Abstract

A family of fully automated digital whole sky imagers (WSIs) has been developed at the Marine Physical Laboratory over many years, for a variety of research and military applications. The most advanced of these, the day/night whole sky imagers (D/N WSIs), acquire digital imagery of the full sky down to the horizon under all conditions from full sunlight to starlight. Cloud algorithms process the imagery to automatically detect the locations of cloud for both day and night. The instruments can provide absolute radiance distribution over the full radiance range from starlight through daylight. The WSIs were fielded in 1984, followed by the D/N WSIs in 1992. These many years of experience and development have resulted in very capable instruments and algorithms that remain unique. This article discusses the history of the development of the D/N WSIs, system design, algorithms, and data products. The paper cites many reports with more detailed technical documentation. Further details of calibration, day and night algorithms, and cloud free line-of-sight results will be discussed in future articles.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. W. Johnson and W. S. Hering, “Automated cloud cover measurements with a solid-state imaging system,” in Sixth Symposium Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1987), pp. 96–99.
  2. R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, and J. E. Shields, “Automated visibility and cloud cover measurements with a solid state imaging system,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 89-7, GL-TR-89-0061, NTIS No. ADA216906 (1989).
  3. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and T. L. Koehler, “Automated whole sky imaging systems for cloud field assessment,” in Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies (American Meteorological Society, 1993), pp. 228–231.
  4. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. L. Wertz, “Automated day/night whole sky imagers for field assessment of cloud cover distributions and radiance distributions,” in Tenth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 165–170.
  5. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, pp. 155–166 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Research toward multi-site characterization of sky obscuration by clouds, final report for grant N00244-07-1-009,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA126296 (2009).
  7. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Scientific report on whole sky imager characterization of sky obscuration by clouds for the Starfire optical range, scientific report for AFRL contract FA9451-008-C-0226,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Technical Note 275, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA556222 (2010).
  8. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and T. L. Koehler, “Imaging systems for automated 24-hour whole sky cloud assessment and visibility determination,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems—1991 Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1991), pp. 137–142.
  9. K. M. Watson, “Upgrade of the LIMDAS day/night whole sky imager,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-89-D-0142, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-30/93, NTIS No. ADA265871 (1993).
  10. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Automated whole sky imagers for continuous day and night cloud field assessment,” Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems- 1993, Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1993), pp. 379–384.
  11. R. W. Johnson and W. S. Hering, “Automated cloud cover measurements with a solid-state imaging system,” Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems—1987, Workshop (Atmospheric Sciences Division, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1987), pp. 59–69.
  12. R. W. Johnson, T. L. Koehler, and J. E. Shields, “A multi-station set of whole sky imagers and a preliminary assessment of the emerging data base,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1988 Workshop (Science and Technology Corporation, 1988), pp. 159–162.
  13. I. Lund, “Persistence and recurrence probabilities of cloud-free and cloudy lines-of-sight through the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, pp. 1222–1228 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. W. Snow, “Modeling the variation of cloud cover with view angle using space shuttle cloud imagery,” Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, GL-TR-90-0130, NTIS No. ADA227895 (1990).
  15. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Upgrading the day/night whole sky imager from manual/interactive to full automatic control,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #18), Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-140/94, NTIS No. ADA292296 (1994).
  16. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, R. A. Weymouth, and D. S. Sauer, “Delivery and development of a day/night whole sky imager with enhanced angular alignment for full 24 hour cloud distribution assessment,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-93-D-0141-DO#11, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-8/97, NTIS No. ADA333269 (1997).
  17. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, T. P. Tooman, D. H. Sowle, and S. T. Moore, “The whole sky imager—a year of progress,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting (United States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Environmental Sciences Division, 1998), pp. 677–685.
  18. U. Feister, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, K. Dehne, and M. Woldt, “Ground-based cloud images and sky radiances in the visible and near infrared region from whole sky imager measurements,” EUMP31, EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility Workshop, Dresden, Germany, 20–22 November 2000 (2000), pp. 79–88.
  19. U. Feister and J. Shields, “Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR Daylight Whole Sky Imager at Lindenberg (Germany),” Meteor. Z 14, 627–639 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. U. H. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. G. Baker, “Analysis and measurement of cloud free line of sight and related cloud statistical behavior, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #2),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425400 (2003).
  22. J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “Measurement and evaluation of cloud free line of sight with digital whole sky imagers,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2005).
  23. C. N. Long and J. J. DeLuisi, “Development of an automated hemispheric sky imager for cloud fraction retrievals,” in Tenth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 171–174.
  24. G. Pfister, R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, W. Thomas, B. W. Forgan, and C. N. Long, “Cloud coverage based on all-sky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1421–1434 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Cazorla, F. J. Olmo, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Development of a sky imager for cloud cover assessment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 29–39 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Kleissl, Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting(Elsevier, 2013).
  27. C. W. Chow, B. Urquhart, M. Lave, A. Dominguez, J. Kleissl, J. E. Shields, and B. Washom, “Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar test bed,” Sol. Energy 85, 2881–2893 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Pérez-Ramírez, R. J. Nemiroff, and J. B. Rafert, “Nightskylive.net: the night sky live project,” Astron. Nachr. 325, 568–570 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).
  30. P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, and S. Piazzolla, “Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth-space optical communication,” Opt. Express 17, 7862–7872 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. McGuffie and A. Henderson-Sellers, “Almost a century of ‘imaging’ clouds over the whole-sky dome,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 70, 1243–1253 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Southern Illinois,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 73-24, AFCRL- TR-0422, NTIS No. AD-774-597 (1973).
  33. S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Northern Germany,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 76-17, AFGL- TR-0188, NTIS No. ADA-035-571 (1976).
  34. R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, J. I. Gordon, B. W. Fitch, and J. E. Shields, “Preliminary analysis and modeling based upon project OPAQUE profile and surface data,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 80-5, AFGL- TR-0285, NTIS No. ADB-052-1721 (1980).
  35. J. E. Shields, T. L. Koehler, and R. W. Johnson, “Whole sky imager,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1989/90 Conference (Science and Technology Corporation, Meetings Division, 101 Research Drive, 1990), pp. 123–128.
  36. T. L. Koehler, R. W. Johnson, and J. E. Shields, “Status of the whole sky imager database,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1991 Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1991), pp. 77–80.
  37. R. W. Johnson, J. E. Shields, and T. L. Koehler, “Analysis and interpretation of simultaneous multi-station whole sky imagery,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 91-33, PL-91-2214, NTIS No. ADA253658 (1991).
  38. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Whole sky imagers for real-time cloud assessment, cloud free line of sight determinations and potential tactical applications,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2003).
  39. J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “New cloud free line of sight statistics measured with digital whole sky imagers,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910M (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Service support for the Phillips laboratory whole sky imager,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-10/97, NTIS No. ADA333283 (1997).
  41. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Project report for providing two day/night whole sky imagers and related development work for Starfire optical range, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-D-0350 (DO #6),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).
  42. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Analytic support of the Phillips Lab whole sky imager 1997-2001, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-C-0385,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425323 (2002).
  43. J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Development of techniques for determination of nighttime atmospheric transmittance and related analytic support for the whole sky imager, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-01-D-0043 (DO #5),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).
  44. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Enhancement of near-real-time cloud analysis and related analytic support for whole sky imagers, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #4,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA468076 (2007).
  45. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Whole sky imaging of clouds in the visible and IR for Starfire optical range, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #11,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA470314 (2007).
  46. J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Continuing support of cloud free line of sight determination, including whole sky imaging of clouds, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #13,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA474969 (2007).
  47. D. R. E. Brown, “Natural illumination charts,” Report 374-1, Project Ns-714-100, Department of the Navy, Bureau of Ships, Washington, DC (1952).
  48. K. YA. Kondrat’yev, “Actinometry,” NASA TT F-9712, Translation of “Aktinometriya,” Gidrometeorologicheskoye Izdatel’stvo, Leningrad (1965).
  49. B. W. Hapke, “A theoretical function for the lunar surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4571–4585 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  50. E. D. Hoffleit and W. H. Warren, The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th ed. (Astronomical Data Center and Yale University Observatory, 1991).
  51. R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. R. Varah, “Automated visibility measurements with a solid-state imager,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO Ref. 91-34, PL-TR-91-2016, ADA246892 (1990).
  52. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “An automated observing system for passive evaluation of cloud cover and visibility,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 92-22, PL-TR-2202, NTIS No. ADA263207 (1992).
  53. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Calibrated fisheye imaging systems for determination of cloud top radiances from a UAV,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 32–43 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  54. J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Visibility measurement along extended paths over the ocean surface,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910L (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  55. J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  56. R. W. Johnson, “Method and apparatus for viewing target,” U.S. patent 7,327,513 (5February2008).
  57. M. C. Allmen and W. P. Kegelmeyer, “The computation of cloud base height from paired whole sky imaging cameras,” Sandia Report SAND-94-8223 (Sandia National Laboratories, 1994).
  58. G. Seiz, J. E. Shields, U. Feister, E. P. Baltsavias, and A. Gruen, “Cloud mapping with ground-based photogrammetric cameras,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 2001–2032 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  59. A. Cazorla, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, F. J. Olmo, A. R. Burden, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Technical note: determination of aerosol optical properties by a calibrated sky imager,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6417–6427 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

