Abstract

We developed a head-mounted display (HMD) that achieved high levels of color uniformity and optical efficiency. The full-color holographic volume grating (HVG) attached on the specially designed wedge-shaped waveguide HMD system provided a 17° horizontal field of view (FOV). Theoretical analyses showed that the proposed waveguide resolved the problems of thickness and limited FOV. In this system, the HVG was recorded using a special sequential recording process on single photopolymer unit with 633, 532, and 473 nm wavelengths. The results confirm that the designed and fabricated waveguide can be employed in future commercial HMS.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Rolland and O. Cakmakci, “Head-worn displays: the future through new eyes,” Opt. Photon. News 20(4), 20–27 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Levola, “Invited paper: novel diffractive optical components for near to eye displays,” SID Symp. Dig. 37, 64–67 (2006).
  3. “Head mounted display,” http://www.digilens.com/Head_Mounted_Display.html .
  4. H. S. Raffle and C. J. Wang, “Head-up display including eye tracking,” U.S. patent application207,887 (15Aug.2013).
  5. “OE-32,” http://www.lumus-optical.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9&Itemid=15 .
  6. A. Cameron, “The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to QSight family of helmet mounted displays,” Proc. SPIE 7326, 73260H (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Amitai, S. Reinhorn, and A. A. Friesem, “Visor-display design based on planar holographic optics,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1352–1356 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 185–193 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. A. Piao, G. Li, M. L. Piao, and N. Kim, “Full color holographic optical element fabrication for waveguide-type head mounted display using photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17, 242–248 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. L. Piao, N. Kim, and J. H. Park, “Phase contrast projection display using photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 319–325 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. H. Phan, N. Kim, and J. H. Park, “Input-output coupler system with 45-degree slant angle based on Bragg hologram,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 123–130 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. “CIE-1931,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIE_1931_color_space .

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

A. H. Phan, N. Kim, and J. H. Park, “Input-output coupler system with 45-degree slant angle based on Bragg hologram,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 123–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Rolland and O. Cakmakci, “Head-worn displays: the future through new eyes,” Opt. Photon. News 20(4), 20–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cameron, “The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to QSight family of helmet mounted displays,” Proc. SPIE 7326, 73260H (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

T. Levola, “Invited paper: novel diffractive optical components for near to eye displays,” SID Symp. Dig. 37, 64–67 (2006).

1995 (1)

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aiki, K.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akutsu, K.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Amitai, Y.

Berneth, H.

H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bruder, F.-K.

H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cakmakci, O.

J. Rolland and O. Cakmakci, “Head-worn displays: the future through new eyes,” Opt. Photon. News 20(4), 20–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, A.

A. Cameron, “The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to QSight family of helmet mounted displays,” Proc. SPIE 7326, 73260H (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fäcke, T.

H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

Hagen, R.

H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hönel, D.

H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jurbergs, D.

H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kuwahara, M.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Levola, T.

T. Levola, “Invited paper: novel diffractive optical components for near to eye displays,” SID Symp. Dig. 37, 64–67 (2006).

Li, G.

Matsumura, I.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mukawa, H.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, S.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

Phan, A. H.

Piao, J. A.

Piao, M. L.

Raffle, H. S.

H. S. Raffle and C. J. Wang, “Head-up display including eye tracking,” U.S. patent application207,887 (15Aug.2013).

Reinhorn, S.

Rolland, J.

J. Rolland and O. Cakmakci, “Head-worn displays: the future through new eyes,” Opt. Photon. News 20(4), 20–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rölle, T.

H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. J.

H. S. Raffle and C. J. Wang, “Head-up display including eye tracking,” U.S. patent application207,887 (15Aug.2013).

Weiser, M.-S.

H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, T.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (3)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, and K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Rolland and O. Cakmakci, “Head-worn displays: the future through new eyes,” Opt. Photon. News 20(4), 20–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Cameron, “The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to QSight family of helmet mounted displays,” Proc. SPIE 7326, 73260H (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Berneth, F.-K. Bruder, T. Fäcke, R. Hagen, D. Hönel, D. Jurbergs, T. Rölle, and M.-S. Weiser, “Holographic recording aspects of high resolution Bayfol HX photopolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7957, 79570H (2011).
[CrossRef]

SID Symp. Dig. (1)

T. Levola, “Invited paper: novel diffractive optical components for near to eye displays,” SID Symp. Dig. 37, 64–67 (2006).

Other (4)

“Head mounted display,” http://www.digilens.com/Head_Mounted_Display.html .

H. S. Raffle and C. J. Wang, “Head-up display including eye tracking,” U.S. patent application207,887 (15Aug.2013).

“OE-32,” http://www.lumus-optical.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9&Itemid=15 .

“CIE-1931,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIE_1931_color_space .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of the wedge-shaped waveguide HMD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Designed angle of the light path in the waveguide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numerical simulation results of (a) angular selectivity and (b) spectral selectivity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

FOV as a function of wavelength for different spectra.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic of a reflection HVG with asymmetric geometry: (a) recording and (b) readout.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Diffraction efficiency of reflection HVGs as a function of exposure time of exposure at RGB wavelengths.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic of a full-color reflection HVG: (a) recording and (b) readout.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Output resolution target patterns of seven different recording processes: (a) RGB combined beam exposure, (b) RGB sequential beam exposure, (c) RBG sequential beam exposure, (d) GRB sequential beam exposure, (e) GBR sequential beam exposure, (f) BRG sequential beam exposure, and (g) BGR sequential beam exposure.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Schematic of the full-color reflection HVG recording setup for the HMD system: M, mirror; DM, dichroic mirrors; SF, spatial filter; L, collimating lens; PBS, polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Experimental setup for testing the fabricated holographic waveguide: M, mirror; DM, dichroic mirrors; SF, spatial filter; L, collimating lens; PBS, polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Experimental results captured from the wedge-shaped waveguide HMD: (a) original test image, (b) output image fabricated by 633 nm wavelength in SLM system, (c) output image fabricated by 532 nm wavelength in SLM system, (d) output image fabricated by 473 nm wavelength in SLM system, (e) output image fabricated by the GBR sequential exposure in SLM system, and (f) output image fabricated by the GBR sequential exposure in the micro-display system.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical Efficiency of Full-color HVG Through Different Sequence Recording Processes

Tables Icon

Table 2. Measured Loss Efficiencies of a Holographic Waveguide System Using Photopolymer

Equations (6)

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f=1Λ=2ncos(φθrec)λ,
η={1+1ξ2/ν2[sinh2(v2ξ2)1/2]}1.
ν=iπdΔnλ[cos(φθrec)cos(φ+θrec)]1/2,ξ=πfdcos(φθrec)fλcosφ/n(fΔλ2n+Δθsinθrec),
cos(φθrec)λrecn=cos(φθread)λreadn,
θread=arcsin(nsin{φarccos[λreadcos(φθrec)λrec]}).
X=kλP(λ)x¯(λ)Δλ,Y=kλP(λ)y¯(λ)Δλ,Z=kλP(λ)z¯(λ)Δλ,

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