. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36  kW continuous wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, N. Platonov, O. Shkurikhin, V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, and S. Ferin, “2  kW CW ytterbium fiber laser with record diffraction-limited brightness,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), p. 508.
  6. V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, A. Ferin, and V. Gapontsev, “3  kW Yb fibre lasers with a single-mode output,” in 3rd International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications (2006), p. 16.
  7. Y. Wang, C. Q. Xu, and H. Po, “Thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 63–65 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.
  9. A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,826,335 B1 (30 November, 2004).
  10. X. J. Gu and Y. Liu, “The efficient light coupling in a twin-core fiber waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2125–2127 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Zervas, A. Marshall, and J. Kim, “Effective absorption in cladding-pumped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141T (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Hardy and R. Oron, “Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 307–313 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Kelson and A. Hardy, “Optimization of strongly pumped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 891–897 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Oron and A. Hardy, “Approximate analytical expressions for signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 138–140 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Kelson and A. A. Hardy, “Strongly pumped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1570–1577 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Huang, J. Cao, S. Guo, J. Hou, and J. Chen, “The characteristics of pump light in side-coupled cladding-pumped fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 293–297 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Renaud, “High-power diode-pumped fibre-laser,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southampton, 2001).
  19. M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, and E. M. Dianov, “Pump radiation distribution in multi-element first cladding laser fibres,” Quantum Electron. 35, 996–1002 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermal-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 273, 1–7 (2013).

Z. Huang, J. Cao, S. Guo, J. Hou, and J. Chen, “The characteristics of pump light in side-coupled cladding-pumped fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 293–297 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

J. Nilsson and D. Payne, “High-power fiber lasers,” Science 332, 921–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Zervas, A. Marshall, and J. Kim, “Effective absorption in cladding-pumped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141T (2011).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

X. J. Gu and Y. Liu, “The efficient light coupling in a twin-core fiber waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2125–2127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, and E. M. Dianov, “Pump radiation distribution in multi-element first cladding laser fibres,” Quantum Electron. 35, 996–1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, J. Sahu, D. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36  kW continuous wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Q. Xu, and H. Po, “Thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 63–65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermal-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

R. Oron and A. Hardy, “Approximate analytical expressions for signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 138–140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Kelson and A. A. Hardy, “Strongly pumped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1570–1577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Hardy and R. Oron, “Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 307–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, M.

V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, N. Platonov, O. Shkurikhin, V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, and S. Ferin, “2  kW CW ytterbium fiber laser with record diffraction-limited brightness,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), p. 508.

V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, A. Ferin, and V. Gapontsev, “3  kW Yb fibre lasers with a single-mode output,” in 3rd International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications (2006), p. 16.

Alam, S.-U.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.

Appleyard, A.

S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermal-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bubnov, M. M.

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, and E. M. Dianov, “Pump radiation distribution in multi-element first cladding laser fibres,” Quantum Electron. 35, 996–1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, and E. M. Dianov, “Pump radiation distribution in multi-element first cladding laser fibres,” Quantum Electron. 35, 996–1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

Z. Huang, J. Cao, S. Guo, J. Hou, and J. Chen, “The characteristics of pump light in side-coupled cladding-pumped fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 293–297 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Z. Huang, J. Cao, S. Guo, J. Hou, and J. Chen, “The characteristics of pump light in side-coupled cladding-pumped fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 293–297 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Codemard, C.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.

Demoulins, S.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, and E. M. Dianov, “Pump radiation distribution in multi-element first cladding laser fibres,” Quantum Electron. 35, 996–1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doerfel, F.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, M.

S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, M. K.

A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,826,335 B1 (30 November, 2004).

Ferin, A.

V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, A. Ferin, and V. Gapontsev, “3  kW Yb fibre lasers with a single-mode output,” in 3rd International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications (2006), p. 16.

Ferin, S.

V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, N. Platonov, O. Shkurikhin, V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, and S. Ferin, “2  kW CW ytterbium fiber laser with record diffraction-limited brightness,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), p. 508.

Flohrer, F.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fomin, V.

V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, A. Ferin, and V. Gapontsev, “3  kW Yb fibre lasers with a single-mode output,” in 3rd International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications (2006), p. 16.

V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, N. Platonov, O. Shkurikhin, V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, and S. Ferin, “2  kW CW ytterbium fiber laser with record diffraction-limited brightness,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), p. 508.

Gapontsev, D.

V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, N. Platonov, O. Shkurikhin, V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, and S. Ferin, “2  kW CW ytterbium fiber laser with record diffraction-limited brightness,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), p. 508.

