Abstract

We propose a procedure to deconvolute the spectral power distribution (SPD) of phosphor-converted LEDs (pc-LEDs). The procedure involves a two-step process using multiple Gaussian functions. The first step is a preliminary process to deconvolute an SPD using a pair of Gaussian functions. Using the results from the first step, the second step determines (a) the number of Gaussian functions to be used in the analysis and (b) the initial values and regression domains of the coefficients of each Gaussian function for subsequent multiple-regression operations. Successful deconvolution is confirmed by comparing the values of lumen, correlated color temperature, and color rendering index with the experimental data of cool and warm pc-LEDs. The proposed approach is illustrated to evaluate the yellow-to-blue ratio and the phosphor power conversion efficiency.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Pozina, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Origin of multiple peak photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2677–2681 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Nguyen The, Y. Jiun Pyng, and F. G. Shi, “Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5145–5150 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. You, N. Tran, Y.-C. Lin, Y. He, and F. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs in different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38, 761–766 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Keppens, Y. Zong, Y. Ohno, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determining phosphors’ effective quantum efficiency for remote phosphor type LED modules,” in CIE Tutorial and Expert Symposium on Spectral and Imaging Methods for Photometry and Radiometry Location (CIE, 2010).
  29. J. P. You, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration,” Opt. Express 18, 5055–5060 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. P. You, Y.-H. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor concentration effects on optothermal characteristics of phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Packag. 132, 031010 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011

K. ZhangQin, F. Jiao, Z. Chen, L. Xu, S. Wang, and S. Liu, “Effect of temperature and moisture on the luminescence properties of silicone filled with YAG phosphor,” J. Semicond. 32, 012002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Jung, J. H. Ryu, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “Optical degradation of phosphor-converted white GaN-based light-emitting diodes under electro-thermal stress,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, H132–H136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Deepa and S. Arvind, “Modeling and simulation of multielement LED source,” J. Light Visual Environ. 35, 34–41 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. H. Lin, J. P. You, Y. C. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Development of high-performance optical silicone for the packaging of high-power LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 761–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Yang, P. Lin, C.-P. Wang, S. Huang, C.-L. Chen, P.-F. Chiang, A.-T. Lee, and M.-T. Chu, “Failure and degradation mechanisms of high-power white light emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50, 959–964 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Meneghesso, M. Meneghini, and E. Zanoni, “Recent results on the degradation of white LEDs for lighting,” J. Phys. D 43, 354007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Keppens, W. R. Ryckaert, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Modeling high power light-emitting diode spectra and their variation with junction temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. You, Y.-H. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor concentration effects on optothermal characteristics of phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Packag. 132, 031010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration,” Opt. Express 18, 5055–5060 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. Nguyen The, Y. Jiun Pyng, and F. G. Shi, “Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5145–5150 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. You, N. Tran, Y.-C. Lin, Y. He, and F. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs in different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38, 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Coetsee, J. J. Terblans, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, and H. C. Swart, “Luminescent mechanism of Y2SiO5:Ce phosphor powder,” Phys. B 404, 4426–4430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Zheng, “Luminous efficiency and color rendering of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” J. Light Visual Environ. 32, 230–233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Reifegerste and J. Lienig, “Modelling of the temperature and current dependence of LED spectra,” J. Light Visual Environ. 32, 288–294 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno and C.-C. Sun, “Modeling the radiation pattern of LEDs,” Opt. Express 16, 1808–1819 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N.-C. Hu, C.-C. Wu, S.-F. Chen, and H.-C. Hsiao, “Implementing dynamic daylight spectra with light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3423–3432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Meneghini, L. Trevisanello, C. Sanna, G. Mura, M. Vanzi, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “High temperature electro-optical degradation of InGaN/GaN HBLEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 1625–1629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. T. Tan, R. W. Martin, K. P. O’Donnell, and I. M. Watson, “Photoluminescence and phonon satellites of single InGaN/GaN quantum wells with varying GaN cap thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uchida and T. Taguchi, “Lighting theory and luminous characteristics of white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng. 44, 124003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Pozina, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Origin of multiple peak photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2677–2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

G. Pozina, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Origin of multiple peak photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2677–2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

G. Pozina, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Origin of multiple peak photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2677–2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arvind, S.

