Abstract

A low-temperature chemical cleaning approach has been developed to improve the performance of multilayer dielectric pulse-compressor gratings for use in the OMEGA EP laser system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results guided the selection of targeted cleaning steps to strip specific families of manufacturing residues without damaging the grating’s fragile 3D profile. Grating coupons that were cleaned using the optimized method consistently met OMEGA EP requirements on diffraction efficiency and 1054 nm laser-damage resistance at 10 ps. The disappearance of laser-conditioning effects for the highest-damage-threshold samples suggests a transition from a contamination-driven laser-damage mechanism to defect-driven damage for well-cleaned components.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
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  8. B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, D. Mastrosimone, and C. McAtee, “Minimizing contamination to multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings within a large vacuum system,” Proc. SPIE 7069, 706902 (2008).
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  9. W.-J. Kong, Z. C. Shen, J. Shen, J.-D. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Investigation of laser-induced damage on multi-layer dielectric gratings,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 1757–1760 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Kong, S. Liu, J. Shen, Z. Shen, J. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Yao, “Study on LIDT of MDGs for different fabrication processes,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1426–1429 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. A. Britten and H. T. Nguyen, “Method for cleaning diffraction gratings,” U.S. patent application 11/895,392 (23August2007).
  16. B. Xu, S. D. Smith, D. J. Smith, and D. Chargin, “Reactive ion beam etching of large diffraction gratings,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 369–376.
  17. Y. Hong, L. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Development of plasma photoresist descum system for large-aperture diffraction gratings,” Vacuum 45, 25–27 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.
  25. The OMEGA EP damage-threshold requirement is specified in a plane perpendicular to the beam incident at 61°; thresholds measured at other incidence angles cannot be directly compared. Higher incidence angles (Nguyen et al.’s data [19] were reported for 76.5° incidence, for example) correspond to larger on-sample beam areas, and therefore, higher reported damage thresholds for the same beam fluence. For comparison, an approximate correction can be made using angular projection by multiplying the LIDT by the ratio of cosines of the incidence angles; e.g., an LIDT measured at 61° can be converted to 76.5° by multiplying by a factor of 2.07.
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    [CrossRef]
  27. L.-K. Wu, K.-Y. Chen, S.-Y. Cheng, B.-S. Lee, and C.-M. Shu, “Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 93, 115–120 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. C. R. Wolfe, M. R. Kozlowski, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, A. J. Morgan, and R. P. Gonzales, “Laser conditioning of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1438, 360–375 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  31. W. Beck, F. C. Brunner, P. U. Frasch, B. Ivancic, F. W. Schwerdt, and T. Vogtmann, “Method for stripping layers of organic material,” U.S. patent 3,900,337 (19August1975).
  32. G. W. Gale, R. J. Small, and K. A. Reinhardt, “Aqueous cleaning and surface conditioning processes,” in Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, K. A. Reinhardt and W. Kern, eds., 2nd ed., Materials Science & Process Technology Series (William Andrew, 2008), pp. 201–265.
  33. D. W. Burns, “MEMS wet-etch processes and procedures,” in MEMS Materials and Processes Handbook, R. Ghodssi and P. Lin, eds., (Springer, 2011), Chap. 8, pp. 457–665.
  34. L. M. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Rainer, and M. C. Staggs, “Large-area conditioning of optics for high-power laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 2114, 559–568 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, F. Rainer, and J. H. Stathis, “Laser conditioning and electronic defects of HfO2 and SiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 269–282 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  36. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

Y. Hong, L. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Development of plasma photoresist descum system for large-aperture diffraction gratings,” Vacuum 45, 25–27 (2008).