C. W. Chow, B. Urquhart, M. Lave, A. Dominguez, J. Kleissl, J. E. Shields, and B. Washom, “Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar test bed,” Sol. Energy 85, 2881–2893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

U. H. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. Cazorla, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, F. J. Olmo, A. R. Burden, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Technical note: determination of aerosol optical properties by a calibrated sky imager,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6417–6427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, and S. Piazzolla, “Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth-space optical communication,” Opt. Express 17, 7862–7872 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

G. Seiz, J. E. Shields, U. Feister, E. P. Baltsavias, and A. Gruen, “Cloud mapping with ground-based photogrammetric cameras,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 2001–2032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Visibility measurement along extended paths over the ocean surface,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910L (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “New cloud free line of sight statistics measured with digital whole sky imagers,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910M (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Feister and J. Shields, “Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR Daylight Whole Sky Imager at Lindenberg (Germany),” Meteor. Z 14, 627–639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Pérez-Ramírez, R. J. Nemiroff, and J. B. Rafert, “Nightskylive.net: the night sky live project,” Astron. Nachr. 325, 568–570 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. Pfister, R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, W. Thomas, B. W. Forgan, and C. N. Long, “Cloud coverage based on all-sky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1421–1434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, pp. 155–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Calibrated fisheye imaging systems for determination of cloud top radiances from a UAV,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 32–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

1989 (1)

K. McGuffie and A. Henderson-Sellers, “Almost a century of ‘imaging’ clouds over the whole-sky dome,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 70, 1243–1253 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

I. Lund, “Persistence and recurrence probabilities of cloud-free and cloudy lines-of-sight through the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, pp. 1222–1228 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

B. W. Hapke, “A theoretical function for the lunar surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4571–4585 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Alados-Arboledas, L.

A. Cazorla, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, F. J. Olmo, A. R. Burden, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Technical note: determination of aerosol optical properties by a calibrated sky imager,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6417–6427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazorla, F. J. Olmo, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Development of a sky imager for cloud cover assessment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 29–39 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allmen, M. C.

M. C. Allmen and W. P. Kegelmeyer, “The computation of cloud base height from paired whole sky imaging cameras,” Sandia Report SAND-94-8223 (Sandia National Laboratories, 1994).

Anderson, K. S. J.

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

Baker, J. B.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Analytic support of the Phillips Lab whole sky imager 1997-2001, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-C-0385,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425323 (2002).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Development of techniques for determination of nighttime atmospheric transmittance and related analytic support for the whole sky imager, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-01-D-0043 (DO #5),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Project report for providing two day/night whole sky imagers and related development work for Starfire optical range, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-D-0350 (DO #6),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

Baker, J. G.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Visibility measurement along extended paths over the ocean surface,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910L (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “New cloud free line of sight statistics measured with digital whole sky imagers,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910M (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Calibrated fisheye imaging systems for determination of cloud top radiances from a UAV,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 32–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, pp. 155–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “Measurement and evaluation of cloud free line of sight with digital whole sky imagers,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2005).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Whole sky imagers for real-time cloud assessment, cloud free line of sight determinations and potential tactical applications,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2003).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. G. Baker, “Analysis and measurement of cloud free line of sight and related cloud statistical behavior, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #2),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425400 (2003).

Baltsavias, E. P.

G. Seiz, J. E. Shields, U. Feister, E. P. Baltsavias, and A. Gruen, “Cloud mapping with ground-based photogrammetric cameras,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 2001–2032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, J.

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

Brown, D. R. E.

D. R. E. Brown, “Natural illumination charts,” Report 374-1, Project Ns-714-100, Department of the Navy, Bureau of Ships, Washington, DC (1952).

Burden, A. R.

