Abstract

We report on the correlation between the laser damage resistance, the optical and the physical properties of Sc2O3/SiO2 mixture coatings. Several sets of samples with ten different mixture ratios have been prepared by ion-beam sputtering. The atomic compositions of the mixture thin films are quantified employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiles. Laser-induced damage thresholds are determined with single subpicosecond pulses (500 fs) at 1030 nm. Furthermore, Son1 multishot measurements are realized in the ultraviolet wavelength range (355 nm) at pulse durations of 5 ns. In addition, the influence of two different substrate polishing qualities on the radiation resistance of the composite thin films is discussed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. L. O. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Investigations on SiO2/HfO2 mixtures for nanosecond and femtosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, M. Mende, L. Jensen, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, and R. Drazdys, “Femtosecond laser damage resistance of oxide and mixture oxide optical coatings,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1478–1480 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. M. Dieckmann, “SPEKTRUM, thin film design software,” Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., 1990–2012.
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    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627–637 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical-absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1480–1483 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Zerrad, F. Lemarchand, L. H. Gao, M. Commandré, and M. Lequime, “A high accuracy femto-/picosecond laser damage test facility dedicated to the study of optical thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013109 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, “Stress reduction in ion beam sputtered mixed oxide films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2800–2805 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C.-C. Lee and C.-J. Tang, “TiO2−Ta2O5 composite thin films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9125–9131 (2006).
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  29. X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2−SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 338, 105–109 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J.-S. Chen, S. Chao, J.-S. Kao, H. Niu, and C.-H. Chen, “Mixed films of TiO2−SiO2 deposited by double electron-beam coevaporation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 90–96 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. A. Lorentz, “Über die Beziehung zwischen der Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit des Lichtes und der Körperdichte,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 245, 641–665 (1880).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. Lorenz, “Über die Refractionsconstante,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 247, 70–103 (1880).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. Demiryont, “Optical properties of SiO2−TiO2 composite films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2547–2650 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Cevro, “Ion-beam sputtering of (Ta2O5)x−(SiO2)1−x composite thin films,” Thin Solid Films 258, 91–103 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Jupé, M. Mende, C. Kolleck, D. Ristau, L. Gallais, and B. Mangote, “Measurement and calculation of ternary oxide mixtures for thin films for ultra short pulse laser optics,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819004 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, M. Mende, L. Jensen, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, and R. Drazdys, “Femtosecond laser damage resistance of oxide and mixture oxide optical coatings,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1478–1480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Zerrad, F. Lemarchand, L. H. Gao, M. Commandré, and M. Lequime, “A high accuracy femto-/picosecond laser damage test facility dedicated to the study of optical thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

A. Melninkaitis, T. Tolenis, L. Mažulė, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, B. Mangote, X. Fu, M. Zerrad, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, S. Kičas, and R. Drazdys, “Characterization of zirconia– and niobia–silica mixture coatings produced by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 50, C188–C196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jupé, M. Mende, C. Kolleck, D. Ristau, L. Gallais, and B. Mangote, “Measurement and calculation of ternary oxide mixtures for thin films for ultra short pulse laser optics,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mende, L. O. Jensen, H. Ehlers, W. Riggers, H. Blaschke, and D. Ristau, “Laser-induced damage of pure and mixture material high reflectors for 355 nm and 1064 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 816821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallais, B. Mangote, M. Zerrad, M. Commandré, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, M. Jeskevic, and V. Sirutkaitis, “Laser-induced damage of hafnia coatings as a function of pulse duration in the femtosecond to nanosecond range,” Appl. Opt. 50, C178–C187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

L. O. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Investigations on SiO2/HfO2 mixtures for nanosecond and femtosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “BDS thin film damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320C (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, I. V. Cravetchi, M. Mero, W. Rudolph, M. Jupe, M. Lappschies, K. Starke, and D. Ristau, “TixSi1−xO2 optical coatings with tunable index and their response to intense subpicosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H. Krol, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, C. Grézes-Besset, D. Torricini, and G. Lagier, “Influence of polishing and cleaning on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates and coatings at 1064 nm,” Opt. Eng. 46, 023402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, “Optical properties of scandium oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 426, 178–185 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Andre, L. Poupinet, and G. Ravel, “Evaporation and ion assisted deposition of HfO2 coatings: some key points for high power applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2372–2377 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2−SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 338, 105–109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Cevro, “Ion-beam sputtering of (Ta2O5)x−(SiO2)1−x composite thin films,” Thin Solid Films 258, 91–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Tamura, S. Kimura, Y. Sato, H. Yoshida, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-damage threshold of Sc2O3/SiO2 high reflector coatings for a laser wavelength of 355 nm,” Thin Solid Films 228, 222–224 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

