Abstract

Femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation has been shown to be effective for welding transparent materials and for transparent materials to metals. However, to date there is little work regarding similar applications in welding/bonding of metals. In this article, we for the first time to the best of our knowledge report on fs laser-induced microwelding of Ag microwires and Cu substrates. The influence of laser pulse number and fluence on fs laser microwelding is studied to explore an optimum welding window. Morphology analysis indicates that the primary weld of the Ag microwire and the Cu substrate was located at the edge of the Ag microwire and produced via the redeposition and local melting-induced welding of the ablated materials.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  2. Y. Zhou, A. Hu, M. I. Khan, W. Wu, B. Tam, and M. Yavuz, “Recent progress in micro and nano-joining,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 165, 012012 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Tam, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Mechanical and functional properties of laser-welded Ti-55.8 Wt Pct Ni nitinol wires,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 42, 2166–2175 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. S. Zou, Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, X. G. Li, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 low-carbon vacuum melted stainless steel: part I. Mechanism of joint formation,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1223–1233 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, G. S. Zou, J. C. Feng, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM stainless steel: part II. Effect of orientation on joining mechanism,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1234–1243 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. W. Zhong, “Wire bonding using copper wire,” Microelectron. Int. 26, 10–16 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. England, and T. Jiang, “Reliability of Cu wire bonding to Al metallization,” in Proceedings of Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1604–1613.
  8. H. Chen, S. W. Ricky Lee, and Y. T. Ding, “Evaluation of bond ability and reliability of single crystal copper wire bonding,” in Proceedings of High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1–7.
  9. S. Y. Hong, C. J. Hang, and C. Q. Wang, “Experimental research of copper wire ball bonding,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1–5.
  10. Y. H. Tian, I. Lum, S. J. Won, S. H. Park, J. P. Jung, M. Mayer, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental study of ultrasonic wedge bonding with copper wire,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 389–393.
  11. N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 237–242 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Li, S. Nikumb, and F. Wong, “An optimal process of femtosecond laser cutting of NiTi shape memory alloy for fabrication of miniature devices,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 1078–1087 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1912–1914 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Kamlage, T. Bauer, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Deep drilling of metals by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 307–310 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference fringes formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 687–689 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro. Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Sano, S. Iwasaki, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, and A. Hirose, “Femtosecond laser direct joining of copper with polyethylene terephthalate,” presented at Materials Science & Technology, Houston Texas, 17–21 October 2010.
  23. D. Lee, “Feasibility study on laser microwelding and laser shock peening using femtosecond laser pulses,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Michigan, 2008).
  24. B. Salle, O. Gobert, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, G. Petite, and A. Semerok, “Femtosecond and picoseconds laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S381–S383 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, “Laser–solid interaction in the femtosecond time regime,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 1–10 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708–4716 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. M. Milchberg, T. R. Clark, C. G. Durfee, T. M. Antonsen, and P. Mora, “Development and applications of a plasma waveguide for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasma 3, 2149–2155 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced energy coupling in femtosecond laser metal interactions at high intensities,” Opt. Express 14, 13113–13119 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195422 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Nisaratanaporn and E. Nisaratanaporn, “The anti-tarnishing, microstructure analysis and mechanical properties of sterling silver with silicon addition,” J. Metals Mater. Miner. 12, 13–18 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photon. Rev., 1–23 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Spectral and polarization responses of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043513 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Bonsea, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. L. Vladimirsky, A. Bourdillon, O. Vladimirsky, W. L. Jiang, and Q. Leonard, “Demagnification in proximity x-ray lithography and extensibility to 25 nm by optimizing Fresnel diffraction,” J. Phys. D 32, L114–L118 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  37. F. Brown, R. E. Parks, and A. M. Sleeper, “Nonlinear optical reflection from a metallic boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 1029–1031 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  38. N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, “Nonlinear plasmon-photon interaction resolved by k-space spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103802 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

G. S. Zou, Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, X. G. Li, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 low-carbon vacuum melted stainless steel: part I. Mechanism of joint formation,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, G. S. Zou, J. C. Feng, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM stainless steel: part II. Effect of orientation on joining mechanism,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1234–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonsea, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, “Nonlinear plasmon-photon interaction resolved by k-space spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

