Abstract

A compact silicon diffractive sensor detecting toluene in solution is demonstrated. This sensor is fabricated in silicon-on-insulator and utilizes a standard telecommunications wavelength. In-plane diffraction gratings enable micrometer-scale device sizes and intensity-based (as opposed to spectral-based) detection for increased integrability. Precise grating design enables 2-D sensor arrays without the addition of separate optical splitters. Detection of the relative diffracted and transmitted intensities is independent of attenuation and is thus robust. This proof-of-concept sensor is shown to measure toluene concentrations as low as 100 parts per million, corresponding to a refractive index change of 3×104. In addition, a linear sensor array with individual sensor addressability and 2-D array capability is demonstrated. The characteristics of this sensor type make it promising for field-deployable lab-on-a-chip applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

J. R. Krenn, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Lamprecht, E. Kraker, G. Jakopic, and T. Mayr, “Waveguide-integrated SPR sensing on an all-organic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8073, 80730F (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, G. Bisra, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for the detection of biomolecules in PDMS microfluidic channels,” Proc. SPIE 7929, 79290I (2011).

2010

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, D. C. Sekar, C. R. King, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated microfluidic cooling and interconnects for 2D and 3D chips,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 33, 79–87(2010).

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. M. Lechuga, K. Zinoviev, L. Fernandez, J. Elizalde, O. E. Hidalgo, and C. Dominguez, “Biosensing microsystem platforms based on the integration of Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7220, 72200L (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Yanagisawa, Y. Tsuji, H. Yoshinaga, N. Kono, and K. Hiratsuka, “Evaluation of nanoimprint lithography as a fabrication process of phase-shifted diffraction gratings of distributed feedback laser diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2776–2780 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “Fabrication of 150 nm half-pitch grating templates for nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1437–1440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Tripathi, A. Kumar, E. Marin, and J. P. Meunier, “Bragg grating based biochemical sensor using submicron Si/SiO2 waveguides for lab-on-a-chip applications: a novel design,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4562–4567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “A nanoimprint lithography for fabricating SU-8 gratings for near-infrared to deep-UV application,” Microelectron. Eng. 85, 914–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. N. Passaro, R. Loiacono, G. D’Amico, and F. De Leonardis, “Design of Bragg grating sensors based on submicrometer optical rib waveguides in SOI,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1603–1611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Shew, Y. C. Cheng, and Y. H. Tsai, “Monolithic SU-8 micro-interferometer for biochemical detections,” Sens. Actuators A 141, 299–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

S.-D. Wu, T. K. Gaylord, J. S. Maikisch, and E. N. Glytsis, “Optimization of anisotropically etched silicon surface-relief gratings for substrate-mode optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 45, 15–21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Adam, J. Dostalek, and J. Homola, “Multiple surface plasmon spectroscopy for study of biomolecular systems,” Sens. Actuators B 113, 774–781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Optical biosensor microsystems based on the integration of highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 561–566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated thermal-fluidic I/O interconnects for an on-chip microchannel heat sink,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 117–119(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. P. Campbell, J. L. Moore, J. M. Cobb, N. F. Hartman, B. H. Schneider, and M. G. Venugopal, “Optical system-on-a-chip for chemical and biochemical sensing: the chemistry,” Proc. SPIE 3540, 153–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

L. U. Kempen and R. E. Kunz, “Replicated Mach-Zehnder interferometers with focusing grating couplers for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 295–299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. D. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 261–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

1981

Abad, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P.

P. Adam, J. Dostalek, and J. Homola, “Multiple surface plasmon spectroscopy for study of biomolecular systems,” Sens. Actuators B 113, 774–781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Debackere, D. Taillaert, K. De Vos, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Si based waveguide and surface plasmon sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6477, 647719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bakir, M. S.

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, D. C. Sekar, C. R. King, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated microfluidic cooling and interconnects for 2D and 3D chips,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 33, 79–87(2010).

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated thermal-fluidic I/O interconnects for an on-chip microchannel heat sink,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 117–119(2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartolozzi, I.

Bienstman, P.

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Debackere, D. Taillaert, K. De Vos, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Si based waveguide and surface plasmon sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6477, 647719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bisra, G.

J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, G. Bisra, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for the detection of biomolecules in PDMS microfluidic channels,” Proc. SPIE 7929, 79290I (2011).

Blanco, F. J.

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Optical biosensor microsystems based on the integration of highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 561–566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. K.

