Abstract

A low-cost Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instrument was developed where the traditional He–Ne reference laser was replaced by a low-cost linear encoder. An RMS sampling error of less than 20 nm was achieved by oversampling both the interferogram and the encoder signal and then resampling the interferogram using a correction table for the encoder. A gas calibration model was developed for the system, which was chosen to have a stroke length of 21 mm and, thereby, a resolution of 0.4cm1 after apodization. The instrument was mounted on a vehicle and employed in an agricultural field test for measuring soil emissions, in particular nitrous oxide (N2O). The concentration of N2O was measured with a root mean squared error of 6 ppb. The results compared well with lab-based gas chromatography measurements.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. J. Watson, P. J. Taggart, C. Jordan, and R. W. J. Steen, “Denitrification losses from grazed grassland,” in Proceedings of 2nd ESA Congress (ESA, 1992), pp. 436–437.
  2. K. Isermann, “Agriculture’s share in the emission of trace gases affecting the climate and some cause-oriented proposals for sufficiently reducing this share,” Environ. Pollut. 83, 95–113 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, and X. Zhou, “Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry,” in Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, 1995), pp. 73–126.
  4. IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (OECD, 1995).
  5. International Fertilizer Industry Association statistics (IFADATA), www.fertilizer.org/ifa/statistics.asp . (2007).
  6. L. R. Bakken and P. Dörsch, “Nitrous oxide emission and global changes: modelling approaches,” in Biology of the Nitrogen Cycle, H. Bothe, S. J. Ferguson, and W. E. Newton, eds. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 382–395.
  7. A. F. Bouwman, L. J. M. Boumane, and N. H. Batjes, “Emissions of N2O and NO from fertilized fields: summary of available measurement data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 1058 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Rochette and N. Bertrand, “Soil-surface gas emissions,” in Soil sampling and methods of analysis, M. Carter and E. G. Gregorich, eds., 2nd ed. (CRC, 2007), pp. 851–861.
  9. A. M. Weitz, E. Linder, S. Frolking, P. M. Crill, and M. Keller, “N2O emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1077–1093 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Honne, I. R. Johansen, G. Tan, and T. Stuffler, “Blind test performance of the ESA FTIR-based component monitoring system for spacecraft cabin design,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2001), paper 2001-01-2157.
  11. A. Honne, H. Odegard, H. Schumann-Olsen, T. Stuffler, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, and G. Tan, “ANITA—preparing for automatic air analyses on the ISS,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2005), paper 2005-01-2931.
  12. A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.
  13. A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).
  14. R. Birner, R. Maurer, M. Brotini, and E. Suetta, “Double linear scanning mechanism for MIPAS interferometer,” in 7th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, Netherlands (ESA, 1997), p. 13.
  15. Nanos Instruments GmbH, http://www.nanos-instruments.de .
  16. SpectralCalc.com by GATS, http://www.spectralcalc.com/info/about.php .
  17. L. Molstad, P. Dörsch, and L. R. Bakken, “Robotized incubation system for monitoring gases (O2, NO, N2ON2) in denitrifying cultures,” J. Microbiol. Methods 71, 202–211 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

L. Molstad, P. Dörsch, and L. R. Bakken, “Robotized incubation system for monitoring gases (O2, NO, N2ON2) in denitrifying cultures,” J. Microbiol. Methods 71, 202–211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. F. Bouwman, L. J. M. Boumane, and N. H. Batjes, “Emissions of N2O and NO from fertilized fields: summary of available measurement data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 1058 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. M. Weitz, E. Linder, S. Frolking, P. M. Crill, and M. Keller, “N2O emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1077–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. Isermann, “Agriculture’s share in the emission of trace gases affecting the climate and some cause-oriented proposals for sufficiently reducing this share,” Environ. Pollut. 83, 95–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bakken, L. R.

L. Molstad, P. Dörsch, and L. R. Bakken, “Robotized incubation system for monitoring gases (O2, NO, N2ON2) in denitrifying cultures,” J. Microbiol. Methods 71, 202–211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Bakken and P. Dörsch, “Nitrous oxide emission and global changes: modelling approaches,” in Biology of the Nitrogen Cycle, H. Bothe, S. J. Ferguson, and W. E. Newton, eds. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 382–395.