R. Deepa and S. Arvind, “Modeling and simulation of multielement LED source,” J. Light Visual Environ. 35, 34–41 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. P.

G. Pozina, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Origin of multiple peak photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2677–2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-L.

S.-C. Yang, P. Lin, C.-P. Wang, S. Huang, C.-L. Chen, P.-F. Chiang, A.-T. Lee, and M.-T. Chu, “Failure and degradation mechanisms of high-power white light emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50, 959–964 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-F.

Chen, Z.

K. ZhangQin, F. Jiao, Z. Chen, L. Xu, S. Wang, and S. Liu, “Effect of temperature and moisture on the luminescence properties of silicone filled with YAG phosphor,” J. Semicond. 32, 012002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, P.-F.

S.-C. Yang, P. Lin, C.-P. Wang, S. Huang, C.-L. Chen, P.-F. Chiang, A.-T. Lee, and M.-T. Chu, “Failure and degradation mechanisms of high-power white light emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50, 959–964 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, M.-T.

S.-C. Yang, P. Lin, C.-P. Wang, S. Huang, C.-L. Chen, P.-F. Chiang, A.-T. Lee, and M.-T. Chu, “Failure and degradation mechanisms of high-power white light emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50, 959–964 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coetsee, E.

E. Coetsee, J. J. Terblans, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, and H. C. Swart, “Luminescent mechanism of Y2SiO5:Ce phosphor powder,” Phys. B 404, 4426–4430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deconinck, G.

A. Keppens, W. R. Ryckaert, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Modeling high power light-emitting diode spectra and their variation with junction temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Keppens, Y. Zong, Y. Ohno, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determining phosphors’ effective quantum efficiency for remote phosphor type LED modules,” in CIE Tutorial and Expert Symposium on Spectral and Imaging Methods for Photometry and Radiometry Location (CIE, 2010).

Deepa, R.

R. Deepa and S. Arvind, “Modeling and simulation of multielement LED source,” J. Light Visual Environ. 35, 34–41 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Devore, J. L.

J. L. Devore, Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences, 7th ed. (Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008).

Hanselaer, P.

A. Keppens, W. R. Ryckaert, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Modeling high power light-emitting diode spectra and their variation with junction temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Keppens, Y. Zong, Y. Ohno, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determining phosphors’ effective quantum efficiency for remote phosphor type LED modules,” in CIE Tutorial and Expert Symposium on Spectral and Imaging Methods for Photometry and Radiometry Location (CIE, 2010).

He, Y.

J. You, N. Tran, Y.-C. Lin, Y. He, and F. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs in different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38, 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

E. Jung, J. H. Ryu, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “Optical degradation of phosphor-converted white GaN-based light-emitting diodes under electro-thermal stress,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, H132–H136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, H.-C.

Hu, N.-C.

Huang, S.

S.-C. Yang, P. Lin, C.-P. Wang, S. Huang, C.-L. Chen, P.-F. Chiang, A.-T. Lee, and M.-T. Chu, “Failure and degradation mechanisms of high-power white light emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50, 959–964 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, F.

K. ZhangQin, F. Jiao, Z. Chen, L. Xu, S. Wang, and S. Liu, “Effect of temperature and moisture on the luminescence properties of silicone filled with YAG phosphor,” J. Semicond. 32, 012002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, E.

E. Jung, J. H. Ryu, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “Optical degradation of phosphor-converted white GaN-based light-emitting diodes under electro-thermal stress,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, H132–H136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keppens, A.

A. Keppens, W. R. Ryckaert, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Modeling high power light-emitting diode spectra and their variation with junction temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Keppens, Y. Zong, Y. Ohno, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determining phosphors’ effective quantum efficiency for remote phosphor type LED modules,” in CIE Tutorial and Expert Symposium on Spectral and Imaging Methods for Photometry and Radiometry Location (CIE, 2010).

