Abstract

Oceanographic lidar profiles measured in an aerial survey were compared with in situ measurements of water optical properties made from a surface vessel. Experimental data were collected over a two-week period in May 2010 in East Sound, Washington. Measured absorption and backscatter coefficients were used with the volume-scattering function in a quasi-single-scattering model to simulate an idealized lidar return, and this was convolved with the measured instrument response to accurately reproduce the measured temporal behavior. Linear depth-dependent depolarization from the water column and localized depolarization from scattering layers are varied to fine tune the simulated lidar return. Sixty in situ measurements of optical properties were correlated with nearly collocated and coincident lidar profiles; our model yielded good matches (±3dB to a depth of 12 m) between simulated and measured lidar profiles for both uniform and stratified waters. Measured attenuation was slightly higher (5%) than diffuse attenuation for the copolarized channel and slightly lower (8%) for the cross-polarized channel.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  4. J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40, 406–414 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, and K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the North Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, and B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Carrera, J. H. Churnside, G. Boyra, V. Marques, C. Scalabrin, and A. Uriarte, “Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders: a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63, 1736–1750 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, D. Griffith, R. L. Emmett, and R. D. Brodeur, “Comparisons of lidar, acoustic and trawl data on two scales in the Northeast Pacific Ocean,” California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports50, 118–122 (2009).
  9. J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68, 239–244 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Churnside and R. E. Thorne, “Comparison of airborne lidar measurements with 420 kHz echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5504–5511 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. R. C. Hilldale and D. Raff, “Assessing the ability of airborne LiDAR to map river bathymetry,” Earth Surf. Processes Landforms 33, 773–783 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. K. Mitra and J. H. Churnside, “Transient radiative transfer equation applied to oceanographic lidar,” Appl. Opt. 38, 889–895 (1999).
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  21. J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16, 1196–1207 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  24. J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, and C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetations and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. R. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. Z.-P. Lee, K.-P. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6811–6819 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 50–65 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  38. P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  39. K. E. Kunkel and J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68, 239–244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Wang, W. Philpot, M. Kim, and H.-M. Lei, “A Monte Carlo study of the seagrass-induced depth bias in bathymetric lidar,” Opt. Express 19, 7230–7243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 50–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6811–6819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66, 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. C. Hilldale and D. Raff, “Assessing the ability of airborne LiDAR to map river bathymetry,” Earth Surf. Processes Landforms 33, 773–783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Wedding, A. M. Friedlander, M. McGranaghan, R. S. Yost, and M. E. Monaco, “Using bathymetric lidar to define nearshore benthic habitat complexity: implications for management of reef fish assemblages in Hawaii,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 4159–4165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16, 1196–1207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C.-K. Wang and W. D. Philpot, “Using airborne bathymetric lidar to detect bottom type variation in shallow waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 106, 123–135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. Carrera, J. H. Churnside, G. Boyra, V. Marques, C. Scalabrin, and A. Uriarte, “Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders: a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63, 1736–1750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Z.-P. Lee, K.-P. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and L. A. Ostrovsky, “Lidar observation of a strongly nonlinear internal wave train in the Gulf of Alaska,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 167–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and R. E. Thorne, “Comparison of airborne lidar measurements with 420 kHz echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5504–5511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, and B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, and K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the North Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40, 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, and C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetations and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Mitra and J. H. Churnside, “Transient radiative transfer equation applied to oceanographic lidar,” Appl. Opt. 38, 889–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. H. Churnside, V. V. Tatarskii, and J. J. Wilson, “Oceanographic lidar attenuation coefficients and signal fluctuations measured from a ship in the Southern California bight,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3105–3112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. I. Effect of the atmosphere and wind-driven sea waves,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1589–1595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. II. Polarization characteristics of signals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1596–1601(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, and I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. R. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Y. Takano and K.-N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I: single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, and R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. R. Gordon, “Interpretation of airborne oceanic lidar: effects of multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2996–3001 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

K. E. Kunkel and J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radioimetric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191–1204 (1973).