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, D. Mastrosimone, and C. McAtee, “Minimizing contamination to multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings within a large vacuum system,” Proc. SPIE 7069, 706902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Impact of organic contamination on laser-induced damage threshold of high reflectance coatings in vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5990–5993 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L.-K. Wu, K.-Y. Chen, S.-Y. Cheng, B.-S. Lee, and C.-M. Shu, “Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 93, 115–120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. Neauport, E. Lavastre, G. Razé, G. Dupuy, N. Bonod, M. Balas, G. de Villele, J. Flamand, S. Kaladgew, and F. Desserouer, “Effect of electric field on laser induced damage threshold of multilayer dielectric gratings,” Opt. Express 15, 12508–12522 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiao, A. Kalb, M. J. Guardalben, G. King, D. Canning, and J. H. Kelly, “Large-aperture grating tiling by interferometry for petawatt chirped-pulse-amplification systems,” Opt. Express 15, 9562–9574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

N. Bonod and J. Néauport, “Optical performance and laser induced damage threshold improvement of diffraction gratings used as compressors in ultra high intensity lasers,” Opt. Commun. 260, 649–655 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Kong, S. Liu, J. Shen, Z. Shen, J. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Yao, “Study on LIDT of MDGs for different fabrication processes,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1426–1429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Keck, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film design for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911A (2005).
[CrossRef]

W.-J. Kong, Z. C. Shen, J. Shen, J.-D. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Investigation of laser-induced damage on multi-layer dielectric gratings,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 1757–1760 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1996 (2)

J. A. Britten, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, R. D. Boyd, G. E. Loomis, and R. Chow, “High-energy dielectric multilayer gratings optimized for manufacturability and laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 511–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

L. M. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Rainer, and M. C. Staggs, “Large-area conditioning of optics for high-power laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 2114, 559–568 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Bodere, D. Carpentier, A. Accard, and B. Fernier, “Grating fabrication and characterization method for wafers up to 2-in,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 293–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, F. Rainer, and J. H. Stathis, “Laser conditioning and electronic defects of HfO2 and SiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 269–282 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. R. Wolfe, M. R. Kozlowski, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, A. J. Morgan, and R. P. Gonzales, “Laser conditioning of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1438, 360–375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Accard, A.

A. Bodere, D. Carpentier, A. Accard, and B. Fernier, “Grating fabrication and characterization method for wafers up to 2-in,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 293–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ashe, B.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, D. Mastrosimone, and C. McAtee, “Minimizing contamination to multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings within a large vacuum system,” Proc. SPIE 7069, 706902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balas, M.

Barone, J.

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P.

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beck, W.

W. Beck, F. C. Brunner, P. U. Frasch, B. Ivancic, F. W. Schwerdt, and T. Vogtmann, “Method for stripping layers of organic material,” U.S. patent 3,900,337 (19August1975).

Bodere, A.

A. Bodere, D. Carpentier, A. Accard, and B. Fernier, “Grating fabrication and characterization method for wafers up to 2-in,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 293–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

J. Neauport, E. Lavastre, G. Razé, G. Dupuy, N. Bonod, M. Balas, G. de Villele, J. Flamand, S. Kaladgew, and F. Desserouer, “Effect of electric field on laser induced damage threshold of multilayer dielectric gratings,” Opt. Express 15, 12508–12522 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bonod and J. Néauport, “Optical performance and laser induced damage threshold improvement of diffraction gratings used as compressors in ultra high intensity lasers,” Opt. Commun. 260, 649–655 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. D.

J. A. Britten, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, R. D. Boyd, G. E. Loomis, and R. Chow, “High-energy dielectric multilayer gratings optimized for manufacturability and laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 511–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Britten, J.

J. Britten, C. Larson, M. D. Feit, and H. T. Nguyen, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF-etchback linewidth tailoring,” presented at the ICUIL 2010 Conference, Watkins Glen, New York, 26 September–1 October2010, paper WO15.

Britten, J. A.

H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Britten, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, R. D. Boyd, G. E. Loomis, and R. Chow, “High-energy dielectric multilayer gratings optimized for manufacturability and laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 511–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Britten and H. T. Nguyen, “Method for cleaning diffraction gratings,” U.S. patent application 11/895,392 (23August2007).

