Abstract

A novel scheme for liquid level detection using an all-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer, based on two up-tapers, is proposed and experimentally investigated. The effective refractive indices of the axisymmetric modes LP0n are analyzed while it is partly immersed in liquid. The sensitivity of the sensor is greatly dependent on the fiber length between the two up-tapers, as well as the order of the cladding modes through the calculation. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer reaches a 22.5 nm wavelength shift per meter of level change with the middle fiber length of 14.3 cm. The proposal might be attractive since the up-tapered liquid level sensor could easily be fabricated and used for a large measuring range.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Srimannarayana, D. Sengupta, and M. Sai Shankar, “Single fiber Bragg grating for the measurement of liquid level and temperature,” Proc. SPIE 8722, 87220O (2013).
  4. Y. Dai, Q. Sun, J. Wo, X. Li, M. Zhang, and D. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Xiaowei and Z. Ruifeng, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a side-polished fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 214–218 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

K. Srimannarayana, D. Sengupta, and M. Sai Shankar, “Single fiber Bragg grating for the measurement of liquid level and temperature,” Proc. SPIE 8722, 87220O (2013).

A. L. Ricchiuti, D. Barrera, K. Nonaka, and S. Sales, “Fiber optic liquid-level sensor using a long fiber Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 87941J (2013).

Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a SMS fiber structure,” Optik 124, 3771–3773 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wen, T. Ning, H. You, J. Li, T. Feng, L. Pei, and W. Jian, “Dumbbell-shaped Mach–Zehnder interferometer with high sensitivity of refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1839–1842 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

J.-N. Wang and C.-Y. Luo, “Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity,” Sensors 12, 4578–4593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, Q. Sun, J. Wo, X. Li, M. Zhang, and D. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-M. Mao, Y. Wei, and B. Zhou, “Comparative study of fiber optic liquid level sensors based on long-period fiber gratings with different doping concentrations,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 050501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, L. Xia, Z. Xie, and D. Liu, “All-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometers for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 20, 11109–11120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

D. Xiaowei and Z. Ruifeng, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a side-polished fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 214–218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices part I: adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

J. E. Antonio-Lopez, D. A. May-Arrioja, and P. LiKamWa, “Fiber-optic liquid level sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1826–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. LiKamWa, and D. A. May-Arrioja, “Fiber-optic sensor for liquid level measurement,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3425–3427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barrera, D.

A. L. Ricchiuti, D. Barrera, K. Nonaka, and S. Sales, “Fiber optic liquid-level sensor using a long fiber Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 87941J (2013).

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices part I: adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Dai, Y.

Y. Dai, Q. Sun, J. Wo, X. Li, M. Zhang, and D. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deng, M.

Dong, X.

Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a SMS fiber structure,” Optik 124, 3771–3773 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Duan, D.-W.

Feng, T.

X. Wen, T. Ning, H. You, J. Li, T. Feng, L. Pei, and W. Jian, “Dumbbell-shaped Mach–Zehnder interferometer with high sensitivity of refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1839–1842 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gonthier, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices part I: adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices part I: adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Jian, W.

X. Wen, T. Ning, H. You, J. Li, T. Feng, L. Pei, and W. Jian, “Dumbbell-shaped Mach–Zehnder interferometer with high sensitivity of refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1839–1842 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a SMS fiber structure,” Optik 124, 3771–3773 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices part I: adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Li, J.

X. Wen, T. Ning, H. You, J. Li, T. Feng, L. Pei, and W. Jian, “Dumbbell-shaped Mach–Zehnder interferometer with high sensitivity of refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1839–1842 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Li, X.

Y. Dai, Q. Sun, J. Wo, X. Li, M. Zhang, and D. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

LiKamWa, P.

J. E. Antonio-Lopez, D. A. May-Arrioja, and P. LiKamWa, “Fiber-optic liquid level sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1826–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. LiKamWa, and D. A. May-Arrioja, “Fiber-optic sensor for liquid level measurement,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3425–3427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

L. Li, L. Xia, Z. Xie, and D. Liu, “All-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometers for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 20, 11109–11120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, Q. Sun, J. Wo, X. Li, M. Zhang, and D. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices part I: adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Luo, C.-Y.

J.-N. Wang and C.-Y. Luo, “Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity,” Sensors 12, 4578–4593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mao, B.-M.

May-Arrioja, D. A.