Abnett, K.

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, and K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the North Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alldredge, A. L.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R.

Z.-P. Lee, K.-P. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berry, R. E.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, and R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyra, G.

P. Carrera, J. H. Churnside, G. Boyra, V. Marques, C. Scalabrin, and A. Uriarte, “Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders: a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63, 1736–1750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, R. D.

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, D. Griffith, R. L. Emmett, and R. D. Brodeur, “Comparisons of lidar, acoustic and trawl data on two scales in the Northeast Pacific Ocean,” California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports50, 118–122 (2009).

Brown, E. D.

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, and K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the North Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buntzen, R. R.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, and R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carrera, P.

P. Carrera, J. H. Churnside, G. Boyra, V. Marques, C. Scalabrin, and A. Uriarte, “Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders: a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63, 1736–1750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Case, J. F.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68, 239–244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66, 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16, 1196–1207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Carrera, J. H. Churnside, G. Boyra, V. Marques, C. Scalabrin, and A. Uriarte, “Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders: a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63, 1736–1750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and R. E. Thorne, “Comparison of airborne lidar measurements with 420 kHz echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5504–5511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and L. A. Ostrovsky, “Lidar observation of a strongly nonlinear internal wave train in the Gulf of Alaska,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 167–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, and B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, and K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the North Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40, 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, and C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetations and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Mitra and J. H. Churnside, “Transient radiative transfer equation applied to oceanographic lidar,” Appl. Opt. 38, 889–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, V. V. Tatarskii, and J. J. Wilson, “Oceanographic lidar attenuation coefficients and signal fluctuations measured from a ship in the Southern California bight,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3105–3112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, D. Griffith, R. L. Emmett, and R. D. Brodeur, “Comparisons of lidar, acoustic and trawl data on two scales in the Northeast Pacific Ocean,” California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports50, 118–122 (2009).

Chýlek, P.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. L.

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, and K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the North Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Darecki, M.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dekshenieks, M.

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dekshenieks, M. M.

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Demer, D. A.

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, and B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, D. Griffith, R. L. Emmett, and R. D. Brodeur, “Comparisons of lidar, acoustic and trawl data on two scales in the Northeast Pacific Ocean,” California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports50, 118–122 (2009).

Donaghay, P. L.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 50–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66, 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
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Du, K.-P.

Z.-P. Lee, K.-P. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eisner, L. B.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Emmett, R. L.

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, D. Griffith, R. L. Emmett, and R. D. Brodeur, “Comparisons of lidar, acoustic and trawl data on two scales in the Northeast Pacific Ocean,” California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports50, 118–122 (2009).

Friedlander, A. M.

L. M. Wedding, A. M. Friedlander, M. McGranaghan, R. S. Yost, and M. E. Monaco, “Using bathymetric lidar to define nearshore benthic habitat complexity: implications for management of reef fish assemblages in Hawaii,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 4159–4165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
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Gifford, D. J.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, G. D.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, and R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Goldin, Y. A.

A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Interpretation of airborne oceanic lidar: effects of multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2996–3001 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Greenlaw, C. F.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, D.

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, D. Griffith, R. L. Emmett, and R. D. Brodeur, “Comparisons of lidar, acoustic and trawl data on two scales in the Northeast Pacific Ocean,” California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports50, 118–122 (2009).

Gureev, B. A.

A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herren, C. M.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
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Hilldale, R. C.

R. C. Hilldale and D. Raff, “Assessing the ability of airborne LiDAR to map river bathymetry,” Earth Surf. Processes Landforms 33, 773–783 (2008).
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Hoge, F. E.

A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, and R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Holliday, D. V.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katsev, I. L.

I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, and I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
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Kim, M.

C.-K. Wang, W. Philpot, M. Kim, and H.-M. Lei, “A Monte Carlo study of the seagrass-induced depth bias in bathymetric lidar,” Opt. Express 19, 7230–7243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krabill, W. B.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, and R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Krekov, G. M.