Brown, C. G.

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, F. C.

W. Beck, F. C. Brunner, P. U. Frasch, B. Ivancic, F. W. Schwerdt, and T. Vogtmann, “Method for stripping layers of organic material,” U.S. patent 3,900,337 (19August1975).

Bunkenburg, J.

Burns, D. W.

D. W. Burns, “MEMS wet-etch processes and procedures,” in MEMS Materials and Processes Handbook, R. Ghodssi and P. Lin, eds., (Springer, 2011), Chap. 8, pp. 457–665.

Campbell, J. H.

C. R. Wolfe, M. R. Kozlowski, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, A. J. Morgan, and R. P. Gonzales, “Laser conditioning of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1438, 360–375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Canning, D.

Carpentier, D.

A. Bodere, D. Carpentier, A. Accard, and B. Fernier, “Grating fabrication and characterization method for wafers up to 2-in,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 293–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chargin, D.

B. Xu, S. D. Smith, D. J. Smith, and D. Chargin, “Reactive ion beam etching of large diffraction gratings,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 369–376.

Chen, K.-Y.

L.-K. Wu, K.-Y. Chen, S.-Y. Cheng, B.-S. Lee, and C.-M. Shu, “Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 93, 115–120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

Cheng, S.-Y.

L.-K. Wu, K.-Y. Chen, S.-Y. Cheng, B.-S. Lee, and C.-M. Shu, “Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 93, 115–120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chow, R.

J. A. Britten, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, R. D. Boyd, G. E. Loomis, and R. Chow, “High-energy dielectric multilayer gratings optimized for manufacturability and laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 511–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clapp, B.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Impact of organic contamination on laser-induced damage threshold of high reflectance coatings in vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5990–5993 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Villele, G.

Desserouer, F.

Dupuy, G.

Fan, Z.

W. Kong, S. Liu, J. Shen, Z. Shen, J. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Yao, “Study on LIDT of MDGs for different fabrication processes,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1426–1429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.-X.

W.-J. Kong, Z. C. Shen, J. Shen, J.-D. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Investigation of laser-induced damage on multi-layer dielectric gratings,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 1757–1760 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Britten, C. Larson, M. D. Feit, and H. T. Nguyen, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF-etchback linewidth tailoring,” presented at the ICUIL 2010 Conference, Watkins Glen, New York, 26 September–1 October2010, paper WO15.

Fernier, B.

A. Bodere, D. Carpentier, A. Accard, and B. Fernier, “Grating fabrication and characterization method for wafers up to 2-in,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 293–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flamand, J.

Frasch, P. U.

W. Beck, F. C. Brunner, P. U. Frasch, B. Ivancic, F. W. Schwerdt, and T. Vogtmann, “Method for stripping layers of organic material,” U.S. patent 3,900,337 (19August1975).

Fu, S.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, L. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Development of plasma photoresist descum system for large-aperture diffraction gratings,” Vacuum 45, 25–27 (2008).

Gale, G. W.

G. W. Gale, R. J. Small, and K. A. Reinhardt, “Aqueous cleaning and surface conditioning processes,” in Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, K. A. Reinhardt and W. Kern, eds., 2nd ed., Materials Science & Process Technology Series (William Andrew, 2008), pp. 201–265.

Giacofei, C.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gonzales, R. P.

C. R. Wolfe, M. R. Kozlowski, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, A. J. Morgan, and R. P. Gonzales, “Laser conditioning of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1438, 360–375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guardalben, M. J.

He, H.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Impact of organic contamination on laser-induced damage threshold of high reflectance coatings in vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5990–5993 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

Herman, S.

Hettrick, J.

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, L. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Development of plasma photoresist descum system for large-aperture diffraction gratings,” Vacuum 45, 25–27 (2008).

Hoover, T.

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

Howard, H.

