Abstract

We show that the interface between gold and thermally formed cuprous oxide, which emits terahertz radiation when illuminated with ultrafast femtosecond lasers, is in fact an AuCu/Cu2O interface due to the formation of the thermal diffusion alloy AuCu. The alloy enables the formation of a Schottky-barrier-like electric field near the interface which is essential to explain the THz emission from these samples. We confirm the formation of this AuCu layer by x-ray diffraction measurements, ellipsometry, and visual inspection. We determined the frequency-dependent complex refractive indices of the Cu2O and AuCu layer and verified them using reflection spectroscopy measurements. These refractive indices can be used for optimizing the thickness of Cu2O for maximum THz emission from these interfaces.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Zhang, J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, D. H. Auston, M. T. Schmidt, P. Tham, and E. S. Yang, “Optically induced electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2228–2230 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X. C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682–684 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Ramakrishnan, G. K. P. Ramanandan, A. J. L. Adam, M. Xu, N. Kumar, R. W. A. Hendrikx, and P. C. M. Planken, “Enhanced terahertz emission by coherent optical absorption in ultrathin semiconductor films on metals,” Opt. Express 21, 16784–16798 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. C. Olsen, R. C. Bohara, and M. W. Urie, “Explanation for low-efficiency Cu2O Schottky-barrier solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 47–49 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Papadimitropoulos, N. Vourdas, V. E. Vamvakas, and D. Davazoglou, “Deposition and characterization of copper oxide thin films,” J. Phys. 10, 182–185 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. K. P. Ramanandan, G. Ramakrishnan, and P. C. M. Planken, “Oxidation kinetics of nanoscale copper films studied by terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 123517 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. C. J. van der Valk, T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Full mathematical description of electro-optic detection in optically isotropic crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 622–631 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. P. Yang, W. C. Wang, Z. W. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, and C. L. Zhang, “Dielectric and lattice vibrational spectra of Cu2O hollow spheres in the range of 1–10  THz,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 10333–10337 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Morrish, K. Dorame, and A. Muscat, “Formation of nanoporous Au by dealloying AuCu thin films in HNO3,” Scr. Mater. 64, 856–859 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Cretu and E. van der Lingen, “Coloured gold alloys,” Gold Bull. 32, 115–126 (1999).
  12. J. Faber and T. Fawcett, “The powder diffraction file: present and future,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 58, 325–332 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Woollam, B. D. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): I. Basic theory and typical applications,” Proc. SPIE CR75, 3–28 (1999).
  14. H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).
  15. J. W. Weber, T. A. R. Hansen, M. C. M. Van de Sanden, and R. Engeln, “B-spline parametrization of the dielectric function applied to spectroscopic ellipsometry on amorphous carbon,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 123503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. O. El Gawhary, M. C. Dheur, S. F. Pereira, and J. J. M. Braat, “Extension of the classical Fabry–Perot formula to 1D multilayered structures,” Appl. Phys. B 111, 637–645 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

O. El Gawhary, M. C. Dheur, S. F. Pereira, and J. J. M. Braat, “Extension of the classical Fabry–Perot formula to 1D multilayered structures,” Appl. Phys. B 111, 637–645 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Ramakrishnan, G. K. P. Ramanandan, A. J. L. Adam, M. Xu, N. Kumar, R. W. A. Hendrikx, and P. C. M. Planken, “Enhanced terahertz emission by coherent optical absorption in ultrathin semiconductor films on metals,” Opt. Express 21, 16784–16798 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

G. K. P. Ramanandan, G. Ramakrishnan, and P. C. M. Planken, “Oxidation kinetics of nanoscale copper films studied by terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 123517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