D. K. Brown, “Nanometer scale Bosch process silicon etching,” presented at the IEEE Electron Ion Photon Beam and Nanofabrication Conference, Anchorage, Alaska, 1–4 June2010.

Calle, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, D. P.

D. P. Campbell, J. L. Moore, J. M. Cobb, N. F. Hartman, B. H. Schneider, and M. G. Venugopal, “Optical system-on-a-chip for chemical and biochemical sensing: the chemistry,” Proc. SPIE 3540, 153–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “Fabrication of 150 nm half-pitch grating templates for nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1437–1440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “A nanoimprint lithography for fabricating SU-8 gratings for near-infrared to deep-UV application,” Microelectron. Eng. 85, 914–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

B. Y. Shew, Y. C. Cheng, and Y. H. Tsai, “Monolithic SU-8 micro-interferometer for biochemical detections,” Sens. Actuators A 141, 299–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. C.

J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, G. Bisra, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for the detection of biomolecules in PDMS microfluidic channels,” Proc. SPIE 7929, 79290I (2011).

Chrostowski, L.

J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, G. Bisra, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for the detection of biomolecules in PDMS microfluidic channels,” Proc. SPIE 7929, 79290I (2011).

Cobb, J. M.

D. P. Campbell, J. L. Moore, J. M. Cobb, N. F. Hartman, B. H. Schneider, and M. G. Venugopal, “Optical system-on-a-chip for chemical and biochemical sensing: the chemistry,” Proc. SPIE 3540, 153–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, G.

V. M. N. Passaro, R. Loiacono, G. D’Amico, and F. De Leonardis, “Design of Bragg grating sensors based on submicrometer optical rib waveguides in SOI,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1603–1611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dang, B.

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, D. C. Sekar, C. R. King, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated microfluidic cooling and interconnects for 2D and 3D chips,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 33, 79–87(2010).

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated thermal-fluidic I/O interconnects for an on-chip microchannel heat sink,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 117–119(2006).
[CrossRef]

De Leonardis, F.

V. M. N. Passaro, R. Loiacono, G. D’Amico, and F. De Leonardis, “Design of Bragg grating sensors based on submicrometer optical rib waveguides in SOI,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1603–1611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

P. Debackere, D. Taillaert, K. De Vos, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Si based waveguide and surface plasmon sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6477, 647719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Debackere, P.

P. Debackere, D. Taillaert, K. De Vos, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Si based waveguide and surface plasmon sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6477, 647719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

del Rio, J. S.

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Optical biosensor microsystems based on the integration of highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 561–566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

J. R. Krenn, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Lamprecht, E. Kraker, G. Jakopic, and T. Mayr, “Waveguide-integrated SPR sensing on an all-organic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8073, 80730F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dominguez, C.

L. M. Lechuga, K. Zinoviev, L. Fernandez, J. Elizalde, O. E. Hidalgo, and C. Dominguez, “Biosensing microsystem platforms based on the integration of Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7220, 72200L (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Optical biosensor microsystems based on the integration of highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 561–566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dostalek, J.

P. Adam, J. Dostalek, and J. Homola, “Multiple surface plasmon spectroscopy for study of biomolecular systems,” Sens. Actuators B 113, 774–781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elizalde, J.

L. M. Lechuga, K. Zinoviev, L. Fernandez, J. Elizalde, O. E. Hidalgo, and C. Dominguez, “Biosensing microsystem platforms based on the integration of Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7220, 72200L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emmerson, G. D.

Fernandez, L.

L. M. Lechuga, K. Zinoviev, L. Fernandez, J. Elizalde, O. E. Hidalgo, and C. Dominguez, “Biosensing microsystem platforms based on the integration of Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7220, 72200L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flueckiger, J.

J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, G. Bisra, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for the detection of biomolecules in PDMS microfluidic channels,” Proc. SPIE 7929, 79290I (2011).

Fung, W.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galler, N.

J. R. Krenn, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Lamprecht, E. Kraker, G. Jakopic, and T. Mayr, “Waveguide-integrated SPR sensing on an all-organic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8073, 80730F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gawith, C. B. E.

Gaylord, T. K.

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

Grist, S. M.

J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, G. Bisra, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for the detection of biomolecules in PDMS microfluidic channels,” Proc. SPIE 7929, 79290I (2011).

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

R. D. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 261–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, N. F.

D. P. Campbell, J. L. Moore, J. M. Cobb, N. F. Hartman, B. H. Schneider, and M. G. Venugopal, “Optical system-on-a-chip for chemical and biochemical sensing: the chemistry,” Proc. SPIE 3540, 153–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hidalgo, O. E.