B. Tam, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Mechanical and functional properties of laser-welded Ti-55.8 Wt Pct Ni nitinol wires,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 42, 2166–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. Zhou, A. Hu, M. I. Khan, W. Wu, B. Tam, and M. Yavuz, “Recent progress in micro and nano-joining,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 165, 012012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Zhong, “Wire bonding using copper wire,” Microelectron. Int. 26, 10–16 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Spectral and polarization responses of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro. Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced energy coupling in femtosecond laser metal interactions at high intensities,” Opt. Express 14, 13113–13119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, S. Nikumb, and F. Wong, “An optimal process of femtosecond laser cutting of NiTi shape memory alloy for fabrication of miniature devices,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 1078–1087 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference fringes formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 687–689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708–4716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Nisaratanaporn and E. Nisaratanaporn, “The anti-tarnishing, microstructure analysis and mechanical properties of sterling silver with silicon addition,” J. Metals Mater. Miner. 12, 13–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kamlage, T. Bauer, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Deep drilling of metals by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 307–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 237–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. Salle, O. Gobert, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, G. Petite, and A. Semerok, “Femtosecond and picoseconds laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S381–S383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Vladimirsky, A. Bourdillon, O. Vladimirsky, W. L. Jiang, and Q. Leonard, “Demagnification in proximity x-ray lithography and extensibility to 25 nm by optimizing Fresnel diffraction,” J. Phys. D 32, L114–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, “Laser–solid interaction in the femtosecond time regime,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. M. Milchberg, T. R. Clark, C. G. Durfee, T. M. Antonsen, and P. Mora, “Development and applications of a plasma waveguide for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasma 3, 2149–2155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1965

F. Brown, R. E. Parks, and A. M. Sleeper, “Nonlinear optical reflection from a metallic boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 1029–1031 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Antonsen, T. M.

H. M. Milchberg, T. R. Clark, C. G. Durfee, T. M. Antonsen, and P. Mora, “Development and applications of a plasma waveguide for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasma 3, 2149–2155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bärsch, N.

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 237–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.

G. Kamlage, T. Bauer, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Deep drilling of metals by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 307–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bialkowski, J.

D. Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, “Laser–solid interaction in the femtosecond time regime,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonsea, J.

J. Bonsea, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bourdillon, A.

Y. L. Vladimirsky, A. Bourdillon, O. Vladimirsky, W. L. Jiang, and Q. Leonard, “Demagnification in proximity x-ray lithography and extensibility to 25 nm by optimizing Fresnel diffraction,” J. Phys. D 32, L114–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, F.

F. Brown, R. E. Parks, and A. M. Sleeper, “Nonlinear optical reflection from a metallic boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 1029–1031 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, S. W. Ricky Lee, and Y. T. Ding, “Evaluation of bond ability and reliability of single crystal copper wire bonding,” in Proceedings of High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1–7.

Chichkov, B. N.

G. Kamlage, T. Bauer, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Deep drilling of metals by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 307–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clark, T. R.

H. M. Milchberg, T. R. Clark, C. G. Durfee, T. M. Antonsen, and P. Mora, “Development and applications of a plasma waveguide for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasma 3, 2149–2155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. T.

H. Chen, S. W. Ricky Lee, and Y. T. Ding, “Evaluation of bond ability and reliability of single crystal copper wire bonding,” in Proceedings of High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1–7.

Duley, W. W.

W. W. Duley, Laser Welding (Wiley, 1999).

Durfee, C. G.

H. M. Milchberg, T. R. Clark, C. G. Durfee, T. M. Antonsen, and P. Mora, “Development and applications of a plasma waveguide for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasma 3, 2149–2155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

England, L.

L. England, and T. Jiang, “Reliability of Cu wire bonding to Al metallization,” in Proceedings of Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1604–1613.

Feng, J. C.

Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, G. S. Zou, J. C. Feng, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM stainless steel: part II. Effect of orientation on joining mechanism,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1234–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. N.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gobert, O.

B. Salle, O. Gobert, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, G. Petite, and A. Semerok, “Femtosecond and picoseconds laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S381–S383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro. Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, N. B.

N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, “Nonlinear plasmon-photon interaction resolved by k-space spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Spectral and polarization responses of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced energy coupling in femtosecond laser metal interactions at high intensities,” Opt. Express 14, 13113–13119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photon. Rev., 1–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hang, C. J.

S. Y. Hong, C. J. Hang, and C. Q. Wang, “Experimental research of copper wire ball bonding,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1–5.

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heckmann, J.

N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, “Nonlinear plasmon-photon interaction resolved by k-space spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirose, A.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Sano, S. Iwasaki, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, and A. Hirose, “Femtosecond laser direct joining of copper with polyethylene terephthalate,” presented at Materials Science & Technology, Houston Texas, 17–21 October 2010.

Höhm, S.

J. Bonsea, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. Y.

S. Y. Hong, C. J. Hang, and C. Q. Wang, “Experimental research of copper wire ball bonding,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1–5.