H. Howard, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. Jacobs, “Dependence of thermal stresses on substrate thickness during wet processing of large coated optics,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3D.3.

Huang, H.

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Keck, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film design for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911A (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kessler, J. Bunkenburg, H. Huang, A. Kozlov, and D. D. Meyerhofer, “Demonstration of coherent addition of multiple gratings for high-energy chirped-pulse-amplified lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 635–637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivancic, B.

W. Beck, F. C. Brunner, P. U. Frasch, B. Ivancic, F. W. Schwerdt, and T. Vogtmann, “Method for stripping layers of organic material,” U.S. patent 3,900,337 (19August1975).

Jacobs, S.

H. Howard, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. Jacobs, “Dependence of thermal stresses on substrate thickness during wet processing of large coated optics,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3D.3.

Jasapara, J. C.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

Jovanovic, I.

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaladgew, S.

Kalb, A.

Kautek, W.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keck, J.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Keck, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film design for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. H.

J. Qiao, A. Kalb, M. J. Guardalben, G. King, D. Canning, and J. H. Kelly, “Large-aperture grating tiling by interferometry for petawatt chirped-pulse-amplification systems,” Opt. Express 15, 9562–9574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T. J.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Keck, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film design for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911A (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kessler, J. Bunkenburg, H. Huang, A. Kozlov, and D. D. Meyerhofer, “Demonstration of coherent addition of multiple gratings for high-energy chirped-pulse-amplified lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 635–637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

King, G.

Kong, F.

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

Kong, W.

W. Kong, S. Liu, J. Shen, Z. Shen, J. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Yao, “Study on LIDT of MDGs for different fabrication processes,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1426–1429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kong, W.-J.

W.-J. Kong, Z. C. Shen, J. Shen, J.-D. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Investigation of laser-induced damage on multi-layer dielectric gratings,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 1757–1760 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosc, T. Z.

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Keck, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film design for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, A.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Keck, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film design for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911A (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kessler, J. Bunkenburg, H. Huang, A. Kozlov, and D. D. Meyerhofer, “Demonstration of coherent addition of multiple gratings for high-energy chirped-pulse-amplified lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 635–637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

L. M. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Rainer, and M. C. Staggs, “Large-area conditioning of optics for high-power laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 2114, 559–568 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, F. Rainer, and J. H. Stathis, “Laser conditioning and electronic defects of HfO2 and SiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 269–282 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Wolfe, M. R. Kozlowski, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, A. J. Morgan, and R. P. Gonzales, “Laser conditioning of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1438, 360–375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kruschwitz, B. E.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J. C.

H. Howard, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. Jacobs, “Dependence of thermal stresses on substrate thickness during wet processing of large coated optics,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3D.3.

Larson, C.

J. Britten, C. Larson, M. D. Feit, and H. T. Nguyen, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF-etchback linewidth tailoring,” presented at the ICUIL 2010 Conference, Watkins Glen, New York, 26 September–1 October2010, paper WO15.

Larson, C. C.

H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lavastre, E.

Lee, B.-S.

L.-K. Wu, K.-Y. Chen, S.-Y. Cheng, B.-S. Lee, and C.-M. Shu, “Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 93, 115–120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

Li, Z.

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

Liu, L.

Y. Hong, L. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Development of plasma photoresist descum system for large-aperture diffraction gratings,” Vacuum 45, 25–27 (2008).

Liu, S.

W. Kong, S. Liu, J. Shen, Z. Shen, J. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Yao, “Study on LIDT of MDGs for different fabrication processes,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1426–1429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Loomis, G. E.