S. M. J. Akhtar, D. Ristau, J. Ebert, and H. Welling, “Characterization of dielectric films and damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 191–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, “Stress reduction in ion beam sputtered mixed oxide films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2800–2805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

H. Demiryont, “Optical properties of SiO2−TiO2 composite films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2547–2650 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical-absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1480–1483 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

E. C. Freeman and William Paul, “Optical constants of rf sputtered hydrogenated amorphous Si,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 716–728 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1880 (2)

H. A. Lorentz, “Über die Beziehung zwischen der Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit des Lichtes und der Körperdichte,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 245, 641–665 (1880).
[CrossRef]

L. Lorenz, “Über die Refractionsconstante,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 247, 70–103 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, B.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical-absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1480–1483 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Akhtar, S. M. J.

S. M. J. Akhtar, D. Ristau, J. Ebert, and H. Welling, “Characterization of dielectric films and damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 191–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Al-Kuhaili, M. F.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, “Optical properties of scandium oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 426, 178–185 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andre, B.

B. Andre, L. Poupinet, and G. Ravel, “Evaporation and ion assisted deposition of HfO2 coatings: some key points for high power applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2372–2377 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blaschke, H.

M. Mende, L. O. Jensen, H. Ehlers, W. Riggers, H. Blaschke, and D. Ristau, “Laser-induced damage of pure and mixture material high reflectors for 355 nm and 1064 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 816821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Investigations on SiO2/HfO2 mixtures for nanosecond and femtosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, B.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical-absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1480–1483 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

Cevro, M.

M. Cevro, “Ion-beam sputtering of (Ta2O5)x−(SiO2)1−x composite thin films,” Thin Solid Films 258, 91–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chao, S.

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, J.-S.

Clapp, B.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G. D.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical-absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1480–1483 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Commandré, M.

Cravetchi, I. V.

D. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, I. V. Cravetchi, M. Mero, W. Rudolph, M. Jupe, M. Lappschies, K. Starke, and D. Ristau, “TixSi1−xO2 optical coatings with tunable index and their response to intense subpicosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DeBar, J. I.

Demiryont, H.

H. Demiryont, “Optical properties of SiO2−TiO2 composite films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2547–2650 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dieckmann, M.

M. Dieckmann, “SPEKTRUM, thin film design software,” Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., 1990–2012.

Drazdys, R.

Ebert, J.

S. M. J. Akhtar, D. Ristau, J. Ebert, and H. Welling, “Characterization of dielectric films and damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 191–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ehlers, H.

Emmert, L.

L. O. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Investigations on SiO2/HfO2 mixtures for nanosecond and femtosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emmert, L. A.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, I. V. Cravetchi, M. Mero, W. Rudolph, M. Jupe, M. Lappschies, K. Starke, and D. Ristau, “TixSi1−xO2 optical coatings with tunable index and their response to intense subpicosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

G. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, E. C.

E. C. Freeman and William Paul, “Optical constants of rf sputtered hydrogenated amorphous Si,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 716–728 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X.

Gallais, L.

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, M. Mende, L. Jensen, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, and R. Drazdys, “Femtosecond laser damage resistance of oxide and mixture oxide optical coatings,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1478–1480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Zerrad, F. Lemarchand, L. H. Gao, M. Commandré, and M. Lequime, “A high accuracy femto-/picosecond laser damage test facility dedicated to the study of optical thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Melninkaitis, T. Tolenis, L. Mažulė, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, B. Mangote, X. Fu, M. Zerrad, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, S. Kičas, and R. Drazdys, “Characterization of zirconia– and niobia–silica mixture coatings produced by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 50, C188–C196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallais, B. Mangote, M. Zerrad, M. Commandré, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, M. Jeskevic, and V. Sirutkaitis, “Laser-induced damage of hafnia coatings as a function of pulse duration in the femtosecond to nanosecond range,” Appl. Opt. 50, C178–C187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jupé, M. Mende, C. Kolleck, D. Ristau, L. Gallais, and B. Mangote, “Measurement and calculation of ternary oxide mixtures for thin films for ultra short pulse laser optics,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Krol, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, C. Grézes-Besset, D. Torricini, and G. Lagier, “Influence of polishing and cleaning on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates and coatings at 1064 nm,” Opt. Eng. 46, 023402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L. H.