Horn, A.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro. Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, A.

Y. Zhou, A. Hu, M. I. Khan, W. Wu, B. Tam, and M. Yavuz, “Recent progress in micro and nano-joining,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 165, 012012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. D.

Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, G. S. Zou, J. C. Feng, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM stainless steel: part II. Effect of orientation on joining mechanism,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1234–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Zou, Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, X. G. Li, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 low-carbon vacuum melted stainless steel: part I. Mechanism of joint formation,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 687–689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Sano, S. Iwasaki, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, and A. Hirose, “Femtosecond laser direct joining of copper with polyethylene terephthalate,” presented at Materials Science & Technology, Houston Texas, 17–21 October 2010.

Iwasaki, S.

T. Sano, S. Iwasaki, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, and A. Hirose, “Femtosecond laser direct joining of copper with polyethylene terephthalate,” presented at Materials Science & Technology, Houston Texas, 17–21 October 2010.

Jiang, T.

L. England, and T. Jiang, “Reliability of Cu wire bonding to Al metallization,” in Proceedings of Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1604–1613.

Jiang, W. L.

Y. L. Vladimirsky, A. Bourdillon, O. Vladimirsky, W. L. Jiang, and Q. Leonard, “Demagnification in proximity x-ray lithography and extensibility to 25 nm by optimizing Fresnel diffraction,” J. Phys. D 32, L114–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Jung, J. P.

Y. H. Tian, I. Lum, S. J. Won, S. H. Park, J. P. Jung, M. Mayer, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental study of ultrasonic wedge bonding with copper wire,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 389–393.

Juodkazis, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kamlage, G.

G. Kamlage, T. Bauer, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Deep drilling of metals by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 307–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. I.

G. S. Zou, Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, X. G. Li, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 low-carbon vacuum melted stainless steel: part I. Mechanism of joint formation,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, G. S. Zou, J. C. Feng, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM stainless steel: part II. Effect of orientation on joining mechanism,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1234–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Tam, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Mechanical and functional properties of laser-welded Ti-55.8 Wt Pct Ni nitinol wires,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 42, 2166–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, A. Hu, M. I. Khan, W. Wu, B. Tam, and M. Yavuz, “Recent progress in micro and nano-joining,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 165, 012012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Körber, K.

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 237–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonsea, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, D.

Lee, D.

D. Lee, “Feasibility study on laser microwelding and laser shock peening using femtosecond laser pulses,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Michigan, 2008).

Leonard, Q.

Y. L. Vladimirsky, A. Bourdillon, O. Vladimirsky, W. L. Jiang, and Q. Leonard, “Demagnification in proximity x-ray lithography and extensibility to 25 nm by optimizing Fresnel diffraction,” J. Phys. D 32, L114–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, S. Nikumb, and F. Wong, “An optimal process of femtosecond laser cutting of NiTi shape memory alloy for fabrication of miniature devices,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 1078–1087 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. G.

G. S. Zou, Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, X. G. Li, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 low-carbon vacuum melted stainless steel: part I. Mechanism of joint formation,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Linde, D.

D. Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, “Laser–solid interaction in the femtosecond time regime,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lum, I.

Y. H. Tian, I. Lum, S. J. Won, S. H. Park, J. P. Jung, M. Mayer, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental study of ultrasonic wedge bonding with copper wire,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 389–393.

Matsuo, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, M.

Y. H. Tian, I. Lum, S. J. Won, S. H. Park, J. P. Jung, M. Mayer, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental study of ultrasonic wedge bonding with copper wire,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 389–393.

Meynadier, P.

B. Salle, O. Gobert, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, G. Petite, and A. Semerok, “Femtosecond and picoseconds laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S381–S383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M.

H. M. Milchberg, T. R. Clark, C. G. Durfee, T. M. Antonsen, and P. Mora, “Development and applications of a plasma waveguide for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasma 3, 2149–2155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, I.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro. Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mora, P.

H. M. Milchberg, T. R. Clark, C. G. Durfee, T. M. Antonsen, and P. Mora, “Development and applications of a plasma waveguide for intense laser pulses,” Phys. Plasma 3, 2149–2155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nibarger, J. P.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271–R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nikumb, S.

C. Li, S. Nikumb, and F. Wong, “An optimal process of femtosecond laser cutting of NiTi shape memory alloy for fabrication of miniature devices,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 1078–1087 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nisaratanaporn, E.

S. Nisaratanaporn and E. Nisaratanaporn, “The anti-tarnishing, microstructure analysis and mechanical properties of sterling silver with silicon addition,” J. Metals Mater. Miner. 12, 13–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nisaratanaporn, S.