L. M. Lechuga, K. Zinoviev, L. Fernandez, J. Elizalde, O. E. Hidalgo, and C. Dominguez, “Biosensing microsystem platforms based on the integration of Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7220, 72200L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hiratsuka, K.

M. Yanagisawa, Y. Tsuji, H. Yoshinaga, N. Kono, and K. Hiratsuka, “Evaluation of nanoimprint lithography as a fabrication process of phase-shifted diffraction gratings of distributed feedback laser diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2776–2780 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

J. R. Krenn, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Lamprecht, E. Kraker, G. Jakopic, and T. Mayr, “Waveguide-integrated SPR sensing on an all-organic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8073, 80730F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

P. Adam, J. Dostalek, and J. Homola, “Multiple surface plasmon spectroscopy for study of biomolecular systems,” Sens. Actuators B 113, 774–781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors, Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors (Springer, 2006), Vol. 4.

Huq, E.

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jakopic, G.

J. R. Krenn, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Lamprecht, E. Kraker, G. Jakopic, and T. Mayr, “Waveguide-integrated SPR sensing on an all-organic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8073, 80730F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kempen, L. U.

L. U. Kempen and R. E. Kunz, “Replicated Mach-Zehnder interferometers with focusing grating couplers for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 295–299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

King, C. R.

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, D. C. Sekar, C. R. King, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated microfluidic cooling and interconnects for 2D and 3D chips,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 33, 79–87(2010).

Kono, N.

M. Yanagisawa, Y. Tsuji, H. Yoshinaga, N. Kono, and K. Hiratsuka, “Evaluation of nanoimprint lithography as a fabrication process of phase-shifted diffraction gratings of distributed feedback laser diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2776–2780 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kraker, E.

J. R. Krenn, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Lamprecht, E. Kraker, G. Jakopic, and T. Mayr, “Waveguide-integrated SPR sensing on an all-organic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8073, 80730F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Lamprecht, E. Kraker, G. Jakopic, and T. Mayr, “Waveguide-integrated SPR sensing on an all-organic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8073, 80730F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

Kunz, R. E.

L. U. Kempen and R. E. Kunz, “Replicated Mach-Zehnder interferometers with focusing grating couplers for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 295–299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

J. R. Krenn, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Lamprecht, E. Kraker, G. Jakopic, and T. Mayr, “Waveguide-integrated SPR sensing on an all-organic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8073, 80730F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, L. M.

L. M. Lechuga, K. Zinoviev, L. Fernandez, J. Elizalde, O. E. Hidalgo, and C. Dominguez, “Biosensing microsystem platforms based on the integration of Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7220, 72200L (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Optical biosensor microsystems based on the integration of highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 561–566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “Fabrication of 150 nm half-pitch grating templates for nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1437–1440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “A nanoimprint lithography for fabricating SU-8 gratings for near-infrared to deep-UV application,” Microelectron. Eng. 85, 914–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Llobera, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loiacono, R.

V. M. N. Passaro, R. Loiacono, G. D’Amico, and F. De Leonardis, “Design of Bragg grating sensors based on submicrometer optical rib waveguides in SOI,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1603–1611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B.

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B.-R.

S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “Fabrication of 150 nm half-pitch grating templates for nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1437–1440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “A nanoimprint lithography for fabricating SU-8 gratings for near-infrared to deep-UV application,” Microelectron. Eng. 85, 914–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maikisch, J. S.

Marin, E.

Mayora, K.

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Optical biosensor microsystems based on the integration of highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 561–566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mayr, T.

J. R. Krenn, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Lamprecht, E. Kraker, G. Jakopic, and T. Mayr, “Waveguide-integrated SPR sensing on an all-organic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8073, 80730F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meindl, J. D.

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, D. C. Sekar, C. R. King, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated microfluidic cooling and interconnects for 2D and 3D chips,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 33, 79–87(2010).

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated thermal-fluidic I/O interconnects for an on-chip microchannel heat sink,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 117–119(2006).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J. P.

Moharam, M. G.

Montoya, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. L.

D. P. Campbell, J. L. Moore, J. M. Cobb, N. F. Hartman, B. H. Schneider, and M. G. Venugopal, “Optical system-on-a-chip for chemical and biochemical sensing: the chemistry,” Proc. SPIE 3540, 153–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, M.

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Optical biosensor microsystems based on the integration of highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 561–566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, V. M. N.

