Abstract

A method for calculation of paraxial parameters of the double conjugate zoom lens is described. Such an optical system satisfies the requirement that the object, image, and pupil planes are fixed during the change of magnification. Formulas are derived for the calculation of parameters of a three-component double conjugate zoom lens system with tunable focus lenses, which enable us to calculate the optical power of individual optical components with respect to the transverse magnification. The main advantage of such an optical system is the possibility to achieve required zooming properties without any mechanical movement of individual components of the zoom lens.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Herzberger, Modern Geometrical Optics (Interscience, 1958).
  2. K. Yamaji, Progress in Optics, Vol. VI (North-Holland, 1967).
  3. A. Mikš, J. Novák, and P. Novák, “Method of zoom lens design,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6088–6098 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Wooters and E. W. Silvertooth, “Optically compensated zoom lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 347–351 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Grinkevich, “Version of an objective with variable focal length,” J. Opt. Technol. 73, 343–345 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Tanaka, “Recent development of zoom lenses,” Proc. SPIE 3129, 13–22 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Tanaka, “General paraxial analysis of mechanically compensated zoom lenses,” Proc. SPIE 3749, 286–287 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Pal and L. Hazra, “Ab initio synthesis of linearly compensated zoom lenses by evolutionary programming,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1434–1441 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Hazra and S. Pal, “A novel approach for structural synthesis of zoom systems,” Proc. SPIE 7786, 778607 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Analysis of two-element zoom systems based on variable power lenses,” Opt. Express 18, 6797–6810 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. H. Hopkins, “2-conjugate zoom system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instruments and Techniques 1969, J. H. Dickson, ed. (Oriel, 1970), pp. 444–452.
  12. H. H. Hopkins, “Zoom lens system for maintaining two pairs of conjugate planes fixed,” U.S. patent 3619035 (9November1971).
  13. S. J. Dobson, J. Farmer, and G. Smith, “Two-conjugate zoom system for an ophtalmoscope,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 79–83 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Kryszczynski, “Method for solving paraxial pupil problems in zoom systems,” Proc. SPIE 3129, 193–204 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “First-order analysis of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3348–3360 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “Solution for first-order design of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2261–2267 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. J. Sands, “Many-conjugate zoom systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1009–1010 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, “Miniaturized universal imaging device using fluidic lens,” Opt. Lett. 33, 291–293 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. http://www.varioptic.com .
  21. http://www.optotune.com/ .
  22. H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789–4791 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Ye, M. Noguchi, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Zoom lens system without moving elements realised using liquid crystal lenses,” Electron. Lett. 45, 646–648 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view,” Opt. Commun. 249, 175–182 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15, 5931–5936 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Zhuang, “Electrowetting-actuated zoom lens with spherical-interface liquid lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2644–2650 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Reichel and H. Zappe, “Design of spherically corrected, achromatic variable-focus liquid lenses,” Opt. Express 15, 14146–14154 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Peng, J. Chen, C. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Design of a zoom lens without motorized optical elements,” Opt. Express 15, 6664–6669 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Z. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhao, “Aberration analyses of liquid zooming lenses without moving parts,” Opt. Commun. 275, 22–26 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J.-H. Sun, B.-R. Hsueh, Y.-C. Fang, J. MacDonald, and C.-C. Hu, “Optical design and multiobjective optimization of miniature zoom optics with liquid lens element,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1741–1757 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. L. Li, Q. H. Wang, and W. Jiang, “Liquid lens with double tunable surfaces for large power tunability and improved optical performance,” J. Opt. 13, 115503 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. Li and Q. H. Wang, “Zoom lens design using liquid lenses for achromatic and spherical aberration corrected target,” Opt. Eng. 51, 043001 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. Miks, J. Novak, and P. Novak, “Generalized refractive tunable-focus lens and its imaging characteristics,” Opt. Express 18, 9034–9047 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Third-order aberrations of the thin refractive tunable-focus lens,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1031–1033 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

L. Li and Q. H. Wang, “Zoom lens design using liquid lenses for achromatic and spherical aberration corrected target,” Opt. Eng. 51, 043001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