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. I. Effect of the atmosphere and wind-driven sea waves,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1589–1595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. II. Polarization characteristics of signals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1596–1601(1998).
[CrossRef]

Krekova, M. M.

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. II. Polarization characteristics of signals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1596–1601(1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. I. Effect of the atmosphere and wind-driven sea waves,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1589–1595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kunkel, K. E.

K. E. Kunkel and J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z.-P.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z.-P. Lee, K.-P. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lei, H.-M.

C.-K. Wang, W. Philpot, M. Kim, and H.-M. Lei, “A Monte Carlo study of the seagrass-induced depth bias in bathymetric lidar,” Opt. Express 19, 7230–7243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lesins, G. B.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K.-N.

Y. Takano and K.-N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I: single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

MacIntyre, S.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mahmoudi, B.

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, and B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Margaret, J. M. S.

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marques, V.

P. Carrera, J. H. Churnside, G. Boyra, V. Marques, C. Scalabrin, and A. Uriarte, “Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders: a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63, 1736–1750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, D. M.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGranaghan, M.

L. M. Wedding, A. M. Friedlander, M. McGranaghan, R. S. Yost, and M. E. Monaco, “Using bathymetric lidar to define nearshore benthic habitat complexity: implications for management of reef fish assemblages in Hawaii,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 4159–4165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McManus, M. A.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, K.

K. Mitra and J. H. Churnside, “Transient radiative transfer equation applied to oceanographic lidar,” Appl. Opt. 38, 889–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monaco, M. E.

L. M. Wedding, A. M. Friedlander, M. McGranaghan, R. S. Yost, and M. E. Monaco, “Using bathymetric lidar to define nearshore benthic habitat complexity: implications for management of reef fish assemblages in Hawaii,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 4159–4165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. C.

J. R. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. M.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, D.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, C. W.

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, and C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetations and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, T. R.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ostrovsky, L. A.

J. H. Churnside and L. A. Ostrovsky, “Lidar observation of a strongly nonlinear internal wave train in the Gulf of Alaska,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 167–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Philpot, W.

C.-K. Wang, W. Philpot, M. Kim, and H.-M. Lei, “A Monte Carlo study of the seagrass-induced depth bias in bathymetric lidar,” Opt. Express 19, 7230–7243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Philpot, W. D.

C.-K. Wang and W. D. Philpot, “Using airborne bathymetric lidar to detect bottom type variation in shallow waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 106, 123–135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pieper, R. E.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radioimetric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191–1204 (1973).

Polonsky, I. N.

I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, and I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prikhach, A. S.

I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, and I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raff, D.

R. C. Hilldale and D. Raff, “Assessing the ability of airborne LiDAR to map river bathymetry,” Earth Surf. Processes Landforms 33, 773–783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rhea, W. J.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rhoades, B.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richter, R. A.

J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68, 239–244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rines, J. E. B.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 50–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scalabrin, C.

P. Carrera, J. H. Churnside, G. Boyra, V. Marques, C. Scalabrin, and A. Uriarte, “Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders: a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63, 1736–1750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shamanaev, V. S.

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. I. Effect of the atmosphere and wind-driven sea waves,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1589–1595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. II. Polarization characteristics of signals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1596–1601(1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharov, A. F.

J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68, 239–244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. C.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 50–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6811–6819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, and R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

Y. Takano and K.-N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I: single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, M. K.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tatarskii, V. V.

J. H. Churnside, V. V. Tatarskii, and J. J. Wilson, “Oceanographic lidar attenuation coefficients and signal fluctuations measured from a ship in the Southern California bight,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3105–3112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thorne, R. E.

J. H. Churnside and R. E. Thorne, “Comparison of airborne lidar measurements with 420 kHz echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5504–5511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6811–6819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uriarte, A.