Batjes, N. H.

A. F. Bouwman, L. J. M. Boumane, and N. H. Batjes, “Emissions of N2O and NO from fertilized fields: summary of available measurement data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 1058 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bertrand, N.

P. Rochette and N. Bertrand, “Soil-surface gas emissions,” in Soil sampling and methods of analysis, M. Carter and E. G. Gregorich, eds., 2nd ed. (CRC, 2007), pp. 851–861.

Birner, R.

R. Birner, R. Maurer, M. Brotini, and E. Suetta, “Double linear scanning mechanism for MIPAS interferometer,” in 7th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, Netherlands (ESA, 1997), p. 13.

Boumane, L. J. M.

A. F. Bouwman, L. J. M. Boumane, and N. H. Batjes, “Emissions of N2O and NO from fertilized fields: summary of available measurement data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 1058 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bouwman, A. F.

A. F. Bouwman, L. J. M. Boumane, and N. H. Batjes, “Emissions of N2O and NO from fertilized fields: summary of available measurement data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 1058 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brotini, M.

R. Birner, R. Maurer, M. Brotini, and E. Suetta, “Double linear scanning mechanism for MIPAS interferometer,” in 7th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, Netherlands (ESA, 1997), p. 13.

Clausen, S.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.

Crill, P. M.

A. M. Weitz, E. Linder, S. Frolking, P. M. Crill, and M. Keller, “N2O emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1077–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Derwent, R.

M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, and X. Zhou, “Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry,” in Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, 1995), pp. 73–126.

Dörsch, P.

L. Molstad, P. Dörsch, and L. R. Bakken, “Robotized incubation system for monitoring gases (O2, NO, N2ON2) in denitrifying cultures,” J. Microbiol. Methods 71, 202–211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Bakken and P. Dörsch, “Nitrous oxide emission and global changes: modelling approaches,” in Biology of the Nitrogen Cycle, H. Bothe, S. J. Ferguson, and W. E. Newton, eds. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 382–395.

Ehhalt, D.

M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, and X. Zhou, “Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry,” in Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, 1995), pp. 73–126.

Fraser, P.

M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, and X. Zhou, “Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry,” in Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, 1995), pp. 73–126.

Frolking, S.

A. M. Weitz, E. Linder, S. Frolking, P. M. Crill, and M. Keller, “N2O emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1077–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Honne, A.

A. Honne, I. R. Johansen, G. Tan, and T. Stuffler, “Blind test performance of the ESA FTIR-based component monitoring system for spacecraft cabin design,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2001), paper 2001-01-2157.

A. Honne, H. Odegard, H. Schumann-Olsen, T. Stuffler, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, and G. Tan, “ANITA—preparing for automatic air analyses on the ISS,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2005), paper 2005-01-2931.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

Isermann, K.

K. Isermann, “Agriculture’s share in the emission of trace gases affecting the climate and some cause-oriented proposals for sufficiently reducing this share,” Environ. Pollut. 83, 95–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

James, J. T.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

Johansen, I. R.

A. Honne, I. R. Johansen, G. Tan, and T. Stuffler, “Blind test performance of the ESA FTIR-based component monitoring system for spacecraft cabin design,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2001), paper 2001-01-2157.

Jordan, C.

C. J. Watson, P. J. Taggart, C. Jordan, and R. W. J. Steen, “Denitrification losses from grazed grassland,” in Proceedings of 2nd ESA Congress (ESA, 1992), pp. 436–437.

Kampf, D.

A. Honne, H. Odegard, H. Schumann-Olsen, T. Stuffler, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, and G. Tan, “ANITA—preparing for automatic air analyses on the ISS,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2005), paper 2005-01-2931.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.

Kaspersen, K.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.

Keller, M.

A. M. Weitz, E. Linder, S. Frolking, P. M. Crill, and M. Keller, “N2O emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1077–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Limero, T.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

Linder, E.

A. M. Weitz, E. Linder, S. Frolking, P. M. Crill, and M. Keller, “N2O emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1077–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macatangay, A.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

Maurer, R.