L. Li, Q. H. Wang, and W. Jiang, “Liquid lens with double tunable surfaces for large power tunability and improved optical performance,” J. Opt. 13, 115503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pal and L. Hazra, “Ab initio synthesis of linearly compensated zoom lenses by evolutionary programming,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1434–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

L. Hazra and S. Pal, “A novel approach for structural synthesis of zoom systems,” Proc. SPIE 7786, 778607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Analysis of two-element zoom systems based on variable power lenses,” Opt. Express 18, 6797–6810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Miks, J. Novak, and P. Novak, “Generalized refractive tunable-focus lens and its imaging characteristics,” Opt. Express 18, 9034–9047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Third-order aberrations of the thin refractive tunable-focus lens,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1031–1033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J.-H. Sun, B.-R. Hsueh, Y.-C. Fang, J. MacDonald, and C.-C. Hu, “Optical design and multiobjective optimization of miniature zoom optics with liquid lens element,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1741–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, M. Noguchi, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Zoom lens system without moving elements realised using liquid crystal lenses,” Electron. Lett. 45, 646–648 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, “Miniaturized universal imaging device using fluidic lens,” Opt. Lett. 33, 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikš, J. Novák, and P. Novák, “Method of zoom lens design,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6088–6098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Zhuang, “Electrowetting-actuated zoom lens with spherical-interface liquid lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2644–2650 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. Reichel and H. Zappe, “Design of spherically corrected, achromatic variable-focus liquid lenses,” Opt. Express 15, 14146–14154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Peng, J. Chen, C. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Design of a zoom lens without motorized optical elements,” Opt. Express 15, 6664–6669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhao, “Aberration analyses of liquid zooming lenses without moving parts,” Opt. Commun. 275, 22–26 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15, 5931–5936 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. V. Grinkevich, “Version of an objective with variable focal length,” J. Opt. Technol. 73, 343–345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view,” Opt. Commun. 249, 175–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Tanaka, “General paraxial analysis of mechanically compensated zoom lenses,” Proc. SPIE 3749, 286–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

T. Kryszczynski, “Method for solving paraxial pupil problems in zoom systems,” Proc. SPIE 3129, 193–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “Solution for first-order design of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2261–2267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, “Recent development of zoom lenses,” Proc. SPIE 3129, 13–22 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “First-order analysis of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3348–3360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. J. Dobson, J. Farmer, and G. Smith, “Two-conjugate zoom system for an ophtalmoscope,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 79–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. J. Sands, “Many-conjugate zoom systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1009–1010 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

G. Wooters and E. W. Silvertooth, “Optically compensated zoom lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 347–351 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Baer, E.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beadie, G.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Zhuang, “Electrowetting-actuated zoom lens with spherical-interface liquid lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2644–2650 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Peng, J. Chen, C. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Design of a zoom lens without motorized optical elements,” Opt. Express 15, 6664–6669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, “Miniaturized universal imaging device using fluidic lens,” Opt. Lett. 33, 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, S. J.

S. J. Dobson, J. Farmer, and G. Smith, “Two-conjugate zoom system for an ophtalmoscope,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 79–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. H.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.-C.

J.-H. Sun, B.-R. Hsueh, Y.-C. Fang, J. MacDonald, and C.-C. Hu, “Optical design and multiobjective optimization of miniature zoom optics with liquid lens element,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1741–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, J.

S. J. Dobson, J. Farmer, and G. Smith, “Two-conjugate zoom system for an ophtalmoscope,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 79–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grinkevich, A. V.

A. V. Grinkevich, “Version of an objective with variable focal length,” J. Opt. Technol. 73, 343–345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hazra, L.

S. Pal and L. Hazra, “Ab initio synthesis of linearly compensated zoom lenses by evolutionary programming,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1434–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Hazra and S. Pal, “A novel approach for structural synthesis of zoom systems,” Proc. SPIE 7786, 778607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herzberger, M.

M. Herzberger, Modern Geometrical Optics (Interscience, 1958).

Hiltner, A.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, H. H.

H. H. Hopkins, “Zoom lens system for maintaining two pairs of conjugate planes fixed,” U.S. patent 3619035 (9November1971).

