Abstract

Recent developments in multiscale imaging systems have opened up the possibility for commercially viable wide-field gigapixel cameras. While multiscale design principles allow tremendous simplification of the optical design, they place increased emphasis on optomechanics and system level integration of the camera as a whole. In this paper we present the optomechanical design of a prototype two-gigapixel system (AWARE-2) that has been constructed and tested.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, H. S. Son, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale camera,” Opt. Eng. 51, 083202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

D. L. Marks and D. J. Brady, “Close-up imaging using microcamera arrays for focal plane synthesis,” Opt. Eng. 50, 033205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Son, D. L. Marks, J. Hahn, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Design of a spherical focal surface using close-packed relay optics,” Opt. Express 19, 16132–16138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. W. Hodapp, U. Laux, W. A. Siegmund, N. Kaiser, K. C. Chambers, U. Laux, J. Morgan, and E. Mannery, “Optical design of the Pan-STARRS telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5249, 165–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. F. Stevens and T. G. Harvey, “Lens arrays for a three-dimensional imaging system,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S17–S21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1979 (1)

Adams, A.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R. D.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. H.

Antoniades, J.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Antunez, E.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barth, A.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bender, R.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, G.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D. J.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, H. S. Son, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale camera,” Opt. Eng. 51, 083202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Son, D. L. Marks, J. Hahn, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Design of a spherical focal surface using close-packed relay optics,” Opt. Express 19, 16132–16138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks and D. J. Brady, “Close-up imaging using microcamera arrays for focal plane synthesis,” Opt. Eng. 50, 033205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Brady and N. Hagen, “Multiscale lens design,” Opt. Express 17, 10659–10674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Braun, M.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, P.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chambers, K. C.

K. W. Hodapp, U. Laux, W. A. Siegmund, N. Kaiser, K. C. Chambers, U. Laux, J. Morgan, and E. Mannery, “Optical design of the Pan-STARRS telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5249, 165–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chester, D.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chonis, T.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cornell, M. E.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, G.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

DePoy, D. L.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drory, N.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, J.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fabricius, M. H.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feller, S. D.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gebhardt, K.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gehm, M. E.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gershfield, C.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golish, D. R.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Good, J.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, N.

Hahn, J.

Harvey, T. G.

R. F. Stevens and T. G. Harvey, “Lens arrays for a three-dimensional imaging system,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S17–S21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, D.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G. J.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hodapp, K. W.

K. W. Hodapp, U. Laux, W. A. Siegmund, N. Kaiser, K. C. Chambers, U. Laux, J. Morgan, and E. Mannery, “Optical design of the Pan-STARRS telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5249, 165–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jahn, T.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, N.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

K. W. Hodapp, U. Laux, W. A. Siegmund, N. Kaiser, K. C. Chambers, U. Laux, J. Morgan, and E. Mannery, “Optical design of the Pan-STARRS telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5249, 165–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kelz, A.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

D. L. Marks, H. S. Son, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale camera,” Opt. Eng. 51, 083202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Son, D. L. Marks, J. Hahn, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Design of a spherical focal surface using close-packed relay optics,” Opt. Express 19, 16132–16138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kittle, D. S.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laux, U.

K. W. Hodapp, U. Laux, W. A. Siegmund, N. Kaiser, K. C. Chambers, U. Laux, J. Morgan, and E. Mannery, “Optical design of the Pan-STARRS telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5249, 165–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Hodapp, U. Laux, W. A. Siegmund, N. Kaiser, K. C. Chambers, U. Laux, J. Morgan, and E. Mannery, “Optical design of the Pan-STARRS telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5249, 165–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leininger, B.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levoy, M.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, E.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

MacQueen, P. J.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Madden, D. G.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mannery, E.

K. W. Hodapp, U. Laux, W. A. Siegmund, N. Kaiser, K. C. Chambers, U. Laux, J. Morgan, and E. Mannery, “Optical design of the Pan-STARRS telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5249, 165–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

D. L. Marks, H. S. Son, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale camera,” Opt. Eng. 51, 083202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Son, D. L. Marks, J. Hahn, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Design of a spherical focal surface using close-packed relay optics,” Opt. Express 19, 16132–16138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks and D. J. Brady, “Close-up imaging using microcamera arrays for focal plane synthesis,” Opt. Eng. 50, 033205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J. L.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, J.

K. W. Hodapp, U. Laux, W. A. Siegmund, N. Kaiser, K. C. Chambers, U. Laux, J. Morgan, and E. Mannery, “Optical design of the Pan-STARRS telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5249, 165–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J. D.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prochaska, T.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rafal, M. D.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M. M.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Savage, R. D.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shafique, K. H.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegmund, W. A.