Y. P. Yang, W. C. Wang, Z. W. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, and C. L. Zhang, “Dielectric and lattice vibrational spectra of Cu2O hollow spheres in the range of 1–10  THz,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 10333–10337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Morrish, K. Dorame, and A. Muscat, “Formation of nanoporous Au by dealloying AuCu thin films in HNO3,” Scr. Mater. 64, 856–859 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. W. Weber, T. A. R. Hansen, M. C. M. Van de Sanden, and R. Engeln, “B-spline parametrization of the dielectric function applied to spectroscopic ellipsometry on amorphous carbon,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 123503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Papadimitropoulos, N. Vourdas, V. E. Vamvakas, and D. Davazoglou, “Deposition and characterization of copper oxide thin films,” J. Phys. 10, 182–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Faber and T. Fawcett, “The powder diffraction file: present and future,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 58, 325–332 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. A. Woollam, B. D. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): I. Basic theory and typical applications,” Proc. SPIE CR75, 3–28 (1999).

C. Cretu and E. van der Lingen, “Coloured gold alloys,” Gold Bull. 32, 115–126 (1999).

1994 (1)

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X. C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682–684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

X. Zhang, J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, D. H. Auston, M. T. Schmidt, P. Tham, and E. S. Yang, “Optically induced electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2228–2230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

L. C. Olsen, R. C. Bohara, and M. W. Urie, “Explanation for low-efficiency Cu2O Schottky-barrier solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 47–49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

Alexander, M.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X. C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682–684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

X. Zhang, J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, D. H. Auston, M. T. Schmidt, P. Tham, and E. S. Yang, “Optically induced electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2228–2230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bohara, R. C.

L. C. Olsen, R. C. Bohara, and M. W. Urie, “Explanation for low-efficiency Cu2O Schottky-barrier solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 47–49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

O. El Gawhary, M. C. Dheur, S. F. Pereira, and J. J. M. Braat, “Extension of the classical Fabry–Perot formula to 1D multilayered structures,” Appl. Phys. B 111, 637–645 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bungay, C. L.

J. A. Woollam, B. D. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): I. Basic theory and typical applications,” Proc. SPIE CR75, 3–28 (1999).

Cao, H.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chong, Y.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cretu, C.

C. Cretu and E. van der Lingen, “Coloured gold alloys,” Gold Bull. 32, 115–126 (1999).

Darrow, J. T.

X. Zhang, J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, D. H. Auston, M. T. Schmidt, P. Tham, and E. S. Yang, “Optically induced electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2228–2230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davazoglou, D.

G. Papadimitropoulos, N. Vourdas, V. E. Vamvakas, and D. Davazoglou, “Deposition and characterization of copper oxide thin films,” J. Phys. 10, 182–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dheur, M. C.

O. El Gawhary, M. C. Dheur, S. F. Pereira, and J. J. M. Braat, “Extension of the classical Fabry–Perot formula to 1D multilayered structures,” Appl. Phys. B 111, 637–645 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dorame, K.

R. Morrish, K. Dorame, and A. Muscat, “Formation of nanoporous Au by dealloying AuCu thin films in HNO3,” Scr. Mater. 64, 856–859 (2011).
[CrossRef]

El Gawhary, O.

O. El Gawhary, M. C. Dheur, S. F. Pereira, and J. J. M. Braat, “Extension of the classical Fabry–Perot formula to 1D multilayered structures,” Appl. Phys. B 111, 637–645 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Engeln, R.

J. W. Weber, T. A. R. Hansen, M. C. M. Van de Sanden, and R. Engeln, “B-spline parametrization of the dielectric function applied to spectroscopic ellipsometry on amorphous carbon,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 123503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Faber, J.

J. Faber and T. Fawcett, “The powder diffraction file: present and future,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 58, 325–332 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fawcett, T.

J. Faber and T. Fawcett, “The powder diffraction file: present and future,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 58, 325–332 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

Ge, L.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. A. R.

J. W. Weber, T. A. R. Hansen, M. C. M. Van de Sanden, and R. Engeln, “B-spline parametrization of the dielectric function applied to spectroscopic ellipsometry on amorphous carbon,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 123503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hendrikx, R. W. A.

Herzinger, C. M.

J. A. Woollam, B. D. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): I. Basic theory and typical applications,” Proc. SPIE CR75, 3–28 (1999).

