Abstract

It has been a long-standing goal to precisely measure water-leaving radiance (Lw, or its equivalent property, remote-sensing reflectance) in the field, but reaching this goal is quite a challenge. This is because conventional approaches do not provide a direct measurement of Lw, but rather measure various related components and subsequently derive this core property from these components. Due to many uncontrollable factors in the measurement procedure and imprecise post-measurement processing routines, the resulting Lw is inherently associated with various levels of uncertainties. Here we present a methodology called the skylight-blocked approach (SBA) to measure Lw directly in the field, along with results obtained recently in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These results indicate that SBA can measure Lw in high precision. In particular, there is no limitation of water types for the deployment of SBA, and the requirement of post-measurement processing is minimum; thus high-quality Lw for a wide range of aquatic environments can be acquired.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2010

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. Trees, M. Twardowski, and D. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z.-P. Lee, Y.-H. Ahn, C. Mobley, and R. Arnone, “Removal of surface-reflected light for the measurement of remote-sensing reflectance from an above-surface platform,” Opt. Express 18, 26313–26342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, and N. Souaidia, “POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system,” Opt. Express 18, 19672–19680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, and I. Slutsker, “A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements,” Eos 87, 297 (2006).

2005

2004

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Radiation transport within oceanic (case 1) water,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C06008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, N. C. Cherukuru, S. J. Lavender, and G. F. Moore, “Use of a Spectralon panel to measure the downwelling irradiance signal: case studies and recommendations,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5981–5986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 690–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, and J. F. Berthon, “An evaluation of depth resolution requirements for optical profiling in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1059–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. D. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Doyle, and G. Zibordi, “Optical propagation within a three-dimensional shadowed atmosphere-ocean field: application to large deployment structures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4283–4306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

1998

H. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Abbott and R. M. Letelier, “Decorrelation scales of chlorophyll as observed from bio-optical drifters in the California Current,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 1639–1667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

1993

S. Hooker and W. E. Esaias, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project,” Eos 74, 241–246 (1993).

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters (2): bi-directional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanog 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1985

K. L. Carder and R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanog. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

1981

1978

Abbott, M. R.

M. R. Abbott and R. M. Letelier, “Decorrelation scales of chlorophyll as observed from bio-optical drifters in the California Current,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 1639–1667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y.-H.

Arnone, R.

Z.-P. Lee, Y.-H. Ahn, C. Mobley, and R. Arnone, “Removal of surface-reflected light for the measurement of remote-sensing reflectance from an above-surface platform,” Opt. Express 18, 26313–26342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, and S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote sensing reflectance measurement and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3, NASA/TM-2002-210004, J. L. Mueller and G. S. Fargion, eds. (NASA, 2002), pp. 171–182.

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in Ocean Color Analysis, S. W. Duntley, ed. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1974). pp. 1–20.

Bailey, S. W.

Barnard, A.

Barnes, R.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, “Calibration and validation plan for SeaWiFS,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA, 1992), p. 41.

Barnes, W.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, “Calibration and validation plan for SeaWiFS,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA, 1992), p. 41.

Berthon, J. F.

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, and J. F. Berthon, “An evaluation of depth resolution requirements for optical profiling in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1059–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.-F.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, and I. Slutsker, “A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements,” Eos 87, 297 (2006).

Booth, C. R.

Boss, E.

Boynton, G. C.

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: measurement and data analysis protocols,” NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-211621 (NASA, 2003).

Brown, S. W.

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: measurement and data analysis protocols,” NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-211621 (NASA, 2003).

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder and R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanog. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, and S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote sensing reflectance measurement and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3, NASA/TM-2002-210004, J. L. Mueller and G. S. Fargion, eds. (NASA, 2002), pp. 171–182.

Chapin, A. L.

Cherukuru, N. C.

Cherukuru, R. C. N.

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 690–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. Trees, M. Twardowski, and D. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: measurement and data analysis protocols,” NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-211621 (NASA, 2003).

D’Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, and J. F. Berthon, “An evaluation of depth resolution requirements for optical profiling in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1059–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, and S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote sensing reflectance measurement and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3, NASA/TM-2002-210004, J. L. Mueller and G. S. Fargion, eds. (NASA, 2002), pp. 171–182.

Davis, C. O.

Ding, K.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanog 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Downes, T. V.

Doxaran, D.

D. Doxaran, N. C. Cherukuru, S. J. Lavender, and G. F. Moore, “Use of a Spectralon panel to measure the downwelling irradiance signal: case studies and recommendations,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5981–5986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 690–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J. P.

Endres, D.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, “Calibration and validation plan for SeaWiFS,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA, 1992), p. 41.

Esaias, W. E.

S. Hooker and W. E. Esaias, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project,” Eos 74, 241–246 (1993).

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, “Calibration and validation plan for SeaWiFS,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA, 1992), p. 41.

Fabbri, B. E.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4 (NASA, 2003).