Kim, H.

E. Jung, J. H. Ryu, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “Optical degradation of phosphor-converted white GaN-based light-emitting diodes under electro-thermal stress,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, H132–H136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.-T.

S.-C. Yang, P. Lin, C.-P. Wang, S. Huang, C.-L. Chen, P.-F. Chiang, A.-T. Lee, and M.-T. Chu, “Failure and degradation mechanisms of high-power white light emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50, 959–964 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lienig, J.

F. Reifegerste and J. Lienig, “Modelling of the temperature and current dependence of LED spectra,” J. Light Visual Environ. 32, 288–294 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P.

S.-C. Yang, P. Lin, C.-P. Wang, S. Huang, C.-L. Chen, P.-F. Chiang, A.-T. Lee, and M.-T. Chu, “Failure and degradation mechanisms of high-power white light emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50, 959–964 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

Y. H. Lin, J. P. You, Y. C. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Development of high-performance optical silicone for the packaging of high-power LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 761–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, J. P. You, Y. C. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Development of high-performance optical silicone for the packaging of high-power LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 761–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-C.

J. You, N. Tran, Y.-C. Lin, Y. He, and F. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs in different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38, 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-H.

J. P. You, Y.-H. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor concentration effects on optothermal characteristics of phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Packag. 132, 031010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

K. ZhangQin, F. Jiao, Z. Chen, L. Xu, S. Wang, and S. Liu, “Effect of temperature and moisture on the luminescence properties of silicone filled with YAG phosphor,” J. Semicond. 32, 012002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Analysis of factors affecting color distribution of white LEDs,” in Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–8.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Analysis of factors affecting color distribution of white LEDs,” in Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–8.

Luo, H.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Analysis of factors affecting color distribution of white LEDs,” in Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–8.

Martin, R. W.

L. T. Tan, R. W. Martin, K. P. O’Donnell, and I. M. Watson, “Photoluminescence and phonon satellites of single InGaN/GaN quantum wells with varying GaN cap thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meneghesso, G.

G. Meneghesso, M. Meneghini, and E. Zanoni, “Recent results on the degradation of white LEDs for lighting,” J. Phys. D 43, 354007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, L. Trevisanello, C. Sanna, G. Mura, M. Vanzi, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “High temperature electro-optical degradation of InGaN/GaN HBLEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 1625–1629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Trevisanello, F. D. Zuani, M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Thermally activated degradation and package instabilities of low flux LEDs,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 98–103.

Meneghini, M.

G. Meneghesso, M. Meneghini, and E. Zanoni, “Recent results on the degradation of white LEDs for lighting,” J. Phys. D 43, 354007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, L. Trevisanello, C. Sanna, G. Mura, M. Vanzi, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “High temperature electro-optical degradation of InGaN/GaN HBLEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 1625–1629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Trevisanello, F. D. Zuani, M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Thermally activated degradation and package instabilities of low flux LEDs,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 98–103.

Monemar, B.

G. Pozina, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Origin of multiple peak photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2677–2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Mura, G.

M. Meneghini, L. Trevisanello, C. Sanna, G. Mura, M. Vanzi, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “High temperature electro-optical degradation of InGaN/GaN HBLEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 1625–1629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

E. Coetsee, J. J. Terblans, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, and H. C. Swart, “Luminescent mechanism of Y2SiO5:Ce phosphor powder,” Phys. B 404, 4426–4430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, K. P.

L. T. Tan, R. W. Martin, K. P. O’Donnell, and I. M. Watson, “Photoluminescence and phonon satellites of single InGaN/GaN quantum wells with varying GaN cap thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Keppens, Y. Zong, Y. Ohno, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determining phosphors’ effective quantum efficiency for remote phosphor type LED modules,” in CIE Tutorial and Expert Symposium on Spectral and Imaging Methods for Photometry and Radiometry Location (CIE, 2010).

Park, Y.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pozina, G.

