This paper proposes a tunable-focus liquid lens implemented with a simple cylindrical container structure and liquid as the lens material. The cylindrical container was constructed using a Pb (PZT) ring transducer and a polydimethylsiloxane membrane that was attached to a flat side of the transducer. The free surface of the liquid in the cylindrical container can be driven as a static-like convex lens with different curvatures because the higher-order harmonic resonance of the PZT transducer was electrically controlled. Based on a capillary-force-dominant design, the activated liquid lens maintained surface curvature in an arbitrary orientation without a gravitational effect. Profiles of the liquid lenses were characterized with the driving voltages of the transducer ranging from 12 to 60 V peak-to-peak (Vpp) at a resonant frequency of 460 kHz. The temperature effects on the lenses caused by the continuous operation of the transducer were measured. Images showed the various curvatures of the lenses with a range of actuation voltages. A change in focal length of eight times (5.72 to 46.03 cm) was demonstrated within the 10 Vpp variation of the driving voltage. For the characterized liquid lenses, the distortion was less than 2%, and the modulation transfer function reached 63 line pairs per mm () using ZEMAX analysis.
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