A. Cazorla, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, F. J. Olmo, A. R. Burden, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Technical note: determination of aerosol optical properties by a calibrated sky imager,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6417–6427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Visibility measurement along extended paths over the ocean surface,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910L (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “New cloud free line of sight statistics measured with digital whole sky imagers,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910M (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Calibrated fisheye imaging systems for determination of cloud top radiances from a UAV,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 32–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, pp. 155–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “Measurement and evaluation of cloud free line of sight with digital whole sky imagers,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2005).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Enhancement of near-real-time cloud analysis and related analytic support for whole sky imagers, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #4,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA468076 (2007).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Continuing support of cloud free line of sight determination, including whole sky imaging of clouds, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #13,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA474969 (2007).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Analytic support of the Phillips Lab whole sky imager 1997-2001, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-C-0385,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425323 (2002).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. G. Baker, “Analysis and measurement of cloud free line of sight and related cloud statistical behavior, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #2),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425400 (2003).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Whole sky imagers for real-time cloud assessment, cloud free line of sight determinations and potential tactical applications,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2003).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Research toward multi-site characterization of sky obscuration by clouds, final report for grant N00244-07-1-009,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA126296 (2009).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Scientific report on whole sky imager characterization of sky obscuration by clouds for the Starfire optical range, scientific report for AFRL contract FA9451-008-C-0226,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Technical Note 275, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA556222 (2010).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Whole sky imaging of clouds in the visible and IR for Starfire optical range, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #11,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA470314 (2007).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Project report for providing two day/night whole sky imagers and related development work for Starfire optical range, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-D-0350 (DO #6),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Development of techniques for determination of nighttime atmospheric transmittance and related analytic support for the whole sky imager, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-01-D-0043 (DO #5),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

Carr, M.

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

Cazorla, A.

A. Cazorla, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, F. J. Olmo, A. R. Burden, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Technical note: determination of aerosol optical properties by a calibrated sky imager,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6417–6427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazorla, F. J. Olmo, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Development of a sky imager for cloud cover assessment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 29–39 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. W.

C. W. Chow, B. Urquhart, M. Lave, A. Dominguez, J. Kleissl, J. E. Shields, and B. Washom, “Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar test bed,” Sol. Energy 85, 2881–2893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dehne, K.

U. Feister, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, K. Dehne, and M. Woldt, “Ground-based cloud images and sky radiances in the visible and near infrared region from whole sky imager measurements,” EUMP31, EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility Workshop, Dresden, Germany, 20–22 November 2000 (2000), pp. 79–88.

DeLuisi, J. J.

C. N. Long and J. J. DeLuisi, “Development of an automated hemispheric sky imager for cloud fraction retrievals,” in Tenth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 171–174.

Dominguez, A.

C. W. Chow, B. Urquhart, M. Lave, A. Dominguez, J. Kleissl, J. E. Shields, and B. Washom, “Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar test bed,” Sol. Energy 85, 2881–2893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Northern Germany,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 76-17, AFGL- TR-0188, NTIS No. ADA-035-571 (1976).

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Southern Illinois,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 73-24, AFCRL- TR-0422, NTIS No. AD-774-597 (1973).

Feister, U.

G. Seiz, J. E. Shields, U. Feister, E. P. Baltsavias, and A. Gruen, “Cloud mapping with ground-based photogrammetric cameras,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 2001–2032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Feister and J. Shields, “Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR Daylight Whole Sky Imager at Lindenberg (Germany),” Meteor. Z 14, 627–639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Feister, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, K. Dehne, and M. Woldt, “Ground-based cloud images and sky radiances in the visible and near infrared region from whole sky imager measurements,” EUMP31, EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility Workshop, Dresden, Germany, 20–22 November 2000 (2000), pp. 79–88.

Feister, U. H.

U. H. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Finkbeiner, D. P.

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

Fitch, B. W.

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, J. I. Gordon, B. W. Fitch, and J. E. Shields, “Preliminary analysis and modeling based upon project OPAQUE profile and surface data,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 80-5, AFGL- TR-0285, NTIS No. ADB-052-1721 (1980).

Forgan, B. W.

G. Pfister, R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, W. Thomas, B. W. Forgan, and C. N. Long, “Cloud coverage based on all-sky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1421–1434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. I.

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, J. I. Gordon, B. W. Fitch, and J. E. Shields, “Preliminary analysis and modeling based upon project OPAQUE profile and surface data,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 80-5, AFGL- TR-0285, NTIS No. ADB-052-1721 (1980).

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Southern Illinois,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 73-24, AFCRL- TR-0422, NTIS No. AD-774-597 (1973).

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Northern Germany,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 76-17, AFGL- TR-0188, NTIS No. ADA-035-571 (1976).

Görsdorf, U.

U. H. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gruen, A.

G. Seiz, J. E. Shields, U. Feister, E. P. Baltsavias, and A. Gruen, “Cloud mapping with ground-based photogrammetric cameras,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 2001–2032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Güldner, J.

U. H. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, J. E.

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

Hapke, B. W.

B. W. Hapke, “A theoretical function for the lunar surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4571–4585 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Henderson-Sellers, A.

K. McGuffie and A. Henderson-Sellers, “Almost a century of ‘imaging’ clouds over the whole-sky dome,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 70, 1243–1253 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hering, W. S.

R. W. Johnson and W. S. Hering, “Automated cloud cover measurements with a solid-state imaging system,” in Sixth Symposium Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1987), pp. 96–99.

R. W. Johnson and W. S. Hering, “Automated cloud cover measurements with a solid-state imaging system,” Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems—1987, Workshop (Atmospheric Sciences Division, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1987), pp. 59–69.

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, J. I. Gordon, B. W. Fitch, and J. E. Shields, “Preliminary analysis and modeling based upon project OPAQUE profile and surface data,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 80-5, AFGL- TR-0285, NTIS No. ADB-052-1721 (1980).

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, and J. E. Shields, “Automated visibility and cloud cover measurements with a solid state imaging system,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 89-7, GL-TR-89-0061, NTIS No. ADA216906 (1989).

Hodgkiss, W. S.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Whole sky imaging of clouds in the visible and IR for Starfire optical range, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #11,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA470314 (2007).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Research toward multi-site characterization of sky obscuration by clouds, final report for grant N00244-07-1-009,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA126296 (2009).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Scientific report on whole sky imager characterization of sky obscuration by clouds for the Starfire optical range, scientific report for AFRL contract FA9451-008-C-0226,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Technical Note 275, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA556222 (2010).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Enhancement of near-real-time cloud analysis and related analytic support for whole sky imagers, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #4,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA468076 (2007).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Continuing support of cloud free line of sight determination, including whole sky imaging of clouds, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #13,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA474969 (2007).

Hoffleit, E. D.

E. D. Hoffleit and W. H. Warren, The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th ed. (Astronomical Data Center and Yale University Observatory, 1991).