H. H. Hopkins, “2-conjugate zoom system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instruments and Techniques 1969, J. H. Dickson, ed. (Oriel, 1970), pp. 444–452.

Hsueh, B.-R.

J.-H. Sun, B.-R. Hsueh, Y.-C. Fang, J. MacDonald, and C.-C. Hu, “Optical design and multiobjective optimization of miniature zoom optics with liquid lens element,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1741–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.-C.

J.-H. Sun, B.-R. Hsueh, Y.-C. Fang, J. MacDonald, and C.-C. Hu, “Optical design and multiobjective optimization of miniature zoom optics with liquid lens element,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1741–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

L. Li, Q. H. Wang, and W. Jiang, “Liquid lens with double tunable surfaces for large power tunability and improved optical performance,” J. Opt. 13, 115503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Justis, N.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view,” Opt. Commun. 249, 175–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kazmierczak, T.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kryszczynski, T.

T. Kryszczynski, “Method for solving paraxial pupil problems in zoom systems,” Proc. SPIE 3129, 193–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lepkowicz, R. S.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li and Q. H. Wang, “Zoom lens design using liquid lenses for achromatic and spherical aberration corrected target,” Opt. Eng. 51, 043001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Q. H. Wang, and W. Jiang, “Liquid lens with double tunable surfaces for large power tunability and improved optical performance,” J. Opt. 13, 115503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, “Miniaturized universal imaging device using fluidic lens,” Opt. Lett. 33, 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view,” Opt. Commun. 249, 175–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-H.

M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “Solution for first-order design of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2261–2267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “First-order analysis of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3348–3360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, J.

J.-H. Sun, B.-R. Hsueh, Y.-C. Fang, J. MacDonald, and C.-C. Hu, “Optical design and multiobjective optimization of miniature zoom optics with liquid lens element,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1741–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miks, A.

A. Miks, J. Novak, and P. Novak, “Generalized refractive tunable-focus lens and its imaging characteristics,” Opt. Express 18, 9034–9047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mikš, A.

A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Analysis of two-element zoom systems based on variable power lenses,” Opt. Express 18, 6797–6810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Third-order aberrations of the thin refractive tunable-focus lens,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1031–1033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikš, J. Novák, and P. Novák, “Method of zoom lens design,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6088–6098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, M.

M. Ye, M. Noguchi, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Zoom lens system without moving elements realised using liquid crystal lenses,” Electron. Lett. 45, 646–648 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novak, J.

A. Miks, J. Novak, and P. Novak, “Generalized refractive tunable-focus lens and its imaging characteristics,” Opt. Express 18, 9034–9047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Novak, P.

A. Miks, J. Novak, and P. Novak, “Generalized refractive tunable-focus lens and its imaging characteristics,” Opt. Express 18, 9034–9047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Novák, J.

A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Analysis of two-element zoom systems based on variable power lenses,” Opt. Express 18, 6797–6810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Third-order aberrations of the thin refractive tunable-focus lens,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1031–1033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikš, J. Novák, and P. Novák, “Method of zoom lens design,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6088–6098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novák, P.

A. Mikš, J. Novák, and P. Novák, “Method of zoom lens design,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6088–6098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S.

S. Pal and L. Hazra, “Ab initio synthesis of linearly compensated zoom lenses by evolutionary programming,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1434–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Hazra and S. Pal, “A novel approach for structural synthesis of zoom systems,” Proc. SPIE 7786, 778607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, R.

R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Zhuang, “Electrowetting-actuated zoom lens with spherical-interface liquid lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2644–2650 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Peng, J. Chen, C. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Design of a zoom lens without motorized optical elements,” Opt. Express 15, 6664–6669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ponting, M.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, S.

S. Reichel and H. Zappe, “Design of spherically corrected, achromatic variable-focus liquid lenses,” Opt. Express 15, 14146–14154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15, 5931–5936 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renders, C. A.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sandrock, M. L.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sands, P. J.

P. J. Sands, “Many-conjugate zoom systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1009–1010 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

M. Ye, M. Noguchi, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Zoom lens system without moving elements realised using liquid crystal lenses,” Electron. Lett. 45, 646–648 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, J. S.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shiue, S.-G.