V. M. N. Passaro, R. Loiacono, G. D’Amico, and F. De Leonardis, “Design of Bragg grating sensors based on submicrometer optical rib waveguides in SOI,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1603–1611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, F.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qu, X.-P.

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “Fabrication of 150 nm half-pitch grating templates for nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1437–1440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “A nanoimprint lithography for fabricating SU-8 gratings for near-infrared to deep-UV application,” Microelectron. Eng. 85, 914–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

Scheerlinck, S.

P. Debackere, D. Taillaert, K. De Vos, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Si based waveguide and surface plasmon sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6477, 647719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, B. H.

D. P. Campbell, J. L. Moore, J. M. Cobb, N. F. Hartman, B. H. Schneider, and M. G. Venugopal, “Optical system-on-a-chip for chemical and biochemical sensing: the chemistry,” Proc. SPIE 3540, 153–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sekar, D. C.

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, D. C. Sekar, C. R. King, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated microfluidic cooling and interconnects for 2D and 3D chips,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 33, 79–87(2010).

Sepulveda, B.

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Optical biosensor microsystems based on the integration of highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 561–566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shew, B. Y.

B. Y. Shew, Y. C. Cheng, and Y. H. Tsai, “Monolithic SU-8 micro-interferometer for biochemical detections,” Sens. Actuators A 141, 299–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shu, Z.

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. G. R.

Sparrow, I. J. G.

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “Fabrication of 150 nm half-pitch grating templates for nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1437–1440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “A nanoimprint lithography for fabricating SU-8 gratings for near-infrared to deep-UV application,” Microelectron. Eng. 85, 914–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

P. Debackere, D. Taillaert, K. De Vos, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Si based waveguide and surface plasmon sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6477, 647719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, S. M.

Tsai, Y. H.

B. Y. Shew, Y. C. Cheng, and Y. H. Tsai, “Monolithic SU-8 micro-interferometer for biochemical detections,” Sens. Actuators A 141, 299–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, Y.

M. Yanagisawa, Y. Tsuji, H. Yoshinaga, N. Kono, and K. Hiratsuka, “Evaluation of nanoimprint lithography as a fabrication process of phase-shifted diffraction gratings of distributed feedback laser diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2776–2780 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Venugopal, M. G.

D. P. Campbell, J. L. Moore, J. M. Cobb, N. F. Hartman, B. H. Schneider, and M. G. Venugopal, “Optical system-on-a-chip for chemical and biochemical sensing: the chemistry,” Proc. SPIE 3540, 153–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wan, J.

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “A nanoimprint lithography for fabricating SU-8 gratings for near-infrared to deep-UV application,” Microelectron. Eng. 85, 914–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

R. D. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 261–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. B.

Wu, S.-D.

Xie, S.-Q.

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “Fabrication of 150 nm half-pitch grating templates for nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1437–1440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “A nanoimprint lithography for fabricating SU-8 gratings for near-infrared to deep-UV application,” Microelectron. Eng. 85, 914–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yanagisawa, M.

M. Yanagisawa, Y. Tsuji, H. Yoshinaga, N. Kono, and K. Hiratsuka, “Evaluation of nanoimprint lithography as a fabrication process of phase-shifted diffraction gratings of distributed feedback laser diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2776–2780 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R.

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshinaga, H.

M. Yanagisawa, Y. Tsuji, H. Yoshinaga, N. Kono, and K. Hiratsuka, “Evaluation of nanoimprint lithography as a fabrication process of phase-shifted diffraction gratings of distributed feedback laser diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2776–2780 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zinoviev, K.

L. M. Lechuga, K. Zinoviev, L. Fernandez, J. Elizalde, O. E. Hidalgo, and C. Dominguez, “Biosensing microsystem platforms based on the integration of Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7220, 72200L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated thermal-fluidic I/O interconnects for an on-chip microchannel heat sink,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27, 117–119(2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

V. M. N. Passaro, R. Loiacono, G. D’Amico, and F. De Leonardis, “Design of Bragg grating sensors based on submicrometer optical rib waveguides in SOI,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1603–1611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging

B. Dang, M. S. Bakir, D. C. Sekar, C. R. King, and J. D. Meindl, “Integrated microfluidic cooling and interconnects for 2D and 3D chips,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 33, 79–87(2010).

Int. J. Nanosci.

B. Lu, S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, R. Yang, Z. Shu, X.-P. Qu, R. Liu, Y. Chen, and E. Huq, “Applications of nanoimprint lithography for biochemical and nanophotonic structures using SU-8,” Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 151–155 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.