S. Nisaratanaporn and E. Nisaratanaporn, “The anti-tarnishing, microstructure analysis and mechanical properties of sterling silver with silicon addition,” J. Metals Mater. Miner. 12, 13–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 687–689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishiuchi, S.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Onda, S.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 237–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kamlage, T. Bauer, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Deep drilling of metals by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 307–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, Y.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Sano, S. Iwasaki, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, and A. Hirose, “Femtosecond laser direct joining of copper with polyethylene terephthalate,” presented at Materials Science & Technology, Houston Texas, 17–21 October 2010.

Park, S. H.

Y. H. Tian, I. Lum, S. J. Won, S. H. Park, J. P. Jung, M. Mayer, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental study of ultrasonic wedge bonding with copper wire,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 389–393.

Parks, R. E.

F. Brown, R. E. Parks, and A. M. Sleeper, “Nonlinear optical reflection from a metallic boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 1029–1031 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Pequegnat, A.

Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, G. S. Zou, J. C. Feng, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM stainless steel: part II. Effect of orientation on joining mechanism,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1234–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Zou, Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, X. G. Li, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 low-carbon vacuum melted stainless steel: part I. Mechanism of joint formation,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Perdrix, M.

B. Salle, O. Gobert, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, G. Petite, and A. Semerok, “Femtosecond and picoseconds laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S381–S383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

B. Salle, O. Gobert, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, G. Petite, and A. Semerok, “Femtosecond and picoseconds laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S381–S383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ricky Lee, S. W.

H. Chen, S. W. Ricky Lee, and Y. T. Ding, “Evaluation of bond ability and reliability of single crystal copper wire bonding,” in Proceedings of High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1–7.

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonsea, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salle, B.

B. Salle, O. Gobert, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, G. Petite, and A. Semerok, “Femtosecond and picoseconds laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S381–S383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sano, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Sano, S. Iwasaki, Y. Ozeki, K. Itoh, and A. Hirose, “Femtosecond laser direct joining of copper with polyethylene terephthalate,” presented at Materials Science & Technology, Houston Texas, 17–21 October 2010.

Semerok, A.

B. Salle, O. Gobert, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, G. Petite, and A. Semerok, “Femtosecond and picoseconds laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S381–S383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, N. R.

B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference fringes formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sleeper, A. M.

F. Brown, R. E. Parks, and A. M. Sleeper, “Nonlinear optical reflection from a metallic boundary,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 1029–1031 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

D. Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, “Laser–solid interaction in the femtosecond time regime,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tam, B.

B. Tam, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Mechanical and functional properties of laser-welded Ti-55.8 Wt Pct Ni nitinol wires,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 42, 2166–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, A. Hu, M. I. Khan, W. Wu, B. Tam, and M. Yavuz, “Recent progress in micro and nano-joining,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 165, 012012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 687–689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, B.

B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference fringes formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y. H.

Y. H. Tian, I. Lum, S. J. Won, S. H. Park, J. P. Jung, M. Mayer, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental study of ultrasonic wedge bonding with copper wire,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 389–393.

Tönshoff, K. H.

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 237–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Venkatakrishnan, K.

B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference fringes formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirsky, O.

Y. L. Vladimirsky, A. Bourdillon, O. Vladimirsky, W. L. Jiang, and Q. Leonard, “Demagnification in proximity x-ray lithography and extensibility to 25 nm by optimizing Fresnel diffraction,” J. Phys. D 32, L114–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirsky, Y. L.

Y. L. Vladimirsky, A. Bourdillon, O. Vladimirsky, W. L. Jiang, and Q. Leonard, “Demagnification in proximity x-ray lithography and extensibility to 25 nm by optimizing Fresnel diffraction,” J. Phys. D 32, L114–L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Spectral and polarization responses of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced energy coupling in femtosecond laser metal interactions at high intensities,” Opt. Express 14, 13113–13119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photon. Rev., 1–23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Q.

S. Y. Hong, C. J. Hang, and C. Q. Wang, “Experimental research of copper wire ball bonding,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1–5.

Watanabe, W.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 687–689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

N. B. Grosse, J. Heckmann, and U. Woggon, “Nonlinear plasmon-photon interaction resolved by k-space spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103802 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Won, S. J.

Y. H. Tian, I. Lum, S. J. Won, S. H. Park, J. P. Jung, M. Mayer, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental study of ultrasonic wedge bonding with copper wire,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 389–393.

Wong, F.