G. Pozina, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Origin of multiple peak photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2677–2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pyng, Y. Jiun

Reifegerste, F.

F. Reifegerste and J. Lienig, “Modelling of the temperature and current dependence of LED spectra,” J. Light Visual Environ. 32, 288–294 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryckaert, W. R.

A. Keppens, W. R. Ryckaert, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Modeling high power light-emitting diode spectra and their variation with junction temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

E. Jung, J. H. Ryu, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “Optical degradation of phosphor-converted white GaN-based light-emitting diodes under electro-thermal stress,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, H132–H136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sanna, C.

M. Meneghini, L. Trevisanello, C. Sanna, G. Mura, M. Vanzi, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “High temperature electro-optical degradation of InGaN/GaN HBLEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 1625–1629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

J. You, N. Tran, Y.-C. Lin, Y. He, and F. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs in different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38, 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F. G.

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration,” Opt. Express 18, 5055–5060 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, J. P. You, Y. C. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Development of high-performance optical silicone for the packaging of high-power LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 761–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. You, Y.-H. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor concentration effects on optothermal characteristics of phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Packag. 132, 031010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Nguyen The, Y. Jiun Pyng, and F. G. Shi, “Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5145–5150 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-C.

Swart, H. C.

E. Coetsee, J. J. Terblans, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, and H. C. Swart, “Luminescent mechanism of Y2SiO5:Ce phosphor powder,” Phys. B 404, 4426–4430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

Y. Uchida and T. Taguchi, “Lighting theory and luminous characteristics of white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng. 44, 124003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

G. Pozina, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Origin of multiple peak photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2677–2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. T.

L. T. Tan, R. W. Martin, K. P. O’Donnell, and I. M. Watson, “Photoluminescence and phonon satellites of single InGaN/GaN quantum wells with varying GaN cap thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terblans, J. J.

E. Coetsee, J. J. Terblans, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, and H. C. Swart, “Luminescent mechanism of Y2SiO5:Ce phosphor powder,” Phys. B 404, 4426–4430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

The, T. Nguyen

Tran, N.

J. You, N. Tran, Y.-C. Lin, Y. He, and F. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs in different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38, 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. T.

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration,” Opt. Express 18, 5055–5060 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, J. P. You, Y. C. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Development of high-performance optical silicone for the packaging of high-power LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 761–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. You, Y.-H. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor concentration effects on optothermal characteristics of phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Packag. 132, 031010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trevisanello, L.

M. Meneghini, L. Trevisanello, C. Sanna, G. Mura, M. Vanzi, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “High temperature electro-optical degradation of InGaN/GaN HBLEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 1625–1629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Trevisanello, F. D. Zuani, M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Thermally activated degradation and package instabilities of low flux LEDs,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 98–103.

Trivellin, N.

L. Trevisanello, F. D. Zuani, M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Thermally activated degradation and package instabilities of low flux LEDs,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 98–103.

Uchida, Y.

Y. Uchida and T. Taguchi, “Lighting theory and luminous characteristics of white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng. 44, 124003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vanzi, M.

M. Meneghini, L. Trevisanello, C. Sanna, G. Mura, M. Vanzi, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “High temperature electro-optical degradation of InGaN/GaN HBLEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 1625–1629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-P.

S.-C. Yang, P. Lin, C.-P. Wang, S. Huang, C.-L. Chen, P.-F. Chiang, A.-T. Lee, and M.-T. Chu, “Failure and degradation mechanisms of high-power white light emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50, 959–964 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Analysis of factors affecting color distribution of white LEDs,” in Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–8.

Wang, S.

K. ZhangQin, F. Jiao, Z. Chen, L. Xu, S. Wang, and S. Liu, “Effect of temperature and moisture on the luminescence properties of silicone filled with YAG phosphor,” J. Semicond. 32, 012002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

L. T. Tan, R. W. Martin, K. P. O’Donnell, and I. M. Watson, “Photoluminescence and phonon satellites of single InGaN/GaN quantum wells with varying GaN cap thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

Xi, Y. A.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

K. ZhangQin, F. Jiao, Z. Chen, L. Xu, S. Wang, and S. Liu, “Effect of temperature and moisture on the luminescence properties of silicone filled with YAG phosphor,” J. Semicond. 32, 012002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-C.

