Abstract

The geometrical and physical parameters of phase-shifted sidewall Bragg gratings in a silicon slot waveguide are optimized to possess performance characteristics desirable for integrated optical sensors. By tailoring the spectral response of such phase-shifted sidewall gratings, highly sensitive compact refractive index sensors detecting the resonance wavelength shift or the variation of light intensity are designed with the transfer matrix method. Both refractive index sensors have a minimum detection limit on the order of 106, and a linear response and a compact structure dimension as small as 11.7 μm, offering the capabilities for sensor array and lab-on-a-chip integration. The resonance-shift sensor has a much wider detection range of 1.32 refractive index units than the intensity-measurement sensor. The performance parameters are compared with other refractive index sensors, including Mach–Zehnder interferometers, ring resonators, surface gratings, and phase-shifted gratings in silicon nanowire.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

X. Wang, A. Jiang, and C. K. Madsen, “Chalcogenide As2S3 sidewall Bragg gratings integrated on LiNbO3 substrate,” Opt. Photon. J. 3, 78–87 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide Bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029–19039 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

A. Ikhlef, R. Hedara, and M. Chikh-Bled, “Uniform fiber Bragg grating modeling and simulation used matrix transfer method,” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Issues 9, 368–374 (2012).

Y. Huang, G. Pandraud, and P. M. Sarro, “Reflectance-based two-dimensional TiO2 photonic crystal liquid sensors,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3162–3164 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, Y. Ding, M. Shokooh-Saremi, K. J. Lee, D. Ussery, S. Kim, and S. H. Song, “Leaky mode resonance photonics: technology for biosensors, optical components, MEMS, and plasmonics,” Proc. SPIE 7604, 76040M (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Cylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, P. M. J. Bañuls, C. A. Maquieira, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, X. Xiong, R. Bojko, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 18, 25061–25067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Claes, J. C. Molera, K. D. Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Prahbathan, V. M. Murukeshan, Z. Jing, and P. V. Ramana, “Compact SOI nanowire refractive index sensor using phase shifted Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 17, 15330–15341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

V. M. N. Passaro, R. Loiacono, G. D’Amico, and F. De Leonardis, “Design of Bragg grating sensors based on submicrometer optical rib waveguides in SOI,” IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1603–1611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, M. Iqbal, and J. Liu, “Dispersion characteristics of SOI-based slot optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5151–5155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Zinoviev, L. G. Garrascosa, J. S. Rio, B. Sepulveda, C. Dominguez, and M. Lechuga, “Silicon photonic biosensors for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 383927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Robinson, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 16, 4296–4301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (6)

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “Polarization-independent optical directional coupler based on slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 31, 56–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. A. Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Hradetzky, C. Mueller, and H. Reinecke, “Interferometric label-free biomolecular detection system,” J. Opt. A 8, S360–S364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. P. P. Debackere, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Surface plasmon interferometer in silicon-on-insulator: novel concept for an integrated biosensor,” Opt. Express 14, 7063–7072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “Guided modes of nonlinear slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1530–1532 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Kikuta, N. Maegawa, A. Mizutani, K. Iwata, and H. Toyota, “Refractive index sensor with a guided-mode resonant grating filter,” Proc. SPIE 4416, 219–222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. D. Wawro, S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, and H. Liu, “Optical fiber endface biosensor based on resonances in dielectric waveguide gratings,” Proc. SPIE 3911, 86–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Abad, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. A. Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Bañuls, P. M. J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Cylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, P. M. J. Bañuls, C. A. Maquieira, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, A.

Barrios, C. A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Cylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, P. M. J. Bañuls, C. A. Maquieira, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlstrom, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3080–3082 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Barrios and M. Lipson, “Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide,” Opt. Express 13, 10092–10101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Barrios, “High-performance all-optical silicon micro switch,” Electron. Lett. 40, 862–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartolozzi, I.

Bienstman, P.

Bojko, R.

Calle, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carlborg, C. F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Cylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, P. M. J. Bañuls, C. A. Maquieira, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Chao, C. Y.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. A. Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

H. Sun, A. Chen, and L. R. Dalton, “Multiple slot waveguides for enhanced biochemical sensing,” in IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 21–22.

Chen, L.

Chikh-Bled, M.

A. Ikhlef, R. Hedara, and M. Chikh-Bled, “Uniform fiber Bragg grating modeling and simulation used matrix transfer method,” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Issues 9, 368–374 (2012).

Chrostowski, L.

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. A. Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

T. Claes, J. C. Molera, K. D. Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cylfason, K. B.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Cylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, P. M. J. Bañuls, C. A. Maquieira, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, G.