J. A. Britten, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, R. D. Boyd, G. E. Loomis, and R. Chow, “High-energy dielectric multilayer gratings optimized for manufacturability and laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 511–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Loucks, S. J.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, K. L.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, D. Mastrosimone, and C. McAtee, “Minimizing contamination to multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings within a large vacuum system,” Proc. SPIE 7069, 706902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mastrosimone, D.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, D. Mastrosimone, and C. McAtee, “Minimizing contamination to multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings within a large vacuum system,” Proc. SPIE 7069, 706902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maywar, D. N.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McAtee, C.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, D. Mastrosimone, and C. McAtee, “Minimizing contamination to multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings within a large vacuum system,” Proc. SPIE 7069, 706902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McCrory, R. L.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mero, M.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kessler, J. Bunkenburg, H. Huang, A. Kozlov, and D. D. Meyerhofer, “Demonstration of coherent addition of multiple gratings for high-energy chirped-pulse-amplified lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 635–637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molander, W. A.

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, A. J.

C. R. Wolfe, M. R. Kozlowski, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, A. J. Morgan, and R. P. Gonzales, “Laser conditioning of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1438, 360–375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Morse, S. F. B.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

G. A. Mourou, “Chirped pulse amplification,” in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, R. D. Guenther, D. G. Steel, and L. P. Bayvel eds., (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 83–84.

Myhre, G.

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neauport, J.

Néauport, J.

N. Bonod and J. Néauport, “Optical performance and laser induced damage threshold improvement of diffraction gratings used as compressors in ultra high intensity lasers,” Opt. Commun. 260, 649–655 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. T.

H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Britten, C. Larson, M. D. Feit, and H. T. Nguyen, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF-etchback linewidth tailoring,” presented at the ICUIL 2010 Conference, Watkins Glen, New York, 26 September–1 October2010, paper WO15.

J. A. Britten and H. T. Nguyen, “Method for cleaning diffraction gratings,” U.S. patent application 11/895,392 (23August2007).

Nielsen, N. D.

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, J. B.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Keck, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film design for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pennington, D. M.

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

J. A. Britten, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, R. D. Boyd, G. E. Loomis, and R. Chow, “High-energy dielectric multilayer gratings optimized for manufacturability and laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 511–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, J.

Qui, K.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

L. M. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Rainer, and M. C. Staggs, “Large-area conditioning of optics for high-power laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 2114, 559–568 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, F. Rainer, and J. H. Stathis, “Laser conditioning and electronic defects of HfO2 and SiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 269–282 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Wolfe, M. R. Kozlowski, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, A. J. Morgan, and R. P. Gonzales, “Laser conditioning of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1438, 360–375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Razé, G.

Reinhardt, K. A.

G. W. Gale, R. J. Small, and K. A. Reinhardt, “Aqueous cleaning and surface conditioning processes,” in Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, K. A. Reinhardt and W. Kern, eds., 2nd ed., Materials Science & Process Technology Series (William Andrew, 2008), pp. 201–265.

Rigatti, A. L.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Keck, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film design for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

Rudolph, W.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, A. W.

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Keck, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film design for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911A (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwerdt, F. W.

W. Beck, F. C. Brunner, P. U. Frasch, B. Ivancic, F. W. Schwerdt, and T. Vogtmann, “Method for stripping layers of organic material,” U.S. patent 3,900,337 (19August1975).

Shao, J.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Impact of organic contamination on laser-induced damage threshold of high reflectance coatings in vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5990–5993 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Kong, S. Liu, J. Shen, Z. Shen, J. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Yao, “Study on LIDT of MDGs for different fabrication processes,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1426–1429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

Shao, J.-D.

W.-J. Kong, Z. C. Shen, J. Shen, J.-D. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Investigation of laser-induced damage on multi-layer dielectric gratings,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 1757–1760 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shaojun, F.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, L. M.

L. M. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Rainer, and M. C. Staggs, “Large-area conditioning of optics for high-power laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 2114, 559–568 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

W. Kong, S. Liu, J. Shen, Z. Shen, J. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Yao, “Study on LIDT of MDGs for different fabrication processes,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1426–1429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W.-J. Kong, Z. C. Shen, J. Shen, J.-D. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Investigation of laser-induced damage on multi-layer dielectric gratings,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 1757–1760 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.