Johnson, R. W.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Visibility measurement along extended paths over the ocean surface,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910L (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “New cloud free line of sight statistics measured with digital whole sky imagers,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910M (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Calibrated fisheye imaging systems for determination of cloud top radiances from a UAV,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 32–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, pp. 155–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Johnson, J. E. Shields, and T. L. Koehler, “Analysis and interpretation of simultaneous multi-station whole sky imagery,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 91-33, PL-91-2214, NTIS No. ADA253658 (1991).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. L. Wertz, “Automated day/night whole sky imagers for field assessment of cloud cover distributions and radiance distributions,” in Tenth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 165–170.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Service support for the Phillips laboratory whole sky imager,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-10/97, NTIS No. ADA333283 (1997).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “Measurement and evaluation of cloud free line of sight with digital whole sky imagers,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2005).

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Northern Germany,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 76-17, AFGL- TR-0188, NTIS No. ADA-035-571 (1976).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Enhancement of near-real-time cloud analysis and related analytic support for whole sky imagers, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #4,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA468076 (2007).

R. W. Johnson and W. S. Hering, “Automated cloud cover measurements with a solid-state imaging system,” in Sixth Symposium Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1987), pp. 96–99.

R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. R. Varah, “Automated visibility measurements with a solid-state imager,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO Ref. 91-34, PL-TR-91-2016, ADA246892 (1990).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and T. L. Koehler, “Imaging systems for automated 24-hour whole sky cloud assessment and visibility determination,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems—1991 Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1991), pp. 137–142.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, R. A. Weymouth, and D. S. Sauer, “Delivery and development of a day/night whole sky imager with enhanced angular alignment for full 24 hour cloud distribution assessment,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-93-D-0141-DO#11, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-8/97, NTIS No. ADA333269 (1997).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “An automated observing system for passive evaluation of cloud cover and visibility,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 92-22, PL-TR-2202, NTIS No. ADA263207 (1992).

U. Feister, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, K. Dehne, and M. Woldt, “Ground-based cloud images and sky radiances in the visible and near infrared region from whole sky imager measurements,” EUMP31, EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility Workshop, Dresden, Germany, 20–22 November 2000 (2000), pp. 79–88.

R. W. Johnson, T. L. Koehler, and J. E. Shields, “A multi-station set of whole sky imagers and a preliminary assessment of the emerging data base,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1988 Workshop (Science and Technology Corporation, 1988), pp. 159–162.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Continuing support of cloud free line of sight determination, including whole sky imaging of clouds, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #13,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA474969 (2007).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and T. L. Koehler, “Automated whole sky imaging systems for cloud field assessment,” in Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies (American Meteorological Society, 1993), pp. 228–231.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Analytic support of the Phillips Lab whole sky imager 1997-2001, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-C-0385,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425323 (2002).

J. E. Shields, T. L. Koehler, and R. W. Johnson, “Whole sky imager,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1989/90 Conference (Science and Technology Corporation, Meetings Division, 101 Research Drive, 1990), pp. 123–128.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Automated whole sky imagers for continuous day and night cloud field assessment,” Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems- 1993, Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1993), pp. 379–384.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Whole sky imagers for real-time cloud assessment, cloud free line of sight determinations and potential tactical applications,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2003).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Research toward multi-site characterization of sky obscuration by clouds, final report for grant N00244-07-1-009,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA126296 (2009).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. G. Baker, “Analysis and measurement of cloud free line of sight and related cloud statistical behavior, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #2),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425400 (2003).

R. W. Johnson, “Method and apparatus for viewing target,” U.S. patent 7,327,513 (5February2008).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Scientific report on whole sky imager characterization of sky obscuration by clouds for the Starfire optical range, scientific report for AFRL contract FA9451-008-C-0226,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Technical Note 275, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA556222 (2010).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Whole sky imaging of clouds in the visible and IR for Starfire optical range, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #11,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA470314 (2007).

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Southern Illinois,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 73-24, AFCRL- TR-0422, NTIS No. AD-774-597 (1973).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Upgrading the day/night whole sky imager from manual/interactive to full automatic control,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #18), Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-140/94, NTIS No. ADA292296 (1994).

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, and J. E. Shields, “Automated visibility and cloud cover measurements with a solid state imaging system,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 89-7, GL-TR-89-0061, NTIS No. ADA216906 (1989).

T. L. Koehler, R. W. Johnson, and J. E. Shields, “Status of the whole sky imager database,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1991 Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1991), pp. 77–80.

R. W. Johnson and W. S. Hering, “Automated cloud cover measurements with a solid-state imaging system,” Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems—1987, Workshop (Atmospheric Sciences Division, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1987), pp. 59–69.

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, J. I. Gordon, B. W. Fitch, and J. E. Shields, “Preliminary analysis and modeling based upon project OPAQUE profile and surface data,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 80-5, AFGL- TR-0285, NTIS No. ADB-052-1721 (1980).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Development of techniques for determination of nighttime atmospheric transmittance and related analytic support for the whole sky imager, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-01-D-0043 (DO #5),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Project report for providing two day/night whole sky imagers and related development work for Starfire optical range, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-D-0350 (DO #6),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

Karr, M. E.

A. Cazorla, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, F. J. Olmo, A. R. Burden, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Technical note: determination of aerosol optical properties by a calibrated sky imager,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6417–6427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Visibility measurement along extended paths over the ocean surface,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910L (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “New cloud free line of sight statistics measured with digital whole sky imagers,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910M (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Calibrated fisheye imaging systems for determination of cloud top radiances from a UAV,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 32–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, pp. 155–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “Measurement and evaluation of cloud free line of sight with digital whole sky imagers,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2005).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Service support for the Phillips laboratory whole sky imager,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-10/97, NTIS No. ADA333283 (1997).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. L. Wertz, “Automated day/night whole sky imagers for field assessment of cloud cover distributions and radiance distributions,” in Tenth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 165–170.

R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. R. Varah, “Automated visibility measurements with a solid-state imager,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO Ref. 91-34, PL-TR-91-2016, ADA246892 (1990).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Enhancement of near-real-time cloud analysis and related analytic support for whole sky imagers, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #4,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA468076 (2007).