C. Li, S. Nikumb, and F. Wong, “An optimal process of femtosecond laser cutting of NiTi shape memory alloy for fabrication of miniature devices,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 1078–1087 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, D.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro. Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

Y. Zhou, A. Hu, M. I. Khan, W. Wu, B. Tam, and M. Yavuz, “Recent progress in micro and nano-joining,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 165, 012012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yamaguchi, H.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yavuz, M.

Y. Zhou, A. Hu, M. I. Khan, W. Wu, B. Tam, and M. Yavuz, “Recent progress in micro and nano-joining,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 165, 012012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, F.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro. Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhong, Z. W.

Z. W. Zhong, “Wire bonding using copper wire,” Microelectron. Int. 26, 10–16 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, G. S. Zou, J. C. Feng, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM stainless steel: part II. Effect of orientation on joining mechanism,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1234–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Zou, Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, X. G. Li, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 low-carbon vacuum melted stainless steel: part I. Mechanism of joint formation,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Tam, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Mechanical and functional properties of laser-welded Ti-55.8 Wt Pct Ni nitinol wires,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 42, 2166–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, A. Hu, M. I. Khan, W. Wu, B. Tam, and M. Yavuz, “Recent progress in micro and nano-joining,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 165, 012012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Tian, I. Lum, S. J. Won, S. H. Park, J. P. Jung, M. Mayer, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental study of ultrasonic wedge bonding with copper wire,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 389–393.

Zou, G. S.

G. S. Zou, Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, X. G. Li, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 low-carbon vacuum melted stainless steel: part I. Mechanism of joint formation,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1223–1233 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Huang, A. Pequegnat, G. S. Zou, J. C. Feng, M. I. Khan, and Y. Zhou, “Crossed-wire laser microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM stainless steel: part II. Effect of orientation on joining mechanism,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1234–1243 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 237–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Salle, O. Gobert, P. Meynadier, M. Perdrix, G. Petite, and A. Semerok, “Femtosecond and picoseconds laser microablation: ablation efficiency and laser microplasma expansion,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S381–S383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Kamlage, T. Bauer, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Deep drilling of metals by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 307–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

D. Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, “Laser–solid interaction in the femtosecond time regime,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109/110, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Spectral and polarization responses of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 043513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Appl.

J. Bonsea, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Micro. Nanoeng.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro. Nanoeng. 2, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Metals Mater. Miner.

S. Nisaratanaporn and E. Nisaratanaporn, “The anti-tarnishing, microstructure analysis and mechanical properties of sterling silver with silicon addition,” J. Metals Mater. Miner. 12, 13–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.

B. Tan, N. R. Sivakumar, and K. Venkatakrishnan, “Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference fringes formed at the focal point,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 169–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser.

Y. Zhou, A. Hu, M. I. Khan, W. Wu, B. Tam, and M. Yavuz, “Recent progress in micro and nano-joining,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 165, 012012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

Y. L. Vladimirsky, A. Bourdillon, O. Vladimirsky, W. L. Jiang, and Q. Leonard, “Demagnification in proximity x-ray lithography and extensibility to 25 nm by optimizing Fresnel diffraction,” J. Phys. D 32, L114–L118 (1999).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of fs laser microwelding experimental.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images and EDS results of fs laser irradiated samples with glass–tape fixture: (a) 0.25J/cm2-500 pulses, (b) 0.25J/cm2-1000 pulses, (c) 0.25J/cm2-2000 pulses, (d) 0.25J/cm2-3000 pulses, (e) 1.02J/cm2-1000 pulses, and (f) 1.02J/cm2-2000 pulses. The arrows show the position and direction of the Ag microwire.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of the fs laser irradiated samples with mechanical clamping fixture: (a) 0.08J/cm2-3000 pulses, (b) 0.08J/cm2-4000 pulses, (c) 0.08J/cm2-6000 pulses, (d) 0.08J/cm2-10,000 pulses, and (e), (f) 0.15J/cm2-1000 pulses. The scale bar in the inset figures is 100 μm, and the arrows show the location and direction of the Ag microwire, which was removed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Summary of fs laser-induced microwelding of Ag microwire and Cu substrate.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Cross-sectional morphologies of the contact area (left) and edge area (right) in the samples irradiated at fluence of 1.02J/cm2 with different pulse numbers: (a), (b) 500 pulses; (c), (d) 1000 pulses; and (e), (f) 2000 pulses.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic of fs laser microwelding process.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SEM morphologies of Cu substrate irradiated by 1000 laser pulse irradiation at a fluence of 0.25J/cm2: (a) periodical grooves and microholes and (b) comparison of experimental and calculated Fresnel diffraction pattern.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

SEM morphologies of the damaged cover glass: (a) general view and (b) craters and ripples.

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