Abstract

We suggest an effective method for controlling nonlinear switching in one-dimensional waveguide arrays formed by the periodically poled lithium niobate. We demonstrate that the ability of switching for discrete solitons is relative to the coupling coefficient that is determined by the applied external electrical field on periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide arrays. Besides the external electrical field, the switching of the discrete solitons is also determined by the excited beams tilted angle. It provides us an easy way to control the light beam propagation in such waveguide arrays based on electro-optical effects when an external electric field is applied.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, “Discrete self-focusing in nonlinear arrays of coupled waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 13, 794–796 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Sun, Y. Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. J. Tang, M. W. Zhu, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication and light transmission properties of monolayer square symmetric colloidal crystal via controlled convective self-assembly on one-dimensional grooves,” Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Sun, C. J. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. L. Han, Z. S. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383–3386 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet–Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. K. Efremidis, S. Sears, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, and M. Segev, “Discrete solitons in photorefractive optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046602 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Chen and K. McCarthy, “Spatial soliton pixels from partially incoherent light,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2019–2021 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, and M. Segev, “Observation of discrete solitons in optically induced real time waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023902 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Chen, M. Stepić, C. E. Rüter, D. Runde, and D. Kip, “Discrete diffraction and spatial gap solitons in photovoltaic LiNbO3 waveguide arrays,” Opt. Express 13, 4314–4324 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Szameit, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Two-dimensional solitons in cubic fs laser written waveguide arrays in fused silica,” Opt. Express 14, 6055 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Deng, H. Lao, and X. Chen, “Soliton formation and collapse in tunable waveguide arrays by electro-optic effect,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3731 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, 1984).
  17. H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Picosecond Z-scan study of bound electronic Kerr effect in LiNbO3 crystal associated with two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 659–662 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. N. Christodoulides, and N. K. Efremidis, “Discrete temporal solitons along a chain of nonlinear coupled microcavities embedded in photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 27, 568–570 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. Sun, C. J. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. L. Han, Z. S. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Sun, Y. Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. J. Tang, M. W. Zhu, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication and light transmission properties of monolayer square symmetric colloidal crystal via controlled convective self-assembly on one-dimensional grooves,” Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet–Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, and M. Segev, “Observation of discrete solitons in optically induced real time waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

D. N. Christodoulides, and N. K. Efremidis, “Discrete temporal solitons along a chain of nonlinear coupled microcavities embedded in photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 27, 568–570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Efremidis, S. Sears, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, and M. Segev, “Discrete solitons in photorefractive optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen and K. McCarthy, “Spatial soliton pixels from partially incoherent light,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2019–2021 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383–3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Picosecond Z-scan study of bound electronic Kerr effect in LiNbO3 crystal associated with two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 659–662 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Aitchison, J. S.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet–Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383–3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, A. R.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383–3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brauer, A.

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

Cao, Z. S.

J. Sun, C. J. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. L. Han, Z. S. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carmon, T.

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, and M. Segev, “Observation of discrete solitons in optically induced real time waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Chen, X.

Chen, Z.

Christodoulides, D. N.

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Efremidis, S. Sears, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, and M. Segev, “Discrete solitons in photorefractive optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, and N. K. Efremidis, “Discrete temporal solitons along a chain of nonlinear coupled microcavities embedded in photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 27, 568–570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, “Discrete self-focusing in nonlinear arrays of coupled waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 13, 794–796 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.

Dong, H.

J. Sun, Y. Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. J. Tang, M. W. Zhu, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication and light transmission properties of monolayer square symmetric colloidal crystal via controlled convective self-assembly on one-dimensional grooves,” Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Efremidis, N. K.

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Efremidis, S. Sears, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, and M. Segev, “Discrete solitons in photorefractive optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, and N. K. Efremidis, “Discrete temporal solitons along a chain of nonlinear coupled microcavities embedded in photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 27, 568–570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, H. S.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet–Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383–3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, J. W.

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, and M. Segev, “Observation of discrete solitons in optically induced real time waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Efremidis, S. Sears, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, and M. Segev, “Discrete solitons in photorefractive optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z. L.

J. Sun, C. J. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. L. Han, Z. S. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iwanow, R.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Picosecond Z-scan study of bound electronic Kerr effect in LiNbO3 crystal associated with two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 659–662 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. I.

Kip, D.

Lao, H.

Lederer, F.

A. Szameit, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Two-dimensional solitons in cubic fs laser written waveguide arrays in fused silica,” Opt. Express 14, 6055 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Picosecond Z-scan study of bound electronic Kerr effect in LiNbO3 crystal associated with two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 659–662 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. Y.