U. Feister, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, K. Dehne, and M. Woldt, “Ground-based cloud images and sky radiances in the visible and near infrared region from whole sky imager measurements,” EUMP31, EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility Workshop, Dresden, Germany, 20–22 November 2000 (2000), pp. 79–88.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “An automated observing system for passive evaluation of cloud cover and visibility,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 92-22, PL-TR-2202, NTIS No. ADA263207 (1992).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, R. A. Weymouth, and D. S. Sauer, “Delivery and development of a day/night whole sky imager with enhanced angular alignment for full 24 hour cloud distribution assessment,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-93-D-0141-DO#11, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-8/97, NTIS No. ADA333269 (1997).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Continuing support of cloud free line of sight determination, including whole sky imaging of clouds, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #13,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA474969 (2007).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, T. P. Tooman, D. H. Sowle, and S. T. Moore, “The whole sky imager—a year of progress,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting (United States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Environmental Sciences Division, 1998), pp. 677–685.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Automated whole sky imagers for continuous day and night cloud field assessment,” Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems- 1993, Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1993), pp. 379–384.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Analytic support of the Phillips Lab whole sky imager 1997-2001, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-C-0385,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425323 (2002).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Research toward multi-site characterization of sky obscuration by clouds, final report for grant N00244-07-1-009,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA126296 (2009).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Whole sky imagers for real-time cloud assessment, cloud free line of sight determinations and potential tactical applications,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2003).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. G. Baker, “Analysis and measurement of cloud free line of sight and related cloud statistical behavior, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #2),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425400 (2003).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Scientific report on whole sky imager characterization of sky obscuration by clouds for the Starfire optical range, scientific report for AFRL contract FA9451-008-C-0226,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Technical Note 275, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA556222 (2010).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Project report for providing two day/night whole sky imagers and related development work for Starfire optical range, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-D-0350 (DO #6),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Development of techniques for determination of nighttime atmospheric transmittance and related analytic support for the whole sky imager, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-01-D-0043 (DO #5),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Upgrading the day/night whole sky imager from manual/interactive to full automatic control,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #18), Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-140/94, NTIS No. ADA292296 (1994).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Whole sky imaging of clouds in the visible and IR for Starfire optical range, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #11,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA470314 (2007).

Kegelmeyer, W. P.

M. C. Allmen and W. P. Kegelmeyer, “The computation of cloud base height from paired whole sky imaging cameras,” Sandia Report SAND-94-8223 (Sandia National Laboratories, 1994).

Kleissl, J.

C. W. Chow, B. Urquhart, M. Lave, A. Dominguez, J. Kleissl, J. E. Shields, and B. Washom, “Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar test bed,” Sol. Energy 85, 2881–2893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kleissl, Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting(Elsevier, 2013).

Koehler, T. L.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and T. L. Koehler, “Imaging systems for automated 24-hour whole sky cloud assessment and visibility determination,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems—1991 Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1991), pp. 137–142.

R. W. Johnson, J. E. Shields, and T. L. Koehler, “Analysis and interpretation of simultaneous multi-station whole sky imagery,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 91-33, PL-91-2214, NTIS No. ADA253658 (1991).

R. W. Johnson, T. L. Koehler, and J. E. Shields, “A multi-station set of whole sky imagers and a preliminary assessment of the emerging data base,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1988 Workshop (Science and Technology Corporation, 1988), pp. 159–162.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and T. L. Koehler, “Automated whole sky imaging systems for cloud field assessment,” in Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies (American Meteorological Society, 1993), pp. 228–231.

J. E. Shields, T. L. Koehler, and R. W. Johnson, “Whole sky imager,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1989/90 Conference (Science and Technology Corporation, Meetings Division, 101 Research Drive, 1990), pp. 123–128.

T. L. Koehler, R. W. Johnson, and J. E. Shields, “Status of the whole sky imager database,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1991 Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1991), pp. 77–80.

Kondrat’yev, K. YA.

K. YA. Kondrat’yev, “Actinometry,” NASA TT F-9712, Translation of “Aktinometriya,” Gidrometeorologicheskoye Izdatel’stvo, Leningrad (1965).

Lave, M.

C. W. Chow, B. Urquhart, M. Lave, A. Dominguez, J. Kleissl, J. E. Shields, and B. Washom, “Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar test bed,” Sol. Energy 85, 2881–2893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liley, J. B.

G. Pfister, R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, W. Thomas, B. W. Forgan, and C. N. Long, “Cloud coverage based on all-sky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1421–1434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Long, C. N.

G. Pfister, R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, W. Thomas, B. W. Forgan, and C. N. Long, “Cloud coverage based on all-sky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1421–1434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Long and J. J. DeLuisi, “Development of an automated hemispheric sky imager for cloud fraction retrievals,” in Tenth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 171–174.

Loomis, C. L.

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

Lund, I.

I. Lund, “Persistence and recurrence probabilities of cloud-free and cloudy lines-of-sight through the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, pp. 1222–1228 (1973).
[CrossRef]

McGuffie, K.

K. McGuffie and A. Henderson-Sellers, “Almost a century of ‘imaging’ clouds over the whole-sky dome,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 70, 1243–1253 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R. L.

G. Pfister, R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, W. Thomas, B. W. Forgan, and C. N. Long, “Cloud coverage based on all-sky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1421–1434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mikuls, V. W.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Research toward multi-site characterization of sky obscuration by clouds, final report for grant N00244-07-1-009,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA126296 (2009).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Scientific report on whole sky imager characterization of sky obscuration by clouds for the Starfire optical range, scientific report for AFRL contract FA9451-008-C-0226,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Technical Note 275, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA556222 (2010).

Möller, H.

U. H. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moore, S. T.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, T. P. Tooman, D. H. Sowle, and S. T. Moore, “The whole sky imager—a year of progress,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting (United States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Environmental Sciences Division, 1998), pp. 677–685.

Nemiroff, R. J.

R. Pérez-Ramírez, R. J. Nemiroff, and J. B. Rafert, “Nightskylive.net: the night sky live project,” Astron. Nachr. 325, 568–570 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, P. W.

Olmo, F. J.

A. Cazorla, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, F. J. Olmo, A. R. Burden, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Technical note: determination of aerosol optical properties by a calibrated sky imager,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6417–6427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazorla, F. J. Olmo, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Development of a sky imager for cloud cover assessment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 29–39 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Ramírez, R.

R. Pérez-Ramírez, R. J. Nemiroff, and J. B. Rafert, “Nightskylive.net: the night sky live project,” Astron. Nachr. 325, 568–570 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, G.

G. Pfister, R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, W. Thomas, B. W. Forgan, and C. N. Long, “Cloud coverage based on all-sky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1421–1434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Piazzolla, S.

Rafert, J. B.

R. Pérez-Ramírez, R. J. Nemiroff, and J. B. Rafert, “Nightskylive.net: the night sky live project,” Astron. Nachr. 325, 568–570 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sattler, T.