S.-C. Yang, P. Lin, C.-P. Wang, S. Huang, C.-L. Chen, P.-F. Chiang, A.-T. Lee, and M.-T. Chu, “Failure and degradation mechanisms of high-power white light emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50, 959–964 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, J.

J. You, N. Tran, Y.-C. Lin, Y. He, and F. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs in different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38, 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

You, J. P.

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration,” Opt. Express 18, 5055–5060 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, J. P. You, Y. C. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Development of high-performance optical silicone for the packaging of high-power LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 761–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. You, Y.-H. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor concentration effects on optothermal characteristics of phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Packag. 132, 031010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, E.

G. Meneghesso, M. Meneghini, and E. Zanoni, “Recent results on the degradation of white LEDs for lighting,” J. Phys. D 43, 354007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, L. Trevisanello, C. Sanna, G. Mura, M. Vanzi, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “High temperature electro-optical degradation of InGaN/GaN HBLEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 1625–1629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Trevisanello, F. D. Zuani, M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Thermally activated degradation and package instabilities of low flux LEDs,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 98–103.

ZhangQin, K.

K. ZhangQin, F. Jiao, Z. Chen, L. Xu, S. Wang, and S. Liu, “Effect of temperature and moisture on the luminescence properties of silicone filled with YAG phosphor,” J. Semicond. 32, 012002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, R.

R. Zheng, “Luminous efficiency and color rendering of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” J. Light Visual Environ. 32, 230–233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zong, Y.

A. Keppens, Y. Zong, Y. Ohno, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determining phosphors’ effective quantum efficiency for remote phosphor type LED modules,” in CIE Tutorial and Expert Symposium on Spectral and Imaging Methods for Photometry and Radiometry Location (CIE, 2010).

Zuani, F. D.

L. Trevisanello, F. D. Zuani, M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Thermally activated degradation and package instabilities of low flux LEDs,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 98–103.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Tan, R. W. Martin, K. P. O’Donnell, and I. M. Watson, “Photoluminescence and phonon satellites of single InGaN/GaN quantum wells with varying GaN cap thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol.

Y. H. Lin, J. P. You, Y. C. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Development of high-performance optical silicone for the packaging of high-power LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 761–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Keppens, W. R. Ryckaert, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Modeling high power light-emitting diode spectra and their variation with junction temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pozina, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Origin of multiple peak photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2677–2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

E. Jung, J. H. Ryu, C. H. Hong, and H. Kim, “Optical degradation of phosphor-converted white GaN-based light-emitting diodes under electro-thermal stress,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, H132–H136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

J. You, N. Tran, Y.-C. Lin, Y. He, and F. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs in different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38, 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Packag.

J. P. You, Y.-H. Lin, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor concentration effects on optothermal characteristics of phosphor converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Packag. 132, 031010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Light Visual Environ.

R. Zheng, “Luminous efficiency and color rendering of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” J. Light Visual Environ. 32, 230–233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Reifegerste and J. Lienig, “Modelling of the temperature and current dependence of LED spectra,” J. Light Visual Environ. 32, 288–294 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Deepa and S. Arvind, “Modeling and simulation of multielement LED source,” J. Light Visual Environ. 35, 34–41 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Phys. D

G. Meneghesso, M. Meneghini, and E. Zanoni, “Recent results on the degradation of white LEDs for lighting,” J. Phys. D 43, 354007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Semicond.

K. ZhangQin, F. Jiao, Z. Chen, L. Xu, S. Wang, and S. Liu, “Effect of temperature and moisture on the luminescence properties of silicone filled with YAG phosphor,” J. Semicond. 32, 012002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Reliab.