Gapontsev, V.

V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, A. Ferin, and V. Gapontsev, “3  kW Yb fibre lasers with a single-mode output,” in 3rd International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications (2006), p. 16.

V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, N. Platonov, O. Shkurikhin, V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, and S. Ferin, “2  kW CW ytterbium fiber laser with record diffraction-limited brightness,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), p. 508.

Ghiringhelli, F.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Godfrey, I.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.

Grudinin, A. B.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.

A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,826,335 B1 (30 November, 2004).

Gu, X. J.

X. J. Gu and Y. Liu, “The efficient light coupling in a twin-core fiber waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2125–2127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S.

Z. Huang, J. Cao, S. Guo, J. Hou, and J. Chen, “The characteristics of pump light in side-coupled cladding-pumped fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 293–297 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A.

I. Kelson and A. Hardy, “Optimization of strongly pumped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 891–897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron and A. Hardy, “Approximate analytical expressions for signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 138–140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Hardy and R. Oron, “Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 307–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A. A.

I. Kelson and A. A. Hardy, “Strongly pumped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1570–1577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, H. J.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermal-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horley, R.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J.

Z. Huang, J. Cao, S. Guo, J. Hou, and J. Chen, “The characteristics of pump light in side-coupled cladding-pumped fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 293–297 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, J. Cao, S. Guo, J. Hou, and J. Chen, “The characteristics of pump light in side-coupled cladding-pumped fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 293–297 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,826,335 B1 (30 November, 2004).

Jauregui, C.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 273, 1–7 (2013).

Jeong, Y.

S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, J. Sahu, D. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36  kW continuous wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jetschke, S.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kelson, I.

I. Kelson and A. Hardy, “Optimization of strongly pumped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 891–897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Kelson and A. A. Hardy, “Strongly pumped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1570–1577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

M. Zervas, A. Marshall, and J. Kim, “Effective absorption in cladding-pumped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141T (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhof, J.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kozak, M.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liem, A.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 273, 1–7 (2013).

Linke, S.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

X. J. Gu and Y. Liu, “The efficient light coupling in a twin-core fiber waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2125–2127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, A.

M. Zervas, A. Marshall, and J. Kim, “Effective absorption in cladding-pumped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141T (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mashkin, A.

V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, N. Platonov, O. Shkurikhin, V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, and S. Ferin, “2  kW CW ytterbium fiber laser with record diffraction-limited brightness,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), p. 508.

V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, A. Ferin, and V. Gapontsev, “3  kW Yb fibre lasers with a single-mode output,” in 3rd International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications (2006), p. 16.

Mel’kumov, M. A.

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, and E. M. Dianov, “Pump radiation distribution in multi-element first cladding laser fibres,” Quantum Electron. 35, 996–1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

J. Nilsson and D. Payne, “High-power fiber lasers,” Science 332, 921–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, J. Sahu, D. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36  kW continuous wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.

Nilsson, L. J. A.

A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,826,335 B1 (30 November, 2004).

Norman, S.

S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oron, R.

R. Oron and A. Hardy, “Approximate analytical expressions for signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 138–140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Hardy and R. Oron, “Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 307–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D.

Payne, D. N.

A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,826,335 B1 (30 November, 2004).

Peschel, T.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, N.

V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, N. Platonov, O. Shkurikhin, V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, and S. Ferin, “2  kW CW ytterbium fiber laser with record diffraction-limited brightness,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), p. 508.

Po, H.

Y. Wang, C. Q. Xu, and H. Po, “Thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 63–65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, C.

C. Renaud, “High-power diode-pumped fibre-laser,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southampton, 2001).

Riedel, P.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J.

Sahu, J. K.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.

Schreiber, T.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, S. L.

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, and E. M. Dianov, “Pump radiation distribution in multi-element first cladding laser fibres,” Quantum Electron. 35, 996–1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shkurikhin, O.

V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, N. Platonov, O. Shkurikhin, V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, and S. Ferin, “2  kW CW ytterbium fiber laser with record diffraction-limited brightness,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), p. 508.

Shubin, A. V.

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, and E. M. Dianov, “Pump radiation distribution in multi-element first cladding laser fibres,” Quantum Electron. 35, 996–1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Singleton, J.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.

Tünnermann, A.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 273, 1–7 (2013).

Turner, P. W.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.

A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,826,335 B1 (30 November, 2004).

Unger, S.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Varnham, M.

S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Q. Xu, and H. Po, “Thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 63–65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. Q.

Y. Wang, C. Q. Xu, and H. Po, “Thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 63–65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yla-Jarkko, K. H.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.