S.-Q. Xie, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “Fabrication of 150 nm half-pitch grating templates for nanoimprint lithography,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 1437–1440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

B. Sepulveda, J. S. del Rio, M. Moreno, F. J. Blanco, K. Mayora, C. Dominguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Optical biosensor microsystems based on the integration of highly sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 561–566 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

M. Yanagisawa, Y. Tsuji, H. Yoshinaga, N. Kono, and K. Hiratsuka, “Evaluation of nanoimprint lithography as a fabrication process of phase-shifted diffraction gratings of distributed feedback laser diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 2776–2780 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

S.-Q. Xie, J. Wan, B.-R. Lu, Y. Sun, Y. Chen, X.-P. Qu, and R. Liu, “A nanoimprint lithography for fabricating SU-8 gratings for near-infrared to deep-UV application,” Microelectron. Eng. 85, 914–917 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14, 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, G. Bisra, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for the detection of biomolecules in PDMS microfluidic channels,” Proc. SPIE 7929, 79290I (2011).

L. M. Lechuga, K. Zinoviev, L. Fernandez, J. Elizalde, O. E. Hidalgo, and C. Dominguez, “Biosensing microsystem platforms based on the integration of Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer, microfluidics and grating couplers,” Proc. SPIE 7220, 72200L (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Debackere, D. Taillaert, K. De Vos, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Si based waveguide and surface plasmon sensors,” Proc. SPIE 6477, 647719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Lamprecht, E. Kraker, G. Jakopic, and T. Mayr, “Waveguide-integrated SPR sensing on an all-organic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8073, 80730F (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Campbell, J. L. Moore, J. M. Cobb, N. F. Hartman, B. H. Schneider, and M. G. Venugopal, “Optical system-on-a-chip for chemical and biochemical sensing: the chemistry,” Proc. SPIE 3540, 153–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A

B. Y. Shew, Y. C. Cheng, and Y. H. Tsai, “Monolithic SU-8 micro-interferometer for biochemical detections,” Sens. Actuators A 141, 299–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

L. U. Kempen and R. E. Kunz, “Replicated Mach-Zehnder interferometers with focusing grating couplers for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B 39, 295–299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 261–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Adam, J. Dostalek, and J. Homola, “Multiple surface plasmon spectroscopy for study of biomolecular systems,” Sens. Actuators B 113, 774–781 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors, Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors (Springer, 2006), Vol. 4.

MicroChem Corp., Newton, Massachusetts, www.microchem.com .

Soitec, Bernin, France, www.soitec.com .

D. K. Brown, “Nanometer scale Bosch process silicon etching,” presented at the IEEE Electron Ion Photon Beam and Nanofabrication Conference, Anchorage, Alaska, 1–4 June2010.

DuPont, Wilmington, Delaware, www.dupont.com .

Upchurch Scientific, Oak Harbor, Washington, www.upchurch.com .

Henkel Corporation, Dusseldorf, Germany, www.henkel.com .

National Instruments Corporation, Austin, Texas, www.ni.com .

The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts, www.mathworks.com .

Hamamatsu Corp., Bridgewater, New Jersey, www.hamamatsu.com .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication of the CSDS toluene sensor and microfluidic assembly.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental configuration for the CSDS toluene sensor. Polarization-controlled monochromatic light is coupled to the sample by a tapered fiber. Sample fluid is delivered through the Teflon PFA microchannel. Diffracted light is coupled out-of-plane by outcoupling gratings. It is then imaged by a microscope objective to an infrared camera for measurement.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fabricated toluene sensor configuration and measurement for the 50% primary grating.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results for the toluene sensor with a 50% primary grating design. The top plot is the measured data. The bottom plot shows the result after applying an ideal low-pass filter to reduce noise from the infrared camera. Toluene is measured in concentrations of 100, 200, and 500 ppm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fabricated linear sensor array configuration and measurement. In order of incidence, primary gratings have diffraction efficiencies of 20%, 25%, 33%, and 50%.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental results compared with FDTD simulation with Gaussian incidence for the linear sensor array prototype addressing the sensor with a 33% primary grating diffraction efficiency. For the 33% primary grating sensor, refractive index oils ranging from n=1.432 to n=1.511 were flowed into the primary grating boundary. Refractive index oil of n=1.471 is flowed for the remaining sensors. The diffraction efficiencies are in good agreement with simulation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Designs for Primary and Secondary Gratingsa

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