J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. LiKamWa, and D. A. May-Arrioja, “Fiber-optic sensor for liquid level measurement,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3425–3427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Antonio-Lopez, D. A. May-Arrioja, and P. LiKamWa, “Fiber-optic liquid level sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1826–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ning, T.

X. Wen, T. Ning, H. You, J. Li, T. Feng, L. Pei, and W. Jian, “Dumbbell-shaped Mach–Zehnder interferometer with high sensitivity of refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1839–1842 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, K.

A. L. Ricchiuti, D. Barrera, K. Nonaka, and S. Sales, “Fiber optic liquid-level sensor using a long fiber Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 87941J (2013).

Pei, L.

X. Wen, T. Ning, H. You, J. Li, T. Feng, L. Pei, and W. Jian, “Dumbbell-shaped Mach–Zehnder interferometer with high sensitivity of refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1839–1842 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.-J.

Ricchiuti, A. L.

A. L. Ricchiuti, D. Barrera, K. Nonaka, and S. Sales, “Fiber optic liquid-level sensor using a long fiber Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 87941J (2013).

Ruifeng, Z.

D. Xiaowei and Z. Ruifeng, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a side-polished fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 214–218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sai Shankar, M.

K. Srimannarayana, D. Sengupta, and M. Sai Shankar, “Single fiber Bragg grating for the measurement of liquid level and temperature,” Proc. SPIE 8722, 87220O (2013).

Sales, S.

A. L. Ricchiuti, D. Barrera, K. Nonaka, and S. Sales, “Fiber optic liquid-level sensor using a long fiber Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 87941J (2013).

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

Sengupta, D.

K. Srimannarayana, D. Sengupta, and M. Sai Shankar, “Single fiber Bragg grating for the measurement of liquid level and temperature,” Proc. SPIE 8722, 87220O (2013).

Shi, L.-L.

Srimannarayana, K.

K. Srimannarayana, D. Sengupta, and M. Sai Shankar, “Single fiber Bragg grating for the measurement of liquid level and temperature,” Proc. SPIE 8722, 87220O (2013).

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices part I: adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Sun, Q.

Y. Dai, Q. Sun, J. Wo, X. Li, M. Zhang, and D. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a SMS fiber structure,” Optik 124, 3771–3773 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-N.

J.-N. Wang and C.-Y. Luo, “Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity,” Sensors 12, 4578–4593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Y.

Wen, X.

X. Wen, T. Ning, H. You, J. Li, T. Feng, L. Pei, and W. Jian, “Dumbbell-shaped Mach–Zehnder interferometer with high sensitivity of refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1839–1842 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wo, J.

Y. Dai, Q. Sun, J. Wo, X. Li, M. Zhang, and D. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Xia, L.

Xiaowei, D.

D. Xiaowei and Z. Ruifeng, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a side-polished fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 214–218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

Yao, J.

You, H.

X. Wen, T. Ning, H. You, J. Li, T. Feng, L. Pei, and W. Jian, “Dumbbell-shaped Mach–Zehnder interferometer with high sensitivity of refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1839–1842 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

Y. Dai, Q. Sun, J. Wo, X. Li, M. Zhang, and D. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a SMS fiber structure,” Optik 124, 3771–3773 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

Zhu, T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEE Proc. J. (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices part I: adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Wen, T. Ning, H. You, J. Li, T. Feng, L. Pei, and W. Jian, “Dumbbell-shaped Mach–Zehnder interferometer with high sensitivity of refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1839–1842 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Antonio-Lopez, D. A. May-Arrioja, and P. LiKamWa, “Fiber-optic liquid level sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1826–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Dai, Q. Sun, J. Wo, X. Li, M. Zhang, and D. Liu, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng. 51, 044401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

D. Xiaowei and Z. Ruifeng, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a side-polished fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 214–218 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, J. Wang, and X. Dong, “Detection of liquid-level variation using a SMS fiber structure,” Optik 124, 3771–3773 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Srimannarayana, D. Sengupta, and M. Sai Shankar, “Single fiber Bragg grating for the measurement of liquid level and temperature,” Proc. SPIE 8722, 87220O (2013).

A. L. Ricchiuti, D. Barrera, K. Nonaka, and S. Sales, “Fiber optic liquid-level sensor using a long fiber Bragg grating,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 87941J (2013).

Sensors (1)

J.-N. Wang and C.-Y. Luo, “Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity,” Sensors 12, 4578–4593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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