Zervas, M.

M. Zervas, A. Marshall, and J. Kim, “Effective absorption in cladding-pumped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141T (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,826,335 B1 (30 November, 2004).

Zimer, H.

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

R. Oron and A. Hardy, “Approximate analytical expressions for signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 138–140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

I. Kelson and A. A. Hardy, “Strongly pumped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1570–1577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Hardy and R. Oron, “Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 307–313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermal-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Wang, C. Q. Xu, and H. Po, “Thermal effects in kilowatt fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 63–65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Gu and Y. Liu, “The efficient light coupling in a twin-core fiber waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2125–2127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 273, 1–7 (2013).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Z. Huang, J. Cao, S. Guo, J. Hou, and J. Chen, “The characteristics of pump light in side-coupled cladding-pumped fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19, 293–297 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

S. Norman, M. Zervas, A. Appleyard, M. Durkin, R. Horley, M. Varnham, J. Nilsson, and Y. Jeong, “Latest development of high power fiber lasers in SPI,” Proc. SPIE 5335, 229–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Zimer, M. Kozak, A. Liem, F. Flohrer, F. Doerfel, P. Riedel, S. Linke, R. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, S. Demoulins, M. Zervas, J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, T. Peschel, and T. Schreiber, “Fibers and fiber-optic components for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 791414 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Zervas, A. Marshall, and J. Kim, “Effective absorption in cladding-pumped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141T (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, M. M. Bubnov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, and E. M. Dianov, “Pump radiation distribution in multi-element first cladding laser fibres,” Quantum Electron. 35, 996–1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Nilsson and D. Payne, “High-power fiber lasers,” Science 332, 921–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. Renaud, “High-power diode-pumped fibre-laser,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southampton, 2001).

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise, intelligent cladding pumped L-band EDFA,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), paper PD1.6.

A. B. Grudinin, D. N. Payne, P. W. Turner, L. J. A. Nilsson, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. K. Durkin, “Multi-fiber arrangements for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent6,826,335 B1 (30 November, 2004).

V. Gapontsev, D. Gapontsev, N. Platonov, O. Shkurikhin, V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, and S. Ferin, “2  kW CW ytterbium fiber laser with record diffraction-limited brightness,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), p. 508.

V. Fomin, A. Mashkin, M. Abramov, A. Ferin, and V. Gapontsev, “3  kW Yb fibre lasers with a single-mode output,” in 3rd International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications (2006), p. 16.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross section of a DSCCP fiber: (1) pump core; (2) signal core; (3) signal cladding; and (4) outer cladding. (b) Side view of DSCCP fiber lasers. HR, high reflective grating; LR, low reflective grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

3D plot of the relative efficiency as a function of coupling coefficient k and absorbing coefficient γ(k1=k2=k).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Plot of the maximum temperature ratio as a function of absorbing coefficient γ. (b) Plot of the maximum temperature ratio as a function of coupling coefficient k(k1=k2=k).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Contour plot of the maximum temperature ratio as a function of coupling coefficient k and absorbing coefficient γ(k1=k2=k).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Distributions of pump light and signal light in the DCF and DSCCP lasers. (b) Distributions of temperature in the DCF and DSCCP lasers (k=16m1). The cross points show the maximum temperature predicted by Eqs. (14) and (15).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Distributions of pump light and signal light in the DCF and DSCCP lasers. (b) Distributions of temperature in the DCF and DSCCP lasers (k=1.6m1). The cross points show the maximum temperature predicted by Eqs. (14) and (15).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Distributions of pump light and signal light in the DCF and DSCCP lasers. (b) Distributions of temperature in the DCF and DSCCP lasers (k=0.16m1). The cross points show the maximum temperature predicted by Eqs. (14) and (15).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameter Value Used for the Examples

Tables Icon

Table 2. Three Regions of the Coupling Coefficient

Equations (28)