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Zerrad, F. Lemarchand, L. H. Gao, M. Commandré, and M. Lequime, “A high accuracy femto-/picosecond laser damage test facility dedicated to the study of optical thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, Y.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical-absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1480–1483 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Görtz, B.

Grézes-Besset, C.

H. Krol, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, C. Grézes-Besset, D. Torricini, and G. Lagier, “Influence of polishing and cleaning on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates and coatings at 1064 nm,” Opt. Eng. 46, 023402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, A. J.

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “BDS thin film damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grigorovici, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gross, T.

Hart, T. Tuttle

He, H.

G. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, W.

Hirai, T.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2−SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 338, 105–109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jasapara, J. C.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, L.

Jensen, L. O.

M. Mende, L. O. Jensen, H. Ehlers, W. Riggers, H. Blaschke, and D. Ristau, “Laser-induced damage of pure and mixture material high reflectors for 355 nm and 1064 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 816821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Investigations on SiO2/HfO2 mixtures for nanosecond and femtosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeskevic, M.

Jin, Y.

G. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jupe, M.

D. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, I. V. Cravetchi, M. Mero, W. Rudolph, M. Jupe, M. Lappschies, K. Starke, and D. Ristau, “TixSi1−xO2 optical coatings with tunable index and their response to intense subpicosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jupé, M.

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, M. Mende, L. Jensen, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, and R. Drazdys, “Femtosecond laser damage resistance of oxide and mixture oxide optical coatings,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1478–1480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jupé, M. Mende, C. Kolleck, D. Ristau, L. Gallais, and B. Mangote, “Measurement and calculation of ternary oxide mixtures for thin films for ultra short pulse laser optics,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kadkhoda, P.

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kao, J.-S.

Kautek, W.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kholi, S.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kicas, S.

Kimura, S.

S. Tamura, S. Kimura, Y. Sato, H. Yoshida, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-damage threshold of Sc2O3/SiO2 high reflector coatings for a laser wavelength of 355 nm,” Thin Solid Films 228, 222–224 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kohlhaas, J.

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolleck, C.

M. Jupé, M. Mende, C. Kolleck, D. Ristau, L. Gallais, and B. Mangote, “Measurement and calculation of ternary oxide mixtures for thin films for ultra short pulse laser optics,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krol, H.

H. Krol, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, C. Grézes-Besset, D. Torricini, and G. Lagier, “Influence of polishing and cleaning on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates and coatings at 1064 nm,” Opt. Eng. 46, 023402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krous, E.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krous, E. M.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lagier, G.

H. Krol, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, C. Grézes-Besset, D. Torricini, and G. Lagier, “Influence of polishing and cleaning on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates and coatings at 1064 nm,” Opt. Eng. 46, 023402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langdon, B.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langston, P.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lappschies, M.

D. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, I. V. Cravetchi, M. Mero, W. Rudolph, M. Jupe, M. Lappschies, K. Starke, and D. Ristau, “TixSi1−xO2 optical coatings with tunable index and their response to intense subpicosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, “Application of optical broadband monitoring to quasi-rugate filters by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1502–1506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, H. Ehlers, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, “Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion processes,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1495–1501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

Lemarchand, F.

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Zerrad, F. Lemarchand, L. H. Gao, M. Commandré, and M. Lequime, “A high accuracy femto-/picosecond laser damage test facility dedicated to the study of optical thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lequime, M.

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Zerrad, F. Lemarchand, L. H. Gao, M. Commandré, and M. Lequime, “A high accuracy femto-/picosecond laser damage test facility dedicated to the study of optical thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenstein, T. L.

Liu, G.

G. Liu, Y. Jin, H. He, and Z. Fan, “Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518, 2920–2923 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lorentz, H. A.

H. A. Lorentz, “Über die Beziehung zwischen der Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit des Lichtes und der Körperdichte,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 245, 641–665 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, L.

L. Lorenz, “Über die Refractionsconstante,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 247, 70–103 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Mangote, B.

Markosyan, A.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, H.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2−SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 338, 105–109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mažule, L.

McCurdy, P. R.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Melninkaitis, A.

Mende, M.

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, M. Mende, L. Jensen, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, and R. Drazdys, “Femtosecond laser damage resistance of oxide and mixture oxide optical coatings,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1478–1480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mende, L. O. Jensen, H. Ehlers, W. Riggers, H. Blaschke, and D. Ristau, “Laser-induced damage of pure and mixture material high reflectors for 355 nm and 1064 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 816821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jupé, M. Mende, C. Kolleck, D. Ristau, L. Gallais, and B. Mangote, “Measurement and calculation of ternary oxide mixtures for thin films for ultra short pulse laser optics,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Investigations on SiO2/HfO2 mixtures for nanosecond and femtosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Menoni, C. S.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mero, M.

D. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, I. V. Cravetchi, M. Mero, W. Rudolph, M. Jupe, M. Lappschies, K. Starke, and D. Ristau, “TixSi1−xO2 optical coatings with tunable index and their response to intense subpicosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

Mirauskas, J.

Nguyen, D.

L. O. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Investigations on SiO2/HfO2 mixtures for nanosecond and femtosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, I. V. Cravetchi, M. Mero, W. Rudolph, M. Jupe, M. Lappschies, K. Starke, and D. Ristau, “TixSi1−xO2 optical coatings with tunable index and their response to intense subpicosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. N.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niu, H.

Ogloza, A.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patel, D.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
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Paul, William

E. C. Freeman and William Paul, “Optical constants of rf sputtered hydrogenated amorphous Si,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 716–728 (1979).
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Pond, B. J.

Poupinet, L.

B. Andre, L. Poupinet, and G. Ravel, “Evaporation and ion assisted deposition of HfO2 coatings: some key points for high power applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2372–2377 (2000).
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Rainer, F.

Raj, T.

Ravel, G.

B. Andre, L. Poupinet, and G. Ravel, “Evaporation and ion assisted deposition of HfO2 coatings: some key points for high power applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2372–2377 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riggers, W.

M. Mende, L. O. Jensen, H. Ehlers, W. Riggers, H. Blaschke, and D. Ristau, “Laser-induced damage of pure and mixture material high reflectors for 355 nm and 1064 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 816821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, M. Mende, L. Jensen, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, and R. Drazdys, “Femtosecond laser damage resistance of oxide and mixture oxide optical coatings,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1478–1480 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mende, L. O. Jensen, H. Ehlers, W. Riggers, H. Blaschke, and D. Ristau, “Laser-induced damage of pure and mixture material high reflectors for 355 nm and 1064 nm wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 816821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jupé, M. Mende, C. Kolleck, D. Ristau, L. Gallais, and B. Mangote, “Measurement and calculation of ternary oxide mixtures for thin films for ultra short pulse laser optics,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 819004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Investigations on SiO2/HfO2 mixtures for nanosecond and femtosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, I. V. Cravetchi, M. Mero, W. Rudolph, M. Jupe, M. Lappschies, K. Starke, and D. Ristau, “TixSi1−xO2 optical coatings with tunable index and their response to intense subpicosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, H. Ehlers, T. Gross, and M. Lappschies, “Optical broadband monitoring of conventional and ion processes,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1495–1501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, “Application of optical broadband monitoring to quasi-rugate filters by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1502–1506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Blaschke, J. Kohlhaas, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, “DUV/VUV spectrophotometry for high precision spectral characterization,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. J. Akhtar, D. Ristau, J. Ebert, and H. Welling, “Characterization of dielectric films and damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 191–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Route, R.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Jensen, M. Mende, H. Blaschke, D. Ristau, D. Nguyen, L. Emmert, and W. Rudolph, “Investigations on SiO2/HfO2 mixtures for nanosecond and femtosecond pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, I. V. Cravetchi, M. Mero, W. Rudolph, M. Jupe, M. Lappschies, K. Starke, and D. Ristau, “TixSi1−xO2 optical coatings with tunable index and their response to intense subpicosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

S. Tamura, S. Kimura, Y. Sato, H. Yoshida, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-damage threshold of Sc2O3/SiO2 high reflector coatings for a laser wavelength of 355 nm,” Thin Solid Films 228, 222–224 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sirutkaitis, V.

Someno, Y.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2−SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 338, 105–109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Starke, K.

D. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, I. V. Cravetchi, M. Mero, W. Rudolph, M. Jupe, M. Lappschies, K. Starke, and D. Ristau, “TixSi1−xO2 optical coatings with tunable index and their response to intense subpicosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Krüger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
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Stolz, C. J.

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “BDS thin film damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320C (2008).
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Tamura, S.

S. Tamura, S. Kimura, Y. Sato, H. Yoshida, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-damage threshold of Sc2O3/SiO2 high reflector coatings for a laser wavelength of 355 nm,” Thin Solid Films 228, 222–224 (1993).
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Tang, C.-J.

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627–637 (1966).
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Thomas, M. D.

C. J. Stolz, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “BDS thin film damage competition,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71320C (2008).
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Tiedje, T.