P. Carrera, J. H. Churnside, G. Boyra, V. Marques, C. Scalabrin, and A. Uriarte, “Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders: a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63, 1736–1750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vasilkov, A. P.

A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, T.

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, and K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the North Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Videen, G.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-K.

C.-K. Wang, W. Philpot, M. Kim, and H.-M. Lei, “A Monte Carlo study of the seagrass-induced depth bias in bathymetric lidar,” Opt. Express 19, 7230–7243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Wang and W. D. Philpot, “Using airborne bathymetric lidar to detect bottom type variation in shallow waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 106, 123–135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wedding, L. M.

L. M. Wedding, A. M. Friedlander, M. McGranaghan, R. S. Yost, and M. E. Monaco, “Using bathymetric lidar to define nearshore benthic habitat complexity: implications for management of reef fish assemblages in Hawaii,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 4159–4165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weinman, J. A.

K. E. Kunkel and J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. J.

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, and K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the North Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40, 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, V. V. Tatarskii, and J. J. Wilson, “Oceanographic lidar attenuation coefficients and signal fluctuations measured from a ship in the Southern California bight,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3105–3112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J. G. D.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wright, C. W.

A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, and R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yost, R. S.

L. M. Wedding, A. M. Friedlander, M. McGranaghan, R. S. Yost, and M. E. Monaco, “Using bathymetric lidar to define nearshore benthic habitat complexity: implications for management of reef fish assemblages in Hawaii,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 4159–4165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J. K.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, and R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R.

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, and I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zorn, H. M.

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, and C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetations and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, W. B. Krabill, R. R. Buntzen, G. D. Gilbert, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, and R. E. Berry, “Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3969–3977 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside and R. E. Thorne, “Comparison of airborne lidar measurements with 420 kHz echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5504–5511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Interpretation of airborne oceanic lidar: effects of multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2996–3001 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. I. Effect of the atmosphere and wind-driven sea waves,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1589–1595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Krekov, M. M. Krekova, and V. S. Shamanaev, “Laser sensing of a subsurface oceanic layer. II. Polarization characteristics of signals,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1596–1601(1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Mitra and J. H. Churnside, “Transient radiative transfer equation applied to oceanographic lidar,” Appl. Opt. 38, 889–895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, V. V. Tatarskii, and J. J. Wilson, “Oceanographic lidar attenuation coefficients and signal fluctuations measured from a ship in the Southern California bight,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3105–3112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400–750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294–5309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6811–6819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Shelf Res. (1)

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. E. B. Rines, “Coastal thin layer dynamics: consequences to biology and optics,” Cont. Shelf Res. 30, 50–65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Earth Surf. Processes Landforms (1)

R. C. Hilldale and D. Raff, “Assessing the ability of airborne LiDAR to map river bathymetry,” Earth Surf. Processes Landforms 33, 773–783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ICES J. Mar. Sci. (5)

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66, 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, and K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the North Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, and B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Carrera, J. H. Churnside, G. Boyra, V. Marques, C. Scalabrin, and A. Uriarte, “Comparison of airborne lidar with echosounders: a case study in the coastal Atlantic waters of southern Europe,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 63, 1736–1750 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, A. F. Sharov, and R. A. Richter, “Aerial surveys of fish in estuaries: a case study in Chesapeake Bay,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68, 239–244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

J. H. Churnside and L. A. Ostrovsky, “Lidar observation of a strongly nonlinear internal wave train in the Gulf of Alaska,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 167–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (4)

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radioimetric observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191–1204 (1973).