W. Kong, S. Liu, J. Shen, Z. Shen, J. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Yao, “Study on LIDT of MDGs for different fabrication processes,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1426–1429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. C.

W.-J. Kong, Z. C. Shen, J. Shen, J.-D. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Investigation of laser-induced damage on multi-layer dielectric gratings,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 1757–1760 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, B.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

J. A. Britten, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, R. D. Boyd, G. E. Loomis, and R. Chow, “High-energy dielectric multilayer gratings optimized for manufacturability and laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 511–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.-M.

L.-K. Wu, K.-Y. Chen, S.-Y. Cheng, B.-S. Lee, and C.-M. Shu, “Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 93, 115–120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Small, R. J.

G. W. Gale, R. J. Small, and K. A. Reinhardt, “Aqueous cleaning and surface conditioning processes,” in Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, K. A. Reinhardt and W. Kern, eds., 2nd ed., Materials Science & Process Technology Series (William Andrew, 2008), pp. 201–265.

Smith, D. J.

B. Xu, S. D. Smith, D. J. Smith, and D. Chargin, “Reactive ion beam etching of large diffraction gratings,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 369–376.

Smith, S. D.

B. Xu, S. D. Smith, D. J. Smith, and D. Chargin, “Reactive ion beam etching of large diffraction gratings,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 369–376.

Staggs, M.

M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, F. Rainer, and J. H. Stathis, “Laser conditioning and electronic defects of HfO2 and SiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 269–282 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M. C.

L. M. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Rainer, and M. C. Staggs, “Large-area conditioning of optics for high-power laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 2114, 559–568 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Starke, K.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stathis, J. H.

M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, F. Rainer, and J. H. Stathis, “Laser conditioning and electronic defects of HfO2 and SiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 269–282 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckl, C.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vogtmann, T.

W. Beck, F. C. Brunner, P. U. Frasch, B. Ivancic, F. W. Schwerdt, and T. Vogtmann, “Method for stripping layers of organic material,” U.S. patent 3,900,337 (19August1975).

Wang, T.

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

Wattellier, B. F.

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waxer, L. J.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, C. R.

C. R. Wolfe, M. R. Kozlowski, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, A. J. Morgan, and R. P. Gonzales, “Laser conditioning of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1438, 360–375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.-K.

L.-K. Wu, K.-Y. Chen, S.-Y. Cheng, B.-S. Lee, and C.-M. Shu, “Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 93, 115–120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

B. Xu, S. D. Smith, D. J. Smith, and D. Chargin, “Reactive ion beam etching of large diffraction gratings,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 369–376.

Xu, G.

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

Xu, X.

S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, L. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Development of plasma photoresist descum system for large-aperture diffraction gratings,” Vacuum 45, 25–27 (2008).

Yao, J.

W. Kong, S. Liu, J. Shen, Z. Shen, J. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Yao, “Study on LIDT of MDGs for different fabrication processes,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1426–1429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Impact of organic contamination on laser-induced damage threshold of high reflectance coatings in vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5990–5993 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Impact of organic contamination on laser-induced damage threshold of high reflectance coatings in vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5990–5993 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Y. Hong, L. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Development of plasma photoresist descum system for large-aperture diffraction gratings,” Vacuum 45, 25–27 (2008).

Zhu, M.