G. D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, and Y. Goldstein, “Disorder and the optical-absorption edge of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1480–1483 (1981).
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Tolenis, T.

Tollerud, J.

C. S. Menoni, E. M. Krous, D. Patel, P. Langston, J. Tollerud, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, A. Markosyan, R. Route, M. Fejer, and W. Rudolph, “Advances in ion beam sputtered Sc2O3 for optical interference coatings,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 784202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tomasel, F.

B. Langdon, D. Patel, E. Krous, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, F. Tomasel, S. Kholi, P. R. McCurdy, P. Langston, and A. Ogloza, “Influence of process conditions on the optical properties HfO2/SiO2 thin films for high power laser coatings,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torricini, D.

H. Krol, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, C. Grézes-Besset, D. Torricini, and G. Lagier, “Influence of polishing and cleaning on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates and coatings at 1064 nm,” Opt. Eng. 46, 023402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vancu, A.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15, 627–637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2−SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 338, 105–109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

S. M. J. Akhtar, D. Ristau, J. Ebert, and H. Welling, “Characterization of dielectric films and damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Status Solidi A 115, 191–198 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

S. Tamura, S. Kimura, Y. Sato, H. Yoshida, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-damage threshold of Sc2O3/SiO2 high reflector coatings for a laser wavelength of 355 nm,” Thin Solid Films 228, 222–224 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

S. Tamura, S. Kimura, Y. Sato, H. Yoshida, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-damage threshold of Sc2O3/SiO2 high reflector coatings for a laser wavelength of 355 nm,” Thin Solid Films 228, 222–224 (1993).
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Zerrad, M.

Ann. Phys. Chem. (2)

H. A. Lorentz, “Über die Beziehung zwischen der Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit des Lichtes und der Körperdichte,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 245, 641–665 (1880).
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L. Lorenz, “Über die Refractionsconstante,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 247, 70–103 (1880).
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A. Melninkaitis, T. Tolenis, L. Mažulė, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, B. Mangote, X. Fu, M. Zerrad, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, S. Kičas, and R. Drazdys, “Characterization of zirconia– and niobia–silica mixture coatings produced by ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 50, C188–C196 (2011).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive index as function of wavelength from 300 to 1200 nm for different Sc2O3/SiO2 mixture thin films.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Absorption coefficient as function of photon energy and (b) Tauc plots for Sc2O3/SiO2 mixture coatings with different compositions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

High-resolution XPS spectra of (a) Sc2p, (b) Si2p, and (c) O1s peaks measured at a Sc2O3/SiO2 mixture thin film (86.1% Sc fraction of the Sc+Si content).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

XPS depth profile of a Sc2O3/SiO2 mixture coating (86.1% Sc fraction of the Sc+Si content).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured atomic and calculated molecular composition as function of the zone target position (left axis), and comparison between the theoretical and the measured oxidation ratio (right axis).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

XRD spectra of amorphous Sc2O3/SiO2 mixture thin films with different compositions.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Measured and internal 1 on 1 LIDT at 1030 nm as function of the Sc fraction of the Sc+Si content for both types of substrates and (b) comparison of the internal damage thresholds as function of the optical bandgap energy with the results calculated applying Eq. (4).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Nomarski (NM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of damage morphologies created during 1 on 1 LIDT measurements at 1030 nm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

10,000 on 1 LIDT at 355 nm as function of the Sc fraction of the Sc+Si content for both types of substrates including LIDT values for the uncoated substrates. Samples which show an evolution of the 0% threshold value from the 10 pulse class to the 10,000 pulse class higher than 15% are marked with circles.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

NM images of damage morphologies created during 10,000 on 1 LIDT measurements at 355 nm performed on two different substrate types (S1: sample 1, S2: sample 2).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Refractive index at 355 nm and at 1030 nm as function of the Sc fraction of the Sc+Si content derived from spectral measurements and calculated via Eq. (2) from the measured compositions.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Comparison of ETauc and E04 optical band gap energies as function of the Sc fraction of the Sc+Si content.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Comparison of 1 on 1 LIDT at 1030 nm as function of the refractive index for different sets of mixture thin films consisting of the material combinations Sc2O3/SiO2, Ta2O5/SiO2, HfO2/SiO2, and Al2O3/SiO2.

Equations (4)

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LIDTinternal=|Emax/Einc|2LIDTmeasured
neff21neff2+2=fana21na2+2+fbnb21nb2+2.
fa/b=va/bva+vb=Sa/bMa/bρa/bSaMaρa+SbMbρb.
Fth(c1Eg+c2)τpκ,

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