R. Birner, R. Maurer, M. Brotini, and E. Suetta, “Double linear scanning mechanism for MIPAS interferometer,” in 7th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, Netherlands (ESA, 1997), p. 13.

Molstad, L.

L. Molstad, P. Dörsch, and L. R. Bakken, “Robotized incubation system for monitoring gases (O2, NO, N2ON2) in denitrifying cultures,” J. Microbiol. Methods 71, 202–211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mosebach, H.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.

A. Honne, H. Odegard, H. Schumann-Olsen, T. Stuffler, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, and G. Tan, “ANITA—preparing for automatic air analyses on the ISS,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2005), paper 2005-01-2931.

Mudgett, P. D.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

Odegard, H.

A. Honne, H. Odegard, H. Schumann-Olsen, T. Stuffler, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, and G. Tan, “ANITA—preparing for automatic air analyses on the ISS,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2005), paper 2005-01-2931.

Prather, M.

M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, and X. Zhou, “Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry,” in Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, 1995), pp. 73–126.

Rochette, P.

P. Rochette and N. Bertrand, “Soil-surface gas emissions,” in Soil sampling and methods of analysis, M. Carter and E. G. Gregorich, eds., 2nd ed. (CRC, 2007), pp. 851–861.

Sanhueza, E.

M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, and X. Zhou, “Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry,” in Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, 1995), pp. 73–126.

Schumann-Olsen, H.

A. Honne, H. Odegard, H. Schumann-Olsen, T. Stuffler, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, and G. Tan, “ANITA—preparing for automatic air analyses on the ISS,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2005), paper 2005-01-2931.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.

Steen, R. W. J.

C. J. Watson, P. J. Taggart, C. Jordan, and R. W. J. Steen, “Denitrification losses from grazed grassland,” in Proceedings of 2nd ESA Congress (ESA, 1992), pp. 436–437.

Stuffler, T.

A. Honne, H. Odegard, H. Schumann-Olsen, T. Stuffler, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, and G. Tan, “ANITA—preparing for automatic air analyses on the ISS,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2005), paper 2005-01-2931.

A. Honne, I. R. Johansen, G. Tan, and T. Stuffler, “Blind test performance of the ESA FTIR-based component monitoring system for spacecraft cabin design,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2001), paper 2001-01-2157.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.

Suetta, E.

R. Birner, R. Maurer, M. Brotini, and E. Suetta, “Double linear scanning mechanism for MIPAS interferometer,” in 7th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, Netherlands (ESA, 1997), p. 13.

Supper, W.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.

Taggart, P. J.

C. J. Watson, P. J. Taggart, C. Jordan, and R. W. J. Steen, “Denitrification losses from grazed grassland,” in Proceedings of 2nd ESA Congress (ESA, 1992), pp. 436–437.

Tan, G.

A. Honne, H. Odegard, H. Schumann-Olsen, T. Stuffler, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, and G. Tan, “ANITA—preparing for automatic air analyses on the ISS,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2005), paper 2005-01-2931.

A. Honne, I. R. Johansen, G. Tan, and T. Stuffler, “Blind test performance of the ESA FTIR-based component monitoring system for spacecraft cabin design,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2001), paper 2001-01-2157.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

Watson, C. J.

C. J. Watson, P. J. Taggart, C. Jordan, and R. W. J. Steen, “Denitrification losses from grazed grassland,” in Proceedings of 2nd ESA Congress (ESA, 1992), pp. 436–437.

Weitz, A. M.

A. M. Weitz, E. Linder, S. Frolking, P. M. Crill, and M. Keller, “N2O emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1077–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, and X. Zhou, “Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry,” in Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, 1995), pp. 73–126.

Environ. Pollut.

K. Isermann, “Agriculture’s share in the emission of trace gases affecting the climate and some cause-oriented proposals for sufficiently reducing this share,” Environ. Pollut. 83, 95–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles

A. F. Bouwman, L. J. M. Boumane, and N. H. Batjes, “Emissions of N2O and NO from fertilized fields: summary of available measurement data,” Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, 1058 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microbiol. Methods

L. Molstad, P. Dörsch, and L. R. Bakken, “Robotized incubation system for monitoring gases (O2, NO, N2ON2) in denitrifying cultures,” J. Microbiol. Methods 71, 202–211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soil Biol. Biochem.