U. H. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, D. S.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, R. A. Weymouth, and D. S. Sauer, “Delivery and development of a day/night whole sky imager with enhanced angular alignment for full 24 hour cloud distribution assessment,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-93-D-0141-DO#11, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-8/97, NTIS No. ADA333269 (1997).

Schlegel, D.

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

Seiz, G.

G. Seiz, J. E. Shields, U. Feister, E. P. Baltsavias, and A. Gruen, “Cloud mapping with ground-based photogrammetric cameras,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 2001–2032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

Shields, J.

U. Feister and J. Shields, “Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR Daylight Whole Sky Imager at Lindenberg (Germany),” Meteor. Z 14, 627–639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shields, J. E.

C. W. Chow, B. Urquhart, M. Lave, A. Dominguez, J. Kleissl, J. E. Shields, and B. Washom, “Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar test bed,” Sol. Energy 85, 2881–2893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. H. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Cazorla, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, F. J. Olmo, A. R. Burden, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Technical note: determination of aerosol optical properties by a calibrated sky imager,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6417–6427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Seiz, J. E. Shields, U. Feister, E. P. Baltsavias, and A. Gruen, “Cloud mapping with ground-based photogrammetric cameras,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 2001–2032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Visibility measurement along extended paths over the ocean surface,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910L (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “New cloud free line of sight statistics measured with digital whole sky imagers,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910M (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Calibrated fisheye imaging systems for determination of cloud top radiances from a UAV,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 32–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, pp. 155–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Johnson, J. E. Shields, and T. L. Koehler, “Analysis and interpretation of simultaneous multi-station whole sky imagery,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 91-33, PL-91-2214, NTIS No. ADA253658 (1991).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Service support for the Phillips laboratory whole sky imager,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-10/97, NTIS No. ADA333283 (1997).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. L. Wertz, “Automated day/night whole sky imagers for field assessment of cloud cover distributions and radiance distributions,” in Tenth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 165–170.

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “Measurement and evaluation of cloud free line of sight with digital whole sky imagers,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2005).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and T. L. Koehler, “Imaging systems for automated 24-hour whole sky cloud assessment and visibility determination,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems—1991 Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1991), pp. 137–142.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Enhancement of near-real-time cloud analysis and related analytic support for whole sky imagers, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #4,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA468076 (2007).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “An automated observing system for passive evaluation of cloud cover and visibility,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 92-22, PL-TR-2202, NTIS No. ADA263207 (1992).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, R. A. Weymouth, and D. S. Sauer, “Delivery and development of a day/night whole sky imager with enhanced angular alignment for full 24 hour cloud distribution assessment,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-93-D-0141-DO#11, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-8/97, NTIS No. ADA333269 (1997).

U. Feister, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, K. Dehne, and M. Woldt, “Ground-based cloud images and sky radiances in the visible and near infrared region from whole sky imager measurements,” EUMP31, EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility Workshop, Dresden, Germany, 20–22 November 2000 (2000), pp. 79–88.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Continuing support of cloud free line of sight determination, including whole sky imaging of clouds, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #13,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA474969 (2007).

R. W. Johnson, T. L. Koehler, and J. E. Shields, “A multi-station set of whole sky imagers and a preliminary assessment of the emerging data base,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1988 Workshop (Science and Technology Corporation, 1988), pp. 159–162.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, T. P. Tooman, D. H. Sowle, and S. T. Moore, “The whole sky imager—a year of progress,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting (United States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Environmental Sciences Division, 1998), pp. 677–685.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and T. L. Koehler, “Automated whole sky imaging systems for cloud field assessment,” in Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies (American Meteorological Society, 1993), pp. 228–231.

J. E. Shields, T. L. Koehler, and R. W. Johnson, “Whole sky imager,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1989/90 Conference (Science and Technology Corporation, Meetings Division, 101 Research Drive, 1990), pp. 123–128.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Analytic support of the Phillips Lab whole sky imager 1997-2001, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-C-0385,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425323 (2002).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Automated whole sky imagers for continuous day and night cloud field assessment,” Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems- 1993, Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1993), pp. 379–384.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Research toward multi-site characterization of sky obscuration by clouds, final report for grant N00244-07-1-009,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA126296 (2009).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Whole sky imagers for real-time cloud assessment, cloud free line of sight determinations and potential tactical applications,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2003).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. G. Baker, “Analysis and measurement of cloud free line of sight and related cloud statistical behavior, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #2),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425400 (2003).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Scientific report on whole sky imager characterization of sky obscuration by clouds for the Starfire optical range, scientific report for AFRL contract FA9451-008-C-0226,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Technical Note 275, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA556222 (2010).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Upgrading the day/night whole sky imager from manual/interactive to full automatic control,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #18), Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-140/94, NTIS No. ADA292296 (1994).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Whole sky imaging of clouds in the visible and IR for Starfire optical range, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #11,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA470314 (2007).

T. L. Koehler, R. W. Johnson, and J. E. Shields, “Status of the whole sky imager database,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1991 Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1991), pp. 77–80.

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, and J. E. Shields, “Automated visibility and cloud cover measurements with a solid state imaging system,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 89-7, GL-TR-89-0061, NTIS No. ADA216906 (1989).

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, J. I. Gordon, B. W. Fitch, and J. E. Shields, “Preliminary analysis and modeling based upon project OPAQUE profile and surface data,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 80-5, AFGL- TR-0285, NTIS No. ADB-052-1721 (1980).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Development of techniques for determination of nighttime atmospheric transmittance and related analytic support for the whole sky imager, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-01-D-0043 (DO #5),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Project report for providing two day/night whole sky imagers and related development work for Starfire optical range, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-D-0350 (DO #6),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

Snedden, S.

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

Snow, J. W.

J. W. Snow, “Modeling the variation of cloud cover with view angle using space shuttle cloud imagery,” Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, GL-TR-90-0130, NTIS No. ADA227895 (1990).

Sowle, D. H.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, T. P. Tooman, D. H. Sowle, and S. T. Moore, “The whole sky imager—a year of progress,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting (United States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Environmental Sciences Division, 1998), pp. 677–685.

Streeter, J. R.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Research toward multi-site characterization of sky obscuration by clouds, final report for grant N00244-07-1-009,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA126296 (2009).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Scientific report on whole sky imager characterization of sky obscuration by clouds for the Starfire optical range, scientific report for AFRL contract FA9451-008-C-0226,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Technical Note 275, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA556222 (2010).

Thomas, W.

G. Pfister, R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, W. Thomas, B. W. Forgan, and C. N. Long, “Cloud coverage based on all-sky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1421–1434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tooman, T. P.

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, T. P. Tooman, D. H. Sowle, and S. T. Moore, “The whole sky imager—a year of progress,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting (United States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Environmental Sciences Division, 1998), pp. 677–685.