J. Sun, Y. Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. J. Tang, M. W. Zhu, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication and light transmission properties of monolayer square symmetric colloidal crystal via controlled convective self-assembly on one-dimensional grooves,” Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mandelik, D.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet–Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, K.

Min, Y.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet–Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383–3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Pertsch, T.

A. Szameit, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Two-dimensional solitons in cubic fs laser written waveguide arrays in fused silica,” Opt. Express 14, 6055 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Runde, D.

Rüter, C. E.

Schiek, R.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sears, S.

N. K. Efremidis, S. Sears, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, and M. Segev, “Discrete solitons in photorefractive optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, and M. Segev, “Observation of discrete solitons in optically induced real time waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Efremidis, S. Sears, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, and M. Segev, “Discrete solitons in photorefractive optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet–Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383–3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stepic, M.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, C. J. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. L. Han, Z. S. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, Y. Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. J. Tang, M. W. Zhu, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication and light transmission properties of monolayer square symmetric colloidal crystal via controlled convective self-assembly on one-dimensional grooves,” Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Szameit, A.

Tang, C. J.

J. Sun, C. J. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. L. Han, Z. S. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, Y. Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. J. Tang, M. W. Zhu, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication and light transmission properties of monolayer square symmetric colloidal crystal via controlled convective self-assembly on one-dimensional grooves,” Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Wang, Z. L.

J. Sun, C. J. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. L. Han, Z. S. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, Y. Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. J. Tang, M. W. Zhu, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication and light transmission properties of monolayer square symmetric colloidal crystal via controlled convective self-assembly on one-dimensional grooves,” Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, 1984).

Zentgraf, T.

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, P.

J. Sun, C. J. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. L. Han, Z. S. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, Y. Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. J. Tang, M. W. Zhu, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication and light transmission properties of monolayer square symmetric colloidal crystal via controlled convective self-assembly on one-dimensional grooves,” Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Picosecond Z-scan study of bound electronic Kerr effect in LiNbO3 crystal associated with two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 659–662 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Picosecond Z-scan study of bound electronic Kerr effect in LiNbO3 crystal associated with two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 659–662 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M. W.

J. Sun, Y. Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. J. Tang, M. W. Zhu, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication and light transmission properties of monolayer square symmetric colloidal crystal via controlled convective self-assembly on one-dimensional grooves,” Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Sun, Y. Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. J. Tang, M. W. Zhu, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication and light transmission properties of monolayer square symmetric colloidal crystal via controlled convective self-assembly on one-dimensional grooves,” Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Li, F. Zhou, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Picosecond Z-scan study of bound electronic Kerr effect in LiNbO3 crystal associated with two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 659–662 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

J. Sun, C. J. Tang, P. Zhan, Z. L. Han, Z. S. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir 26, 7859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

N. K. Efremidis, S. Sears, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, and M. Segev, “Discrete solitons in photorefractive optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 046602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

J. W. Fleischer, T. Carmon, and M. Segev, “Observation of discrete solitons in optically induced real time waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383–3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Mandelik, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Band-gap structure of waveguide arrays and excitation of Floquet–Bloch solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 053902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, “Observation of discrete quadratic solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, 1984).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of PPLN waveguide array with an electrical field applied along the z axis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Coupling coefficient of PPLN waveguide arrays changes with the applied electrical field.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output power distribution versus applied electrical field for a 3-channel wide input beam with three different values of kxd when the applied electrical field is changed from 0 to 3.5kV/mm. (a) Output spatial intensity distribution for kxd=0, (b) output spatial intensity distribution for kxd=π/2, and (c) output spatial intensity distribution for kxd=π/2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Discrete soliton output displacement for different kxd when the coupling coefficient gets its maximal value.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Switching of the discrete solitons in the PPLN waveguide arrays for different kxd when the coupling coefficient gets its maximal value. (a) for kxd=0, (b) kxd=π/2, and (c) kxd=π/2.

Equations (8)

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dEndy=iβEn+iC(En+1+En1)+iλ|En|2En.
C=2κ2γ2eγd2β(2+γd1)(κ2+γ2),
tan(κd1)=2γκ(1γ2κ2).
dun(y)dy=i2Ccos(kxd)un(y)+iγ|un(y)2|un(y)+iC[un+1(y)exp(ikxd)+un1(y)exp(ikxd)].
λ=ω0n2cAeff.
un±1=u±dux+d222ux2±d363ux3+.
i[uy+2Cdsin(kxd)ux]+Cd2cos(kxd)2ux2+λ|u|2u=0,
u=u0sech(x2Cdsin(kxd)yx0)exp(iσy),

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