V. M. N. Passaro, R. Loiacono, G. D’Amico, and F. De Leonardis, “Design of Bragg grating sensors based on submicrometer optical rib waveguides in SOI,” IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1603–1611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

H. Sun, A. Chen, and L. R. Dalton, “Multiple slot waveguides for enhanced biochemical sensing,” in IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 21–22.

De Leonardis, F.

V. M. N. Passaro, R. Loiacono, G. D’Amico, and F. De Leonardis, “Design of Bragg grating sensors based on submicrometer optical rib waveguides in SOI,” IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1603–1611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

Debackere, P. P. P.

Desai, T. A. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. A. Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

Ding, Y.

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, Y. Ding, M. Shokooh-Saremi, K. J. Lee, D. Ussery, S. Kim, and S. H. Song, “Leaky mode resonance photonics: technology for biosensors, optical components, MEMS, and plasmonics,” Proc. SPIE 7604, 76040M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dominguez, C.

K. Zinoviev, L. G. Garrascosa, J. S. Rio, B. Sepulveda, C. Dominguez, and M. Lechuga, “Silicon photonic biosensors for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 383927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dortu, F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Cylfason, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, P. M. J. Bañuls, C. A. Maquieira, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10, 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Flueckiger, J.

Fournier, M.

Fujisawa, T.

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “Polarization-independent optical directional coupler based on slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 31, 56–68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, “Guided modes of nonlinear slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1530–1532 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fung, W.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garrascosa, L. G.

K. Zinoviev, L. G. Garrascosa, J. S. Rio, B. Sepulveda, C. Dominguez, and M. Lechuga, “Silicon photonic biosensors for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 383927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. A. Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. A. Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Griol, A.

Grist, S.

Guo, H.

A. Kargar and H. Guo, “Optical surface sensing by bent slot waveguide,” in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (IEEE, 2010), pp. 306–308.

Guo, L. J.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

Hedara, R.

A. Ikhlef, R. Hedara, and M. Chikh-Bled, “Uniform fiber Bragg grating modeling and simulation used matrix transfer method,” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Issues 9, 368–374 (2012).

Hochberg, M.

Holgado, M.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hradetzky, D.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of (a) a silicon slot waveguide on silicon dioxide and (b) a phase-shifted sidewall Bragg grating in a slot waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mode effective index of a slot waveguide filled with different materials at 1.55 μm. The black line is a linear fit for S=100nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectrum of a phase-shifted sidewall Bragg grating with N=8, Λ=360nm, DC=0.5, d=30nm, and α=0.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mode confinement factor, Γ, at 1.55 μm as a function of slot width, S, for slot waveguides filled with different materials. The silicon strip dimensions are W=300nm and H=320nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Amplitude profiles of transverse electric field Ey at 1.55 μm for a 100 nm slot waveguide filled with different materials. The silicon strips have the same dimensions as in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Effects of (a) grating depth and (b) refractive index of the slot medium on the coupling coefficient at 1.55 μm. The black line is the linear fit at d=30nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Transmission spectrum in dB of phase-shifted sidewall Bragg gratings in a slot waveguide with different grating lengths. Other grating parameters are: d=30nm, DC=0.5, Λ=360nm. The refractive index of the slot material is nslot=1.45. The waveguide loss coefficient is α=10dB/cm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Transmission spectrum of the resonance-shift sensor based on a single phase-shifted sidewall Bragg grating in a slot waveguide with N=16 and d=30nm; (b) zoom in of the resonance transmission peaks in dB for the wavelength range from 1530 to 1615 nm; (c) resonance peak wavelength, λB, as a function of the refractive index of slot material nslot.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Schematics of the coupled phase-shifted sidewall Bragg gratings in a slot waveguide, and the transmission spectrum of coupled sidewall Bragg gratings in a slot waveguide for (b) different values of Lgg with N=12 and for (c) different values of N with Lgg=2Lg. All the rest of the parameters are the same as those in Fig. 7.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Transmission spectrum of the intensity-measurement sensor based on coupled phase-shifted sidewall Bragg gratings in a slot waveguide with Lgg=2Lg and N=12; (b) transmission at the reference wavelength λR as a function of the refractive index of the slot medium, nslot.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Performance Parameters of Some Integrated Refractive Index Sensors

Equations (4)

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Ti=[T11iT12iT21iT22i]=[cosh(δLi)jΔβ2δsinh(δLi)jκδsinh(δLi)jκδsinh(δLi)cosh(δLi)+jΔβ2δsinh(δLi)],whereΔβ=2β2πΛ,δ=κ2(Δβ2)2,β=2πλneff+jα.
Γ=ϵ0c4slotn(x,y)E2(x,y)dxdyPx(x,y)dxdy.
κ=4ω(ϵhϵ0)πsin(πtΛ)cos(2πΛ)grating|E(x,y)|2dxdy,
Δnmin=12Λ(ΔnslotΔneff)Δλmin,

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