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N2(z)N=Γpσap[Pp+(z)+Pp(z)]hνpA+ΓshcAσas(λ)[Ps+(z,λ)+Ps(z,λ)]λdλΓp(σap+σep)[Pp+(z)+Pp(z)]hνpA+ΓshcA[σas(λ)+σes(λ)][Ps+(z,λ)+Ps(z,λ)]λdλ+1τ,
±dPp±(z)/dz=Γp{σap[NN2(z)]σepN2(z)}·Pp±(z)α(z,λp)Pp±(z),
±dPs±(z,λ)dz=Γs{[σas(λ)+σes(λ)]N2(z)Nσas(λ)}·Ps±(z,λ)α(z,λ)Ps±(z,λ)+Γsσes(λ)N2(z)P0(λ),
±dPpp±(z)/dz=α(z,λp)Ppp±(z)k1Ppp±(z)+k2Pp±(z),
±dPp±(z)/dz=Γp{σap[NN2(z)]σepN2(z)}·Pp±(z)α(z,λp)Pp±(z)+k1Ppp±(z)k2Pp±(z),
{Pp+(z)=k1Ppp+(0)ρ[e12(2αk1k2γ+ρ)ze12(2αk1k2γρ)z]Pp(z)=k1Ppp(L)ρ[e12(2αk1k2γ+ρ)(Lz)e12(2αk1k2γρ)(Lz)],
{Ppp+(z)=Ppp+(0)2ρe12(2α+k1+k2+γ)z[e12ρz(k2k1+γ+ρ)+e12ρz(k1k2γ+ρ)]Ppp(z)=Ppp(L)2ρe12(2α+k1+k2+γ)(Lz)[e12ρ(Lz)(k2k1+γ+ρ)+e12ρ(Lz)(k1k2γ+ρ)]
{Ps+(L)=PsatR1R1(1R2)+R2(1R1)·[ln(R1R2)+γvsvpPsat0LPp(z)dzNΓsσasL]Ps(0)=PsatR2R1(1R2)+R2(1R1)·[ln(R1R2)+γvsvpPsat0LPp(z)dzNΓsσasL],
PDCF(z)=PPP+(0)e(α+γ/2)z+PPP(L)e(α+γ/2)(Lz).
(k1+k2+γ)/(k1γ)L/2.3,
Q(z)={[α+γΓp(σep+σap)N2(z)]ηp·Pp(z)+α·Ps(z)}/πr12,
{rr[rT1(r,z)r]+2T1(r,z)z2=Q(z)κ,(0rr1)rr[rT2(r,z)r]+2T2(r,z)z2=0,(r1rd),
{T1(r,z)=Ts+Q(z)r122dg+Q(z)r122κlndr1+Q(z)r124κQ(z)r24κ,(0rr1)T2(r,z)=Ts+Q(z)r122dg+Q(z)r122κlndr,(r1rd),
zm={1/ρ·ln[(ρ+k1+k2+γ)/(k1+k2+γρ)]L1/ρ·ln[(ρ+k1+k2+γ)/(k1+k2+γρ)].
Tm(0,zm)=Ts+(r122dg+r122κlndr1+r124κ)Q(zm).
γ0.5k+0.8m1.
PoutDSCCP=PsatR1(1R2)R1(1R2)+R2(1R1)·[ln(R1R2)+γvsvpPsat0LPpDSCCP(z)dzNΓsσasL],
PoutDCF=PsatR1(1R2)R1(1R2)+R2(1R1)·[ln(R1R2)+vsγ/2vpPsat0LPpDCF(z)dzNΓsσasL].
η=PoutDSCCP/PoutDCF=[20LPpDSCCP(z)dz]/[0LPpDCF(z)dz].
η=2P0k1ρP00L[e(α+γ/2)z+e(α+γ/2)(Lz)]dz0L[e12(2αk1k2γ+ρ)ze12(2αk1k2γρ)z+e12(2αk1k2γ+ρ)(Lz)e12(2αk1k2γρ)(Lz)]dz.
η=4k1ρ1α+γ/2·(e(α+γ/2)L1)[1ρ2αk1k2γ(e12(ρ2αk1k2γ)L1)+12α+k1+k2+γ+ρ(e12(2α+k1+k2+γ+ρ)L1)],
η=1+2k1γρ[1ρk1k2γe12(ρk1k2γ)L+1k1+k2+γ+ρe12(k1+k2+γ+ρ)L]1eγ·L/2.
η=1ρ+k1+k2+γ2ρe12(ρk1k2γ)L1ek1γL/(k1+k2+γ).
k1γL/(k1+k2+γ)2.3,
Q(z)=[γηp·Pp(z)+α·Ps(z)]/πr12.
Pp(z)=P0k1/ρ[(k1k2γ+ρ)2e12(k1k2γ+ρ)z(k1k2γρ)2e12(k1k2γρ)z(k1k2γ+ρ)2e12(k1k2γ+ρ)(Lz)+(k1k2γρ)2e12(k1k2γρ)(Lz)].
zm=ln[(ρ+k1+k2+γ)/(k1+k2+γρ)]/ρ.
zm=Lln[(ρ+k1+k2+γ)/(k1+k2+γρ)]/ρ.

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