Hilfiker, J. N.

J. A. Woollam, B. D. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): I. Basic theory and typical applications,” Proc. SPIE CR75, 3–28 (1999).

Hu, B. B.

X. Zhang, J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, D. H. Auston, M. T. Schmidt, P. Tham, and E. S. Yang, “Optically induced electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2228–2230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X. C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682–684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johs, B. D.

J. A. Woollam, B. D. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): I. Basic theory and typical applications,” Proc. SPIE CR75, 3–28 (1999).

Kumar, N.

Ma, X. F.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X. C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682–684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morrish, R.

R. Morrish, K. Dorame, and A. Muscat, “Formation of nanoporous Au by dealloying AuCu thin films in HNO3,” Scr. Mater. 64, 856–859 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muscat, A.

R. Morrish, K. Dorame, and A. Muscat, “Formation of nanoporous Au by dealloying AuCu thin films in HNO3,” Scr. Mater. 64, 856–859 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noh, H.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, L. C.

L. C. Olsen, R. C. Bohara, and M. W. Urie, “Explanation for low-efficiency Cu2O Schottky-barrier solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 47–49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Papadimitropoulos, G.

G. Papadimitropoulos, N. Vourdas, V. E. Vamvakas, and D. Davazoglou, “Deposition and characterization of copper oxide thin films,” J. Phys. 10, 182–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S. F.

O. El Gawhary, M. C. Dheur, S. F. Pereira, and J. J. M. Braat, “Extension of the classical Fabry–Perot formula to 1D multilayered structures,” Appl. Phys. B 111, 637–645 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Ramakrishnan, G.

G. Ramakrishnan, G. K. P. Ramanandan, A. J. L. Adam, M. Xu, N. Kumar, R. W. A. Hendrikx, and P. C. M. Planken, “Enhanced terahertz emission by coherent optical absorption in ultrathin semiconductor films on metals,” Opt. Express 21, 16784–16798 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. K. P. Ramanandan, G. Ramakrishnan, and P. C. M. Planken, “Oxidation kinetics of nanoscale copper films studied by terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 123517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ramanandan, G. K. P.

G. Ramakrishnan, G. K. P. Ramanandan, A. J. L. Adam, M. Xu, N. Kumar, R. W. A. Hendrikx, and P. C. M. Planken, “Enhanced terahertz emission by coherent optical absorption in ultrathin semiconductor films on metals,” Opt. Express 21, 16784–16798 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. K. P. Ramanandan, G. Ramakrishnan, and P. C. M. Planken, “Oxidation kinetics of nanoscale copper films studied by terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 123517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. T.

X. Zhang, J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, D. H. Auston, M. T. Schmidt, P. Tham, and E. S. Yang, “Optically induced electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2228–2230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Synowicki, R. A.

J. A. Woollam, B. D. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): I. Basic theory and typical applications,” Proc. SPIE CR75, 3–28 (1999).

Tham, P.

X. Zhang, J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, D. H. Auston, M. T. Schmidt, P. Tham, and E. S. Yang, “Optically induced electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2228–2230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Urie, M. W.

L. C. Olsen, R. C. Bohara, and M. W. Urie, “Explanation for low-efficiency Cu2O Schottky-barrier solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 47–49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vamvakas, V. E.

G. Papadimitropoulos, N. Vourdas, V. E. Vamvakas, and D. Davazoglou, “Deposition and characterization of copper oxide thin films,” J. Phys. 10, 182–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van de Sanden, M. C. M.

J. W. Weber, T. A. R. Hansen, M. C. M. Van de Sanden, and R. Engeln, “B-spline parametrization of the dielectric function applied to spectroscopic ellipsometry on amorphous carbon,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 123503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van der Lingen, E.

C. Cretu and E. van der Lingen, “Coloured gold alloys,” Gold Bull. 32, 115–126 (1999).

van der Valk, N. C. J.

Vourdas, N.