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

Zuegel, J. D.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, H. Yu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Impact of organic contamination on laser-induced damage threshold of high reflectance coatings in vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5990–5993 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

W.-J. Kong, Z. C. Shen, J. Shen, J.-D. Shao, and Z.-X. Fan, “Investigation of laser-induced damage on multi-layer dielectric gratings,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 1757–1760 (2005).
[CrossRef]

High Power Laser Particle Beams (1)

S. Chen, B. Sheng, K. Qui, Z. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, Y. Hong, and F. Shaojun, “Cleaning multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings with top layer of HfO2 by piranha solution,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 23, 2106–2110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. (1)

L.-K. Wu, K.-Y. Chen, S.-Y. Cheng, B.-S. Lee, and C.-M. Shu, “Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 93, 115–120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

A. Bodere, D. Carpentier, A. Accard, and B. Fernier, “Grating fabrication and characterization method for wafers up to 2-in,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 28, 293–295 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

W. Kong, S. Liu, J. Shen, Z. Shen, J. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Yao, “Study on LIDT of MDGs for different fabrication processes,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1426–1429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Bonod and J. Néauport, “Optical performance and laser induced damage threshold improvement of diffraction gratings used as compressors in ultra high intensity lasers,” Opt. Commun. 260, 649–655 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser,” Opt. Photonics News 16(7), 30–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (12)

J. A. Britten, M. D. Perry, B. W. Shore, R. D. Boyd, G. E. Loomis, and R. Chow, “High-energy dielectric multilayer gratings optimized for manufacturability and laser damage threshold,” Proc. SPIE 2714, 511–520 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Jovanovic, C. G. Brown, B. C. Stuart, W. A. Molander, N. D. Nielsen, B. F. Wattellier, J. A. Britten, D. M. Pennington, and C. P. Barty, “Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 34–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, C. Giacofei, A. L. Rigatti, T. J. Kessler, A. W. Schmid, J. B. Oliver, J. Keck, and A. Kozlov, “Evaluation of cleaning methods for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030O (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, C. Giacofei, G. Myhre, and A. W. Schmid, “Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200N (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ashe, K. L. Marshall, D. Mastrosimone, and C. McAtee, “Minimizing contamination to multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings within a large vacuum system,” Proc. SPIE 7069, 706902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, B. Sheng, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Wet-cleaning of contaminants on the surface of multilayer dielectric pulse compressor gratings by the piranha solution,” Proc. SPIE 7655, 765522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Keck, J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, A. L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, K. L. Marshall, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911G (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Nguyen, C. C. Larson, and J. A. Britten, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF etchback linewidth tailoring,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421H (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Rainer, and M. C. Staggs, “Large-area conditioning of optics for high-power laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 2114, 559–568 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, F. Rainer, and J. H. Stathis, “Laser conditioning and electronic defects of HfO2 and SiO2 thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1441, 269–282 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, H. Huang, J. Keck, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film design for multilayer diffraction gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911A (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Wolfe, M. R. Kozlowski, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, A. J. Morgan, and R. P. Gonzales, “Laser conditioning of optical thin films,” Proc. SPIE 1438, 360–375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

Y. Hong, L. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Xu, and S. Fu, “Development of plasma photoresist descum system for large-aperture diffraction gratings,” Vacuum 45, 25–27 (2008).

Other (10)

J. A. Britten and H. T. Nguyen, “Method for cleaning diffraction gratings,” U.S. patent application 11/895,392 (23August2007).

B. Xu, S. D. Smith, D. J. Smith, and D. Chargin, “Reactive ion beam etching of large diffraction gratings,” in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 369–376.

G. A. Mourou, “Chirped pulse amplification,” in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, R. D. Guenther, D. G. Steel, and L. P. Bayvel eds., (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 83–84.

W. Beck, F. C. Brunner, P. U. Frasch, B. Ivancic, F. W. Schwerdt, and T. Vogtmann, “Method for stripping layers of organic material,” U.S. patent 3,900,337 (19August1975).

G. W. Gale, R. J. Small, and K. A. Reinhardt, “Aqueous cleaning and surface conditioning processes,” in Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, K. A. Reinhardt and W. Kern, eds., 2nd ed., Materials Science & Process Technology Series (William Andrew, 2008), pp. 201–265.

D. W. Burns, “MEMS wet-etch processes and procedures,” in MEMS Materials and Processes Handbook, R. Ghodssi and P. Lin, eds., (Springer, 2011), Chap. 8, pp. 457–665.