K. W. Hodapp, U. Laux, W. A. Siegmund, N. Kaiser, K. C. Chambers, U. Laux, J. Morgan, and E. Mannery, “Optical design of the Pan-STARRS telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5249, 165–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Snigula, J.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Son, H. S.

D. L. Marks, H. S. Son, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale camera,” Opt. Eng. 51, 083202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Son, D. L. Marks, J. Hahn, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Design of a spherical focal surface using close-packed relay optics,” Opt. Express 19, 16132–16138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stack, R. A.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, R. F.

R. F. Stevens and T. G. Harvey, “Lens arrays for a three-dimensional imaging system,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S17–S21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Talvala, E. V.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Targove, J. D.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, S. E.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vaish, V.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vattiat, B. L.

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vera, E. M.

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wein, S.

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilburn, B.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E. V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765–776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. F. Stevens and T. G. Harvey, “Lens arrays for a three-dimensional imaging system,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S17–S21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. J. Brady, M. E. Gehm, R. A. Stack, D. L. Marks, D. S. Kittle, D. R. Golish, E. M. Vera, and S. D. Feller, “Multiscale gigapixel photography,” Nature 486, 386–389 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. L. Marks and D. J. Brady, “Close-up imaging using microcamera arrays for focal plane synthesis,” Opt. Eng. 50, 033205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, H. S. Son, J. Kim, and D. J. Brady, “Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale camera,” Opt. Eng. 51, 083202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

G. J. Hill, S. E. Tuttle, H. Lee, B. L. Vattiat, M. E. Cornell, D. L. DePoy, N. Drory, M. H. Fabricius, A. Kelz, J. L. Marshall, J. D. Murphy, T. Prochaska, R. D. Allen, R. Bender, G. Blanc, T. Chonis, G. Dalton, K. Gebhardt, J. Good, D. Haynes, T. Jahn, P. J. MacQueen, M. D. Rafal, M. M. Roth, R. D. Savage, and J. Snigula, “VIRUS: production of a massively replicated 33 k fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby–Eberly telescope,” Proc. SPIE 8446, 84460N (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Hodapp, U. Laux, W. A. Siegmund, N. Kaiser, K. C. Chambers, U. Laux, J. Morgan, and E. Mannery, “Optical design of the Pan-STARRS telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5249, 165–174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Leininger, J. Edwards, J. Antoniades, D. Chester, D. Haas, E. Liu, M. Stevens, C. Gershfield, M. Braun, J. D. Targove, S. Wein, P. Brewer, D. G. Madden, and K. H. Shafique, “Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance—imaging system (ARGUS-IS),” Proc. SPIE 6981, 69810H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

SolidWorks 2012, Dassault Systemes SolidWorks Corp.(Waltham, Massachusetts, 2012). http://www.solidworks.com.

Zemax 12, Radiant Zemax LLC (Redmond, Washington, 2012). http://www.radiantzemax.com.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of a multiscale imaging system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

ZEMAX optical design of AWARE-2. The chief ray and two marginal rays of 0° field angle are shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Illustration of how having an image that slightly underfills the sensor requires careful alignment to prevent loss of important image areas.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Solid drawing of micro-optics for AWARE-2. (b) Solid drawing of micro-optics assembled into a cutout barrel.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Solid drawing of complete sensor module assembly.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Solid drawing of microcamera assembly. (b) Photo of actual microcamera with a US quarter coin for size comparison.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Solid drawing of dome. (b) Photo of actual machined aluminum dome.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Solid drawing of flexure mount for main objective lens. (b) Photo of machined flexure.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Back of optics barrel showing alignment pins. (b) Front of sensor module showing pin and dogbone bushings.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Steps for aligning bushings on the sensor. (a) Align bushings relative to a known shadow mask. (b) Illuminate mask to cast shadow on sensor. (c) Move sensor into position and power on to capture shadow position. Adjust position and angle until mask pattern is aligned with predetermined position. (d) Photo of actual setup.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) View from behind dome of arrangement of microcameras in AWARE-2 system. (b) View from inside dome of stacked micro-optics.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a) View from sensor perspective of microcamera retention and clocking mechanisms. (b) Cross-sectional view of microcamera in dome showing how the camera seats into the counterbore. (c) Photo of assembly step.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

(a) Photo of assembly of camera to front faceplate of enclosure. (b) Full camera in enclosure with electronics.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

(a) Change in BFL as a function of uniform temperature of dome. (b) Change in spot size at edge of field as a function of uniform temperature of dome.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Temperature gradient induced in dome by internally generated heat from microcameras. 1 W of heat per microcamera at 20°C room temperature.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Tolerance Budget for AWARE-2a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Change in Pointing Angles and Positions of Microcameras due to Thermal Deformations

Metrics