M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “Solution for first-order design of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2261–2267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “First-order analysis of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3348–3360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Silvertooth, E. W.

G. Wooters and E. W. Silvertooth, “Optically compensated zoom lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 347–351 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

S. J. Dobson, J. Farmer, and G. Smith, “Two-conjugate zoom system for an ophtalmoscope,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 79–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.-H.

J.-H. Sun, B.-R. Hsueh, Y.-C. Fang, J. MacDonald, and C.-C. Hu, “Optical design and multiobjective optimization of miniature zoom optics with liquid lens element,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1741–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, “General paraxial analysis of mechanically compensated zoom lenses,” Proc. SPIE 3749, 286–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, “Recent development of zoom lenses,” Proc. SPIE 3129, 13–22 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F. S.

F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, “Miniaturized universal imaging device using fluidic lens,” Opt. Lett. 33, 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tukker, T. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van As, M. A. J.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vasko, B.

F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, “Miniaturized universal imaging device using fluidic lens,” Opt. Lett. 33, 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vasko, J.

F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, “Miniaturized universal imaging device using fluidic lens,” Opt. Lett. 33, 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

M. Ye, M. Noguchi, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Zoom lens system without moving elements realised using liquid crystal lenses,” Electron. Lett. 45, 646–648 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

L. Li and Q. H. Wang, “Zoom lens design using liquid lenses for achromatic and spherical aberration corrected target,” Opt. Eng. 51, 043001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Q. H. Wang, and W. Jiang, “Liquid lens with double tunable surfaces for large power tunability and improved optical performance,” J. Opt. 13, 115503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhao, “Aberration analyses of liquid zooming lenses without moving parts,” Opt. Commun. 275, 22–26 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiggins, M. J.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wooters, G.

G. Wooters and E. W. Silvertooth, “Optically compensated zoom lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 347–351 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15, 5931–5936 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhao, “Aberration analyses of liquid zooming lenses without moving parts,” Opt. Commun. 275, 22–26 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaji, K.

K. Yamaji, Progress in Optics, Vol. VI (North-Holland, 1967).

Yang, Y.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, M.

M. Ye, M. Noguchi, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Zoom lens system without moving elements realised using liquid crystal lenses,” Electron. Lett. 45, 646–648 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, M.-S.

M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “Solution for first-order design of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2261–2267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “First-order analysis of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3348–3360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zappe, H.

S. Reichel and H. Zappe, “Design of spherically corrected, achromatic variable-focus liquid lenses,” Opt. Express 15, 14146–14154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Y.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view,” Opt. Commun. 249, 175–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhao, “Aberration analyses of liquid zooming lenses without moving parts,” Opt. Commun. 275, 22–26 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

R. Peng, J. Chen, C. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Design of a zoom lens without motorized optical elements,” Opt. Express 15, 6664–6669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, S.

R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Zhuang, “Electrowetting-actuated zoom lens with spherical-interface liquid lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2644–2650 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Peng, J. Chen, C. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Design of a zoom lens without motorized optical elements,” Opt. Express 15, 6664–6669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

A. Mikš, J. Novák, and P. Novák, “Method of zoom lens design,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6088–6098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pal and L. Hazra, “Ab initio synthesis of linearly compensated zoom lenses by evolutionary programming,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1434–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Sun, B.-R. Hsueh, Y.-C. Fang, J. MacDonald, and C.-C. Hu, “Optical design and multiobjective optimization of miniature zoom optics with liquid lens element,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1741–1757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Ye, M. Noguchi, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Zoom lens system without moving elements realised using liquid crystal lenses,” Electron. Lett. 45, 646–648 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

L. Li, Q. H. Wang, and W. Jiang, “Liquid lens with double tunable surfaces for large power tunability and improved optical performance,” J. Opt. 13, 115503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

G. Wooters and E. W. Silvertooth, “Optically compensated zoom lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 347–351 (1965).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Sands, “Many-conjugate zoom systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1009–1010 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Zhuang, “Electrowetting-actuated zoom lens with spherical-interface liquid lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2644–2650 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