A. M. Weitz, E. Linder, S. Frolking, P. M. Crill, and M. Keller, “N2O emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1077–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Honne, I. R. Johansen, G. Tan, and T. Stuffler, “Blind test performance of the ESA FTIR-based component monitoring system for spacecraft cabin design,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2001), paper 2001-01-2157.

A. Honne, H. Odegard, H. Schumann-Olsen, T. Stuffler, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, and G. Tan, “ANITA—preparing for automatic air analyses on the ISS,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2005), paper 2005-01-2931.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, S. Clausen, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, T. Stuffler, W. Supper, and G. Tan, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station. Part 2: air analyses,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2008), paper 2008-01-2043.

A. Honne, H. Schumann-Olsen, K. Kaspersen, T. Limero, A. Macatangay, H. Mosebach, D. Kampf, P. D. Mudgett, J. T. James, G. Tan, and W. Supper, “ANITA air monitoring on the international space station: results compared to other measurements,” in ICES Annual Science Conference (ICES, 2009).

R. Birner, R. Maurer, M. Brotini, and E. Suetta, “Double linear scanning mechanism for MIPAS interferometer,” in 7th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, Netherlands (ESA, 1997), p. 13.

Nanos Instruments GmbH, http://www.nanos-instruments.de .

SpectralCalc.com by GATS, http://www.spectralcalc.com/info/about.php .

C. J. Watson, P. J. Taggart, C. Jordan, and R. W. J. Steen, “Denitrification losses from grazed grassland,” in Proceedings of 2nd ESA Congress (ESA, 1992), pp. 436–437.

P. Rochette and N. Bertrand, “Soil-surface gas emissions,” in Soil sampling and methods of analysis, M. Carter and E. G. Gregorich, eds., 2nd ed. (CRC, 2007), pp. 851–861.

M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehhalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, and X. Zhou, “Other trace gases and atmospheric chemistry,” in Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, 1995), pp. 73–126.

IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (OECD, 1995).

International Fertilizer Industry Association statistics (IFADATA), www.fertilizer.org/ifa/statistics.asp . (2007).

L. R. Bakken and P. Dörsch, “Nitrous oxide emission and global changes: modelling approaches,” in Biology of the Nitrogen Cycle, H. Bothe, S. J. Ferguson, and W. E. Newton, eds. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 382–395.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

FTIR System with line encoder position detector. The horizontal and vertical arrows trace the optical path.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Oscilloscope traces of detector signal (sinus wave) and one of the encoder signals (square wave) when a He–Ne laser (632 nm) is used as light source. (b) Speed versus position is plotted to the right for three different speeds. Under each trace is the corresponding relative standard deviation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Position deviations between laser fringes and position encoder for several scans. (b) Position deviation after correction for three independent scans (blue, red and green curves) RMS position deviation is calculated to be approximately 25 nm. (c) Smoothening the measured speed of the moving mirror further reduced the deviation in measured position to a RMS of 20 nm in the three independent scans (blue, red and green curves).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Comparison of three encoder correction tables taken with several weeks interval. (b) True deviation after removing the DC and linear components. (c) A closer look at the data plotted in (b), showing periodic variations in the measured position.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Spectra corresponding to the same acquisition obtained with three different encoder correction tables. (b) A simulated periodic error in the encoder of 60 nm is applied to a real spectrum (black), giving a similar and greater spectral error (grey) than in Fig. 5(a).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Spectra measured with various stroke lengths have been calculated. (b) Zoom of the spectra.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) High resolution water vapor spectrum from the HITRAN database. (b) Measured spectrum averaged over six scans.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Typical spectra and gas concentrations from air at 25 °C with a 1 m measurement cell.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Field test setup mounted in the Gator.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Screen capture from the customized software displaying the spectral regions of interest with measured transmissions (black curves) and fitted reference transmissions (grey curves) in the left hand side plots. The corresponding gas concentrations as function of measurement number are plotted in the right hand side plots.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Concentration of N2O using GC and FTIR for locations 1 and 2, (a) and (b) respectively.

Equations (1)

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FN2O=dN2Odt(VCA·MNVm·60),

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