G. Papadimitropoulos, N. Vourdas, V. E. Vamvakas, and D. Davazoglou, “Deposition and characterization of copper oxide thin films,” J. Phys. 10, 182–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagoner, G. A.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X. C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682–684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wan, W.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. C.

Y. P. Yang, W. C. Wang, Z. W. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, and C. L. Zhang, “Dielectric and lattice vibrational spectra of Cu2O hollow spheres in the range of 1–10  THz,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 10333–10337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weber, J. W.

J. W. Weber, T. A. R. Hansen, M. C. M. Van de Sanden, and R. Engeln, “B-spline parametrization of the dielectric function applied to spectroscopic ellipsometry on amorphous carbon,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 123503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wenckebach, T.

Woollam, J. A.

J. A. Woollam, B. D. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): I. Basic theory and typical applications,” Proc. SPIE CR75, 3–28 (1999).

Xu, M.

Yang, E. S.

X. Zhang, J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, D. H. Auston, M. T. Schmidt, P. Tham, and E. S. Yang, “Optically induced electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2228–2230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. P.

Y. P. Yang, W. C. Wang, Z. W. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, and C. L. Zhang, “Dielectric and lattice vibrational spectra of Cu2O hollow spheres in the range of 1–10  THz,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 10333–10337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. L.

Y. P. Yang, W. C. Wang, Z. W. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, and C. L. Zhang, “Dielectric and lattice vibrational spectra of Cu2O hollow spheres in the range of 1–10  THz,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 10333–10337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. L.

Y. P. Yang, W. C. Wang, Z. W. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, and C. L. Zhang, “Dielectric and lattice vibrational spectra of Cu2O hollow spheres in the range of 1–10  THz,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 10333–10337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, D. H. Auston, M. T. Schmidt, P. Tham, and E. S. Yang, “Optically induced electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2228–2230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X. C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682–684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. W.

Y. P. Yang, W. C. Wang, Z. W. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, and C. L. Zhang, “Dielectric and lattice vibrational spectra of Cu2O hollow spheres in the range of 1–10  THz,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 10333–10337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B (1)

J. Faber and T. Fawcett, “The powder diffraction file: present and future,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 58, 325–332 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. El Gawhary, M. C. Dheur, S. F. Pereira, and J. J. M. Braat, “Extension of the classical Fabry–Perot formula to 1D multilayered structures,” Appl. Phys. B 111, 637–645 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Zhang, J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, D. H. Auston, M. T. Schmidt, P. Tham, and E. S. Yang, “Optically induced electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2228–2230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, and X. C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682–684 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Olsen, R. C. Bohara, and M. W. Urie, “Explanation for low-efficiency Cu2O Schottky-barrier solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 47–49 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gold Bull. (1)

C. Cretu and E. van der Lingen, “Coloured gold alloys,” Gold Bull. 32, 115–126 (1999).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. W. Weber, T. A. R. Hansen, M. C. M. Van de Sanden, and R. Engeln, “B-spline parametrization of the dielectric function applied to spectroscopic ellipsometry on amorphous carbon,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 123503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. K. P. Ramanandan, G. Ramakrishnan, and P. C. M. Planken, “Oxidation kinetics of nanoscale copper films studied by terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 123517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (1)

G. Papadimitropoulos, N. Vourdas, V. E. Vamvakas, and D. Davazoglou, “Deposition and characterization of copper oxide thin films,” J. Phys. 10, 182–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Y. P. Yang, W. C. Wang, Z. W. Zhang, L. L. Zhang, and C. L. Zhang, “Dielectric and lattice vibrational spectra of Cu2O hollow spheres in the range of 1–10  THz,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 10333–10337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. A. Woollam, B. D. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): I. Basic theory and typical applications,” Proc. SPIE CR75, 3–28 (1999).

Science (1)

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scr. Mater. (1)

R. Morrish, K. Dorame, and A. Muscat, “Formation of nanoporous Au by dealloying AuCu thin films in HNO3,” Scr. Mater. 64, 856–859 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

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