A. V. Grinkevich, “Version of an objective with variable focal length,” J. Opt. Technol. 73, 343–345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhao, “Aberration analyses of liquid zooming lenses without moving parts,” Opt. Commun. 275, 22–26 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view,” Opt. Commun. 249, 175–182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “First-order analysis of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3348–3360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Yeh, S.-G. Shiue, and M.-H. Lu, “Solution for first-order design of a two-conjugate zoom system,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2261–2267 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Li and Q. H. Wang, “Zoom lens design using liquid lenses for achromatic and spherical aberration corrected target,” Opt. Eng. 51, 043001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

A. Miks, J. Novak, and P. Novak, “Generalized refractive tunable-focus lens and its imaging characteristics,” Opt. Express 18, 9034–9047 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Reichel and H. Zappe, “Design of spherically corrected, achromatic variable-focus liquid lenses,” Opt. Express 15, 14146–14154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Peng, J. Chen, C. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Design of a zoom lens without motorized optical elements,” Opt. Express 15, 6664–6669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15, 5931–5936 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16, 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Analysis of two-element zoom systems based on variable power lenses,” Opt. Express 18, 6797–6810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

S. J. Dobson, J. Farmer, and G. Smith, “Two-conjugate zoom system for an ophtalmoscope,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 79–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, “Miniaturized universal imaging device using fluidic lens,” Opt. Lett. 33, 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Third-order aberrations of the thin refractive tunable-focus lens,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1031–1033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kryszczynski, “Method for solving paraxial pupil problems in zoom systems,” Proc. SPIE 3129, 193–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, “Recent development of zoom lenses,” Proc. SPIE 3129, 13–22 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, “General paraxial analysis of mechanically compensated zoom lenses,” Proc. SPIE 3749, 286–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Hazra and S. Pal, “A novel approach for structural synthesis of zoom systems,” Proc. SPIE 7786, 778607 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Herzberger, Modern Geometrical Optics (Interscience, 1958).

K. Yamaji, Progress in Optics, Vol. VI (North-Holland, 1967).

H. H. Hopkins, “2-conjugate zoom system,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instruments and Techniques 1969, J. H. Dickson, ed. (Oriel, 1970), pp. 444–452.

H. H. Hopkins, “Zoom lens system for maintaining two pairs of conjugate planes fixed,” U.S. patent 3619035 (9November1971).

http://www.varioptic.com .

http://www.optotune.com/ .

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of optical system with two conjugate planes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of Double Conjugate Large-Zoom-Ratio Lens

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α=[dN1,φN1,dN2,φN2,dN3,φN3,,d1,φ1,],β=[dN1,φN1,dN2,φN2,dN3,φN3,,d1],γ=[φN,dN1,φN1,dN2,φN2,dN3,,d1,φ1],δ=[φN,dN1,φN1,dN2,φN2,dN3,,d1],
[a1]=a1,[a1,a2]=a1a2+1,
[a1,a2,a3,,aN]=[a1,a2,a3,,aN2]+[a1,a2,a3,,aN1]aN,
[a1,a2,a3,,aN]=[aN,aN1,aN2,,a1].
φ=γ,sF=δ/γ,sF=α/γ,s=βαsδγs,m=sγ+α=1δsγ,
α=1d2(φ1+φ2φ1φ2d1)φ1d1,
β=d1+d2φ2d1d2,
γ=φ=(φ1+φ2+φ3)+φ1φ2d1+φ2φ3d2+φ1φ3(d1+d2)φ1φ2φ3d1d2,
δ=1d1(φ2+φ3)d2φ3+d1d2φ2φ3.
spsp=qq=mPm.
m=sγ+α,mP=pγ+α.
γ=mmPsp=mmPq=mq1qm,mP=mγ(sp).
φ2=(d1+d2)d1d2+psd1d2m(ps)+psmd1d2(sp),φ3=(s+d2)(1φ2d1)+d1mss(d1+d2(1φ2d1),φ1=m(1φ3d2+(sd1)(φ2+φ3φ2φ3d2))1ms(φ3d1(1φ3d2)(1φ2d1)).
AA¯=s+d1+d2+s=const.
PP¯=p+d1+d2+p=const.

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