Abstract

We demonstrate mode locking of a thulium–bismuth codoped fiber laser (TBFL) operating at 1901.6 nm, using a graphene-based saturable absorber (SA). In this work, a single layer graphene is mechanically exfoliated using the scotch tape method and directly transferred onto the surface of a fiber pigtail to fabricate the SA. The obtained Raman spectrum characteristic indicates that the graphene on the core surface has a single layer. At 1552 nm pump power of 869 mW, the mode-locked TBFL self starts to generate an optical pulse train with a repetition rate of 16.7 MHz and pulse width of 0.37 ps. This is a simple, low-cost, stable, and convenient laser oscillator for applications where eye-safe and low-photon-energy light sources are required, such as sensing and biomedical diagnostics.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112702 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (5)

M. A. Ismail, S. J. Tan, N. S. Shahabuddin, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Performance comparison of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and saturable absorber approaches,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 054216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Harun, R. Akbari, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Mode-locked bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber laser with stable and clean femtosecond pulses output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 449–452 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. Martinez, K. Kazuyuki, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locking lasing,” Opt. Express 18, 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Bonaccorso, F. Torrisi, D. M. Basko, D. Popa, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Engelbrecht, F. Haxsen, A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber-oscillator with pulse energy of 4.3 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 33, 690–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single-and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7, 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, H.

M. A. Ismail, S. J. Tan, N. S. Shahabuddin, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Performance comparison of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and saturable absorber approaches,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 054216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Harun, R. Akbari, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Mode-locked bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber laser with stable and clean femtosecond pulses output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 449–452 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Akbari, R.

S. W. Harun, R. Akbari, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Mode-locked bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber laser with stable and clean femtosecond pulses output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 449–452 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ali, S. M. M.

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arof, H.

M. A. Ismail, S. J. Tan, N. S. Shahabuddin, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Performance comparison of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and saturable absorber approaches,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 054216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Harun, R. Akbari, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Mode-locked bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber laser with stable and clean femtosecond pulses output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 449–452 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Bonaccorso, F. Torrisi, D. M. Basko, D. Popa, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhadra, S. K.

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Bonaccorso, F. Torrisi, D. M. Basko, D. Popa, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Casiraghi, C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Damanhuri, S. S. A.

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Das, S.

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Debnath, P.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Edgeworth, J.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, J.

Engelbrecht, M.

Ensslin, K.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single-and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7, 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Bonaccorso, F. Torrisi, D. M. Basko, D. Popa, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graf, D.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single-and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7, 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halder, A.

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harun, S. W.

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Ismail, S. J. Tan, N. S. Shahabuddin, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Performance comparison of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and saturable absorber approaches,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 054216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Harun, R. Akbari, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Mode-locked bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber laser with stable and clean femtosecond pulses output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 449–452 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haxsen, F.

Helm, M.

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hennrich, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hierold, C.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single-and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7, 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, M. A.

M. A. Ismail, S. J. Tan, N. S. Shahabuddin, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Performance comparison of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and saturable absorber approaches,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 054216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ju, S.-Y.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, M.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jungen, A.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single-and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7, 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kazuyuki, K.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Knorr, A.

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koo, J.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kracht, D.

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Levendorf, M.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lien, M.-B.

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, S. Wu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, Q. Yang, and Pu Wang, “Mode-locked 2 μm thulium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide saturable absorber,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.76.

Magnuson, C. W.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Malic, E.

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milne, W. I.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mittendorff, M.

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Molitor, F.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single-and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7, 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pal, M.

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pan, N.

Park, J.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paul, M. C.

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R. D.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Popov, S. V.

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A. G.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruehl, A.

Ruoff, R. S.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saidin, N.

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shahabuddin, N. S.

M. A. Ismail, S. J. Tan, N. S. Shahabuddin, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Performance comparison of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and saturable absorber approaches,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 054216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R. C.

Song, Y. W.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spock, D. E.

Stampfer, C.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single-and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7, 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, D.

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Bonaccorso, F. Torrisi, D. M. Basko, D. Popa, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. J.

M. A. Ismail, S. J. Tan, N. S. Shahabuddin, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Performance comparison of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and saturable absorber approaches,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 054216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Torrisi, F.

Träger, F.

F. Träger, Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

Velamakanni, A.

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wandt, D.

Wang, F.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20, 25077–25084 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Pu

J. Liu, S. Wu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, Q. Yang, and Pu Wang, “Mode-locked 2 μm thulium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide saturable absorber,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.76.

Wang, Q.

J. Liu, S. Wu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, Q. Yang, and Pu Wang, “Mode-locked 2 μm thulium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide saturable absorber,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.76.

White, I. H.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Winnert, S.

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, T.

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wirtz, L.

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single-and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7, 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

J. Liu, S. Wu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, Q. Yang, and Pu Wang, “Mode-locked 2 μm thulium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide saturable absorber,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.76.

Xu, B.

Xu, J.

J. Liu, S. Wu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, Q. Yang, and Pu Wang, “Mode-locked 2 μm thulium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide saturable absorber,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.76.

Yamashita, S.

Yang, Q.

J. Liu, S. Wu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, Q. Yang, and Pu Wang, “Mode-locked 2 μm thulium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide saturable absorber,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.76.

Zhang, M.

ACS Nano (2)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Bonaccorso, F. Torrisi, D. M. Basko, D. Popa, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, L. Brown, M. Levendorf, W. Cai, S.-Y. Ju, J. Edgeworth, X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner, J. Kang, J. Park, and R. S. Ruoff, “Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy,” ACS Nano 5, 1321–1327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Winzer, A. Knorr, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnert, M.-B. Lien, D. Sun, T. B. Norris, M. Helm, and E. Malic, “Absorption saturation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Ismail, S. J. Tan, N. S. Shahabuddin, S. W. Harun, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Performance comparison of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation and saturable absorber approaches,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 054216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. Halder, M. C. Paul, S. W. Harun, S. M. M. Ali, N. Saidin, S. S. A. Damanhuri, H. Ahmad, S. Das, M. Pal, and S. K. Bhadra, “1880 nm broadband ASE generation with bismuth–thulium codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2176–2181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S. W. Harun, R. Akbari, H. Arof, and H. Ahmad, “Mode-locked bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber laser with stable and clean femtosecond pulses output,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 449–452 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, and L. Wirtz, “Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of single-and few-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 7, 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Liu, S. Wu, J. Xu, Q. Wang, Q. Yang, and Pu Wang, “Mode-locked 2 μm thulium-doped fiber laser with graphene oxide saturable absorber,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.76.

F. Träger, Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics (Springer-Verlag, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic configuration of the proposed mode-locked TBFL.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Raman spectrum from the graphene-based SA. Inset shows an image of the fiber ferrule with graphene layer deposited on it.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The attenuated output spectrum at pump power at 1552 nm pump power of 869 mW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output pulse train from the mode-locked TBFL.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Autocorrelation trace. Inset shows the output RF spectrum of the mode-locked TBFL.

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