Urquhart, B.

C. W. Chow, B. Urquhart, M. Lave, A. Dominguez, J. Kleissl, J. E. Shields, and B. Washom, “Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar test bed,” Sol. Energy 85, 2881–2893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Varah, J. R.

R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. R. Varah, “Automated visibility measurements with a solid-state imager,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO Ref. 91-34, PL-TR-91-2016, ADA246892 (1990).

Warren, W. H.

E. D. Hoffleit and W. H. Warren, The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th ed. (Astronomical Data Center and Yale University Observatory, 1991).

Washom, B.

C. W. Chow, B. Urquhart, M. Lave, A. Dominguez, J. Kleissl, J. E. Shields, and B. Washom, “Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar test bed,” Sol. Energy 85, 2881–2893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watson, K. M.

K. M. Watson, “Upgrade of the LIMDAS day/night whole sky imager,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-89-D-0142, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-30/93, NTIS No. ADA265871 (1993).

Wertz, J. L.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. L. Wertz, “Automated day/night whole sky imagers for field assessment of cloud cover distributions and radiance distributions,” in Tenth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 165–170.

Weymouth, R. A.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, R. A. Weymouth, and D. S. Sauer, “Delivery and development of a day/night whole sky imager with enhanced angular alignment for full 24 hour cloud distribution assessment,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-93-D-0141-DO#11, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-8/97, NTIS No. ADA333269 (1997).

Woldt, M.

U. Feister, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, K. Dehne, and M. Woldt, “Ground-based cloud images and sky radiances in the visible and near infrared region from whole sky imager measurements,” EUMP31, EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility Workshop, Dresden, Germany, 20–22 November 2000 (2000), pp. 79–88.

Woods, D.

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

Astron. Nachr. (1)

R. Pérez-Ramírez, R. J. Nemiroff, and J. B. Rafert, “Nightskylive.net: the night sky live project,” Astron. Nachr. 325, 568–570 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Cazorla, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, F. J. Olmo, A. R. Burden, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Technical note: determination of aerosol optical properties by a calibrated sky imager,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6417–6427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res. (1)

U. H. Feister, H. Möller, T. Sattler, J. E. Shields, U. Görsdorf, and J. Güldner, “Comparison of macroscopic cloud data from ground-based measurements using VIS/NIR and IR instruments at Lindenberg, Germany,” Atmos. Res. 96, 395–407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. (1)

K. S. J. Anderson, J. Brinkmann, M. Carr, D. Woods, D. P. Finkbeiner, J. E. Gunn, C. L. Loomis, D. Schlegel, and S. Snedden, “Apache Point observatory’s all-sky camera: observing clouds in the thermal infrared,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 34, 1130–1164 (2002).

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

K. McGuffie and A. Henderson-Sellers, “Almost a century of ‘imaging’ clouds over the whole-sky dome,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 70, 1243–1253 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

G. Seiz, J. E. Shields, U. Feister, E. P. Baltsavias, and A. Gruen, “Cloud mapping with ground-based photogrammetric cameras,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28, 2001–2032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

G. Pfister, R. L. McKenzie, J. B. Liley, W. Thomas, B. W. Forgan, and C. N. Long, “Cloud coverage based on all-sky imaging and its impact on surface solar irradiance,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1421–1434 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Lund, “Persistence and recurrence probabilities of cloud-free and cloudy lines-of-sight through the atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, pp. 1222–1228 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

B. W. Hapke, “A theoretical function for the lunar surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4571–4585 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meteor. Z (1)

U. Feister and J. Shields, “Cloud and radiance measurements with the VIS/NIR Daylight Whole Sky Imager at Lindenberg (Germany),” Meteor. Z 14, 627–639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Calibrated fisheye imaging systems for determination of cloud top radiances from a UAV,” Proc. SPIE 5151, 32–43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and A. R. Burden, “Visibility measurement along extended paths over the ocean surface,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910L (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, J. G. Baker, M. E. Karr, and A. R. Burden, “Multispectral scattering measurements along extended paths using an imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 6303, 63030E (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Daylight visible/NIR whole sky imagers for cloud and radiance monitoring in support of UV research programs,” Proc. SPIE 5156, pp. 155–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “New cloud free line of sight statistics measured with digital whole sky imagers,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910M (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (1)

C. W. Chow, B. Urquhart, M. Lave, A. Dominguez, J. Kleissl, J. E. Shields, and B. Washom, “Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar test bed,” Sol. Energy 85, 2881–2893 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (41)

R. W. Johnson, “Method and apparatus for viewing target,” U.S. patent 7,327,513 (5February2008).

M. C. Allmen and W. P. Kegelmeyer, “The computation of cloud base height from paired whole sky imaging cameras,” Sandia Report SAND-94-8223 (Sandia National Laboratories, 1994).

J. Kleissl, Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting(Elsevier, 2013).

E. D. Hoffleit and W. H. Warren, The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th ed. (Astronomical Data Center and Yale University Observatory, 1991).

R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. R. Varah, “Automated visibility measurements with a solid-state imager,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO Ref. 91-34, PL-TR-91-2016, ADA246892 (1990).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “An automated observing system for passive evaluation of cloud cover and visibility,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 92-22, PL-TR-2202, NTIS No. ADA263207 (1992).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. G. Baker, “Analysis and measurement of cloud free line of sight and related cloud statistical behavior, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #2),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425400 (2003).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. G. Baker, “Measurement and evaluation of cloud free line of sight with digital whole sky imagers,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2005).

C. N. Long and J. J. DeLuisi, “Development of an automated hemispheric sky imager for cloud fraction retrievals,” in Tenth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 171–174.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Service support for the Phillips laboratory whole sky imager,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-10/97, NTIS No. ADA333283 (1997).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Project report for providing two day/night whole sky imagers and related development work for Starfire optical range, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-D-0350 (DO #6),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Analytic support of the Phillips Lab whole sky imager 1997-2001, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-97-C-0385,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA425323 (2002).

J. E. Shields, A. R. Burden, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, and J. B. Baker, “Development of techniques for determination of nighttime atmospheric transmittance and related analytic support for the whole sky imager, final report to the Office of Naval Research contract N00014-01-D-0043 (DO #5),” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, ADA not assigned (2004).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Enhancement of near-real-time cloud analysis and related analytic support for whole sky imagers, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #4,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA468076 (2007).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Whole sky imaging of clouds in the visible and IR for Starfire optical range, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #11,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA470314 (2007).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Continuing support of cloud free line of sight determination, including whole sky imaging of clouds, final report for ONR contract N00014-01-D-0043 DO #13,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, ADA474969 (2007).