Feinholz, M.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. Trees, M. Twardowski, and D. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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Holben, B.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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Hooker, S. B.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, and I. Slutsker, “A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements,” Eos 87, 297 (2006).

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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Hwang, P. A.

Johnson, B. C.

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: measurement and data analysis protocols,” NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-211621 (NASA, 2003).

Johnson, C.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. Trees, M. Twardowski, and D. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1747–1759 (2010).
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G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
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G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: measurement and data analysis protocols,” NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-211621 (NASA, 2003).

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D. Doxaran, N. C. Cherukuru, S. J. Lavender, and G. F. Moore, “Use of a Spectralon panel to measure the downwelling irradiance signal: case studies and recommendations,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5981–5986 (2004).
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Lee, Z. P.

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Lee, Z.-P.

Letelier, R. M.

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K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. Trees, M. Twardowski, and D. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1747–1759 (2010).
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McClain, C. R.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, A. Morel, and C. R. McClain, “On-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using an ocean surface reflectance model,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5649–5666 (2007).
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J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4 (NASA, 2003).

McLean, S.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. Trees, M. Twardowski, and D. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1747–1759 (2010).
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McLean, S. D.

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
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G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: Northern Adriatic Sea, Northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, and I. Slutsker, “A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements,” Eos 87, 297 (2006).

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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Mitchell, G.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, “Calibration and validation plan for SeaWiFS,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 3, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA, 1992), p. 41.

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Mobley, C. D.

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Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
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D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: measurement and data analysis protocols,” NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-211621 (NASA, 2003).

J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4 (NASA, 2003).

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, and S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote sensing reflectance measurement and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3, NASA/TM-2002-210004, J. L. Mueller and G. S. Fargion, eds. (NASA, 2002), pp. 171–182.

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Ovidio, F.

Peacock, T. G.

Rijkeboer, M.

Ruddick, K. G.

Schuster, G.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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Seppala, J.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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Slutsker, I.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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G. Zibordi, B. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, and I. Slutsker, “A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements,” Eos 87, 297 (2006).

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Star, J. L.

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Toole, D. A.

Trees, C.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. Trees, M. Twardowski, and D. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1747–1759 (2010).
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Twardowski, M.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. Trees, M. Twardowski, and D. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1747–1759 (2010).
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Twardowski, M. S.

Vandemark, D.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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Wang, M.

Werdell, P. J.

Yarbrough, M.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. Trees, M. Twardowski, and D. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1747–1759 (2010).
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Yarbrough, M. A.

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: measurement and data analysis protocols,” NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-211621 (NASA, 2003).

Yuen, M.

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, “MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: measurement and data analysis protocols,” NASA Tech. Memo. 2004-211621 (NASA, 2003).

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
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G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401–415 (2004).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic draw to show the concept of measuring Lw directly in the field. The cone is integrated with a radiometer to block surface-reflected light, with its open end inserted just below (5cm) the surface when measuring Lw.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Left) Cone and radiometer. (Right) The system is deployed in the field.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Stations surveyed in Lake Michigan and Green Bay, June 2012.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Rrs spectra of the 19 stations measured via SBA.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Example showing Lw spectra collected by HyperOCR through SBA. The red (top) line (1 out of 63 spectra) was considered as an outlier and excluded for further processing and calculation. Also shown is the spectrum of CV (right Y axis) of the remaining 62 Lw spectra.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Example to compare the Lw spectra measured via SBA and profiling.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Statistic relationship between SBA-measured and pro-measured Lw, for wavelength in the range of 405–720 nm. (b) Percentage difference (PD) between SBA-measured (SBA_Lw) and pro-measured (Pro_Lw) Lw. PD is defined as 2(SBA_LwPro_Lw)/(SBA_Lw+Pro_Lw). AAPD stands for the average of the absolute value of PD, while ASPD stands for the average of the signed PD.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Example to compare the spectral CV of Lw measured via SBA and profiling. Also shown is the Lw spectrum (right Y axis) of this station.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Averaged spectrum of CV of all stations. Dotted green curve provides crude information of the Lw (SBA measured) encountered, as there is a wide range of variation. (b) Averaged CV spectrum of Lw measured from profiles. Also included (blue dots) is the mean CV spectrum from SBA for easier comparison.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Distribution of the CV of Lw measured via SBA and profiling, respectively. Wavelength range is 350–720 nm.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Averaged CV spectrum of SBA-measured Lw; the blue curve is for data under prime measurement conditions and the green curve is for data under nonprime conditions. Prime condition is defined here as calm surface (<2 wave) and clear sky.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the Conventional Schemes in Obtaining Lw in the Field

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LT(λ)=Lw(λ)+Lg(λ)
Lw(λ)=tn2Lu(λ,0)
PD(λ)=2(SBA_Lw(λ)Pro_Lw(λ))(SBA_Lw(λ)+Pro_Lw(λ)).

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