M. Meneghini, L. Trevisanello, C. Sanna, G. Mura, M. Vanzi, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “High temperature electro-optical degradation of InGaN/GaN HBLEDs,” Microelectron. Reliab. 47, 1625–1629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Yang, P. Lin, C.-P. Wang, S. Huang, C.-L. Chen, P.-F. Chiang, A.-T. Lee, and M.-T. Chu, “Failure and degradation mechanisms of high-power white light emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Reliab. 50, 959–964 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44, 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uchida and T. Taguchi, “Lighting theory and luminous characteristics of white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng. 44, 124003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. B

E. Coetsee, J. J. Terblans, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, and H. C. Swart, “Luminescent mechanism of Y2SiO5:Ce phosphor powder,” Phys. B 404, 4426–4430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Trevisanello, F. D. Zuani, M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, and G. Meneghesso, “Thermally activated degradation and package instabilities of low flux LEDs,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 98–103.

J. L. Devore, Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences, 7th ed. (Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008).

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Analysis of factors affecting color distribution of white LEDs,” in Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, 2008 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–8.

U. S. Department of Energy, “Solid-state lighting,” http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/sslbasics_ledbasics.html .

A. Keppens, Y. Zong, Y. Ohno, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Determining phosphors’ effective quantum efficiency for remote phosphor type LED modules,” in CIE Tutorial and Expert Symposium on Spectral and Imaging Methods for Photometry and Radiometry Location (CIE, 2010).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SPD of a cool white pc-LED normalized by its maximum value at P 1 .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)  R 2 versus C 2 and (b) SPD obtained using the value of C 2 at the maximum R 2 .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Plot obtained by subtracting the SPD obtained from Step 1 from the experimental data. (b) Points corresponding to the maxima and minima of (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Results obtained from the multiple Gaussian function approach compared with the experimental data.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Gaussian functions used for deconvolution. (b) SPDs of the deconvoluted leaked blue light and phosphor-converted light.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Step 1 result of warm white pc-LED.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental data subtracted by fitting function (warm white SPD).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Results obtained from a warm white pc-LED: (a) the multiple Gaussian function approach is compared with the experimental data, (b) Gaussian functions used for deconvolution, and (c) SPDs of the deconvoluted leaked blue light and phosphor-converted light.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

SPDs of (a) warm and (b) cool white pc-LEDs under various forward currents. T j = 25 ° C for all cases.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

YBRs of warm and cool white pc-LEDs: (a) absolute and (b) normalized.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

SPDs with various YBRs: (a) warm white and (b) cool white.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

CCT and CRI variation with YBRs: (a) warm white and (b) cool white.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

SPDs of blue LED under various forward currents. T j = 25 ° C for all cases.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

(a) Phosphor power conversion efficiency under various forward currents. (b) Efficiency normalized by its maximum value at I f = 100 mA .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison between the Experimental Data and the Results of Multiple Gaussian Function Approach in Terms of Optical Parameters

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i = 1 2 G i ( λ ) = i = 1 2 A i exp { ( λ B i ) 2 C i 2 } ,
SPD W ( B 1 ) = A 1 + G 2 ( B 1 ) .
C 1 = | λ V B 1 | ln ( SPD W ( λ V ) G 2 ( λ V ) A 1 ) = | λ V B 1 | ln ( κ ( C 2 ) ) ,
R 2 = 1 S err S tot ,
SPD W ( λ ) = SPD B ( λ ) + SPD P ( λ ) = i = 1 3 a i exp { ( λ b i ) 2 c i 2 } + i = 4 N G a i exp { ( λ b i ) 2 c i 2 } .
YBR = SPD P ( λ ) d λ SPD B ( λ ) d λ = i = 4 N G a i exp { ( λ b i ) 2 c i 2 } i = 1 3 a i exp { ( λ b i ) 2 c i 2 } .
η p = SPD P ( λ ) d λ { SPD total B ( λ ) SPD B ( λ ) } d λ = i = 4 N g a i exp { ( λ b i ) 2 c i 2 } SPD total B ( λ ) d λ i = 1 3 a i exp { ( λ b i ) 2 c i 2 } ,

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