D. R. E. Brown, “Natural illumination charts,” Report 374-1, Project Ns-714-100, Department of the Navy, Bureau of Ships, Washington, DC (1952).

K. YA. Kondrat’yev, “Actinometry,” NASA TT F-9712, Translation of “Aktinometriya,” Gidrometeorologicheskoye Izdatel’stvo, Leningrad (1965).

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Southern Illinois,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 73-24, AFCRL- TR-0422, NTIS No. AD-774-597 (1973).

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, and J. I. Gordon, “Airborne measurements of optical atmospheric properties in Northern Germany,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 76-17, AFGL- TR-0188, NTIS No. ADA-035-571 (1976).

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, J. I. Gordon, B. W. Fitch, and J. E. Shields, “Preliminary analysis and modeling based upon project OPAQUE profile and surface data,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, SIO Ref. 80-5, AFGL- TR-0285, NTIS No. ADB-052-1721 (1980).

J. E. Shields, T. L. Koehler, and R. W. Johnson, “Whole sky imager,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1989/90 Conference (Science and Technology Corporation, Meetings Division, 101 Research Drive, 1990), pp. 123–128.

T. L. Koehler, R. W. Johnson, and J. E. Shields, “Status of the whole sky imager database,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1991 Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1991), pp. 77–80.

R. W. Johnson, J. E. Shields, and T. L. Koehler, “Analysis and interpretation of simultaneous multi-station whole sky imagery,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 91-33, PL-91-2214, NTIS No. ADA253658 (1991).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, and J. G. Baker, “Whole sky imagers for real-time cloud assessment, cloud free line of sight determinations and potential tactical applications,” The Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Monterey, California, 12–14 October 2005, http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/bacimo.html (2003).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, R. W. Johnson, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Research toward multi-site characterization of sky obscuration by clouds, final report for grant N00244-07-1-009,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA126296 (2009).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, A. R. Burden, V. W. Mikuls, J. R. Streeter, R. W. Johnson, and W. S. Hodgkiss, “Scientific report on whole sky imager characterization of sky obscuration by clouds for the Starfire optical range, scientific report for AFRL contract FA9451-008-C-0226,” Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Technical Note 275, DTIS (Stinet) File ADA556222 (2010).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and T. L. Koehler, “Imaging systems for automated 24-hour whole sky cloud assessment and visibility determination,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems—1991 Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1991), pp. 137–142.

K. M. Watson, “Upgrade of the LIMDAS day/night whole sky imager,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-89-D-0142, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-30/93, NTIS No. ADA265871 (1993).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Automated whole sky imagers for continuous day and night cloud field assessment,” Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems- 1993, Conference (Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Materiel Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1993), pp. 379–384.

R. W. Johnson and W. S. Hering, “Automated cloud cover measurements with a solid-state imaging system,” Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems—1987, Workshop (Atmospheric Sciences Division, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom Air Force Base, 1987), pp. 59–69.

R. W. Johnson, T. L. Koehler, and J. E. Shields, “A multi-station set of whole sky imagers and a preliminary assessment of the emerging data base,” in Proceedings of the Cloud Impacts on DOD Operations and Systems, 1988 Workshop (Science and Technology Corporation, 1988), pp. 159–162.

J. W. Snow, “Modeling the variation of cloud cover with view angle using space shuttle cloud imagery,” Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, GL-TR-90-0130, NTIS No. ADA227895 (1990).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and M. E. Karr, “Upgrading the day/night whole sky imager from manual/interactive to full automatic control,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-89-D-0142 (DO #18), Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-140/94, NTIS No. ADA292296 (1994).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, R. A. Weymouth, and D. S. Sauer, “Delivery and development of a day/night whole sky imager with enhanced angular alignment for full 24 hour cloud distribution assessment,” Final Report to the Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-93-D-0141-DO#11, Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, MPL-U-8/97, NTIS No. ADA333269 (1997).

J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, T. P. Tooman, D. H. Sowle, and S. T. Moore, “The whole sky imager—a year of progress,” in Proceedings of the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting (United States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Environmental Sciences Division, 1998), pp. 677–685.

U. Feister, J. E. Shields, M. E. Karr, R. W. Johnson, K. Dehne, and M. Woldt, “Ground-based cloud images and sky radiances in the visible and near infrared region from whole sky imager measurements,” EUMP31, EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility Workshop, Dresden, Germany, 20–22 November 2000 (2000), pp. 79–88.

R. W. Johnson and W. S. Hering, “Automated cloud cover measurements with a solid-state imaging system,” in Sixth Symposium Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1987), pp. 96–99.

R. W. Johnson, W. S. Hering, and J. E. Shields, “Automated visibility and cloud cover measurements with a solid state imaging system,” University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical Laboratory, SIO 89-7, GL-TR-89-0061, NTIS No. ADA216906 (1989).

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, and T. L. Koehler, “Automated whole sky imaging systems for cloud field assessment,” in Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies (American Meteorological Society, 1993), pp. 228–231.

J. E. Shields, R. W. Johnson, M. E. Karr, and J. L. Wertz, “Automated day/night whole sky imagers for field assessment of cloud cover distributions and radiance distributions,” in Tenth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 165–170.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two early WSI systems developed at MPL, the all-sky camera used in 1963, and the digital day WSI used in the 1980s.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sample raw and cloud decision images from the day WSI acquired in 1989 at Columbia, Missouri. The cloud decision image is the result of the cloud algorithm assessment of cloud at each pixel. Blue=no cld., Yellow=thin cld., Gray/white=opaque cld, Black=no data. (In B/W, no cld is gray, cld is white.)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

D/N WSI developed at MPL starting in the early 1990s.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

D/N WSI camera housing. A, dome; B, fisheye lens; C, lens mounting plate; D, custom filter changer; E, shutter; F, IR blocking filter; G, image plane; H, fiber optic taper; I, camera housing body; J, camera.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Daytime image from the D/N WSI, 26 Jul 05 2200z.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Moonlight image from the D/N WSI, 27 Jul 05 1001z.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Starlight image from the D/N WSI at a typical site, 14 Aug 05 0902z.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Starlight image from the D/N WSI at a very dark site, 14 Sep 93 0339z. Blooming on upper right is from a city approximately 60 miles distant.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Daytime image pair illustrating a raw image and the associated cloud algorithm result, 19 May 06 1700z.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Daytime image pair illustrating a raw image and the associated cloud algorithm result with contrails developing into thin clouds, 19 Nov 2007 1700z.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Moonlight image pair illustrating a raw image with transmittance map and the associated cloud algorithm result, 2 Feb 2008 0800z.

Metrics