J. Britten, C. Larson, M. D. Feit, and H. T. Nguyen, “Improvement of laser damage resistance and diffraction efficiency of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings by HF-etchback linewidth tailoring,” presented at the ICUIL 2010 Conference, Watkins Glen, New York, 26 September–1 October2010, paper WO15.

H. Howard, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. Jacobs, “Dependence of thermal stresses on substrate thickness during wet processing of large coated optics,” in Optical Fabrication and Testing, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3D.3.

F. Kong, Y. Jin, W. Chen, M. Zhu, T. Wang, D. Li, Z. Li, G. Xu, H. He, and J. Shao, “Effect of pulse duration on LIDT of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum,” presented at SPIE Laser Damage Symposium 2012, Boulder, Colorado, 23–26 September2012.

The OMEGA EP damage-threshold requirement is specified in a plane perpendicular to the beam incident at 61°; thresholds measured at other incidence angles cannot be directly compared. Higher incidence angles (Nguyen et al.’s data [19] were reported for 76.5° incidence, for example) correspond to larger on-sample beam areas, and therefore, higher reported damage thresholds for the same beam fluence. For comparison, an approximate correction can be made using angular projection by multiplying the LIDT by the ratio of cosines of the incidence angles; e.g., an LIDT measured at 61° can be converted to 76.5° by multiplying by a factor of 2.07.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Coating failure observed after elevated-temperature acid piranha cleaning. (a) “Blister” defects observed on an MLD coating (no grating) after acid piranha cleaning at 90°C and (b) localized delamination observed on an MLD grating after acid piranha cleaning at 70°C.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Grating wedge samples used in cleaning experiments, shown before (bottom) and after (top) cleaning. The ruler (right side), included for scale, is marked in inches.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of a damage site on sample no. 555-5 irradiated at 1.40J/cm2 (1-on-1, 1054 nm, 10 ps, in vacuum, 61° incidence). (a) Entire damage site, (b) intact pillars at center of site where all photoresist was removed via laser irradiation (“cleaning” effect), (c) photoresist peeling away from pillars near the edge of the central region, and (d) grating pillars near the edge of the damage site, where the photoresist layer was tilted over and partially detached from the grating pillars due to the 61° incident angle of the laser beam.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM images showing MLD grating cross section (a) before chemical cleaning, with BARC and photoresist layers intact and (b) after cleaning, with BARC and photoresist stripped and grating pillars narrowed.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effect of oxide etch concentration on laser-induced-damage threshold for a set of five MLD gratings cleaned according to the optimized method but with different buffered oxide etch/water ratios.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of oxygen and room-air plasma cleaning at room temperature. (a) Oxygen plasma cleaning for 1–10 min had a negative effect on DE, whereas room-air plasma cleaning enhanced DE. (b) All four samples treated with room-air plasma exceeded the 97% OMEGA EP grating DE specification, while only two of the four samples treated with oxygen plasma met this specification.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

DE enhancement for a set of three MLD grating samples following a sequence of room-air plasma-cleaning treatments.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relationship between in-air LIDT and cleaning temperature.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Levels of carbon, fluorine, and molybdenum detected by XPS after each cleaning step and (b) corresponding in-air LIDT.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Damage threshold versus DE for (a) all samples, (b) only those samples showing no laser-conditioning effects (1-on-1 >N-on-1), and (c) only those samples cleaned using the optimized method (Table 2).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Treatments and Results for Acid Piranha Soak Cleaning Experiments at 40°C

Tables Icon

Table 2. Optimized Cleaning Method

Tables Icon

Table 3. Elements Detected on MLD Gratings at Various Stages of Cleaning and Corresponding Damage Testing Results

Tables Icon

Table 4. LIDT and DE Results for Grating Samples Cleaned using Optimized Method

Metrics