Y. Takano and K.-N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I: single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Kunkel and J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z.-P. Lee, K.-P. Du, and R. Arnone, “A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z.-P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. J. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance: an evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, C02017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

I. L. Katsev, E. P. Zege, A. S. Prikhach, and I. N. Polonsky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and oceanic sounding and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (3)

M. A. McManus, A. L. Alldredge, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, J. F. Case, T. J. Cowles, P. L. Donaghay, L. B. Eisner, D. J. Gifford, C. F. Greenlaw, C. M. Herren, D. V. Holliday, D. Johnson, S. MacIntyre, D. M. McGehee, T. R. Osborn, M. J. Perry, R. E. Pieper, J. E. B. Rines, D. C. Smith, J. M. Sullivan, M. K. Talbot, M. S. Twardowski, A. Weidemann, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Characteristics, distribution and persistence of thin layers over a 48 hour period,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 261, 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Alldredge, T. J. Cowles, S. MacIntyre, J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, C. F. Greenlaw, D. V. Holliday, J. M. S. Margaret, M. Dekshenieks, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Occurrence and mechanisms of formation of a dramatic thin layer of marine snow in a shallow Pacific fjord,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 233, 1–12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Mammal Sci. (1)

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, and C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetations and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. H. Churnside and J. J. Wilson, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40, 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

C.-K. Wang, W. Philpot, M. Kim, and H.-M. Lei, “A Monte Carlo study of the seagrass-induced depth bias in bathymetric lidar,” Opt. Express 19, 7230–7243 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16, 1196–1207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. R. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

L. M. Wedding, A. M. Friedlander, M. McGranaghan, R. S. Yost, and M. E. Monaco, “Using bathymetric lidar to define nearshore benthic habitat complexity: implications for management of reef fish assemblages in Hawaii,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 4159–4165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Wang and W. D. Philpot, “Using airborne bathymetric lidar to detect bottom type variation in shallow waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 106, 123–135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, D. Griffith, R. L. Emmett, and R. D. Brodeur, “Comparisons of lidar, acoustic and trawl data on two scales in the Northeast Pacific Ocean,” California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports50, 118–122 (2009).

C. R. Thomas, Identifying Marine Phytoplankton (Academic, 1997), p. 858.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Map of the study area. Left panel shows East Sound on Orcas Island, and numbered dots show the locations of in situ optical measurements. Right panel shows wide area map of the Washington and British Columbia coastlines, with the heavy black rectangle showing the location of the East Sound map. Over the course of the experiment, 60 profiles were obtained at these 10 sites.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Examples of measured and calculated attenuated backscatter S versus depth z. Solid curves show the return for five consecutive laser shots. Larger values (to the right) are for the copolarized channel and smaller values (to the left) are for the cross-polarized channel. Symbols show the optical signal return as predicted by the in situ optical measurements at the sample depths. Dashed curves show the modeled lidar returns. (a) Example of uniform water properties with enhanced surface return. (b) Example of a depolarizing subsurface layer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scatter plot showing numerical comparison between measured lidar signal and calculated signal from lidar model of in situ optical data, for (a) copolarized and (b) cross-polarized returns. Depth z of each point is denoted by gray scale according to the color bar at the top of the first plot.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Average ratio (in decibels) of modeled to measured lidar returns as a function of depth, for copolarized (o) and cross-polarized (x) returns. Error bars indicate standard deviation of measurements at the same depth. All values were calculated at integer depths, but the plots have been offset for clarity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Depth (z) profiles of diffuse-attenuation coefficient (K) computed from in situ optical measurements for the case of Fig. 2(a) (+) and lidar attenuation coefficients (α) estimated from the five cross-polarized returns in Fig. 2(a) (lines).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Scatter plot showing numerical comparison between diffuse-attenuation coefficient (K) computed from in situ optical measurements and attenuation coefficient along slanted light path estimated from coincident lidar data (α). Comparisons are made at depths of 4 m (+), 5 m (×), and 6 m (o) for (a) copolarized and (b) cross-polarized signal returns.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Platt multiple scattering correction factor η as a function of 1—the single-scattering albedo ω0.

Equations (5)

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P(x)=P(0)exp[0xK(x)dx],
s(z)=Aβ(π,z)exp(20z/cos(θLW)K(x)dx),
D=SxSc=D0+2γz,
F(r)=[S(R,z)S(R+r,z)]22[S(R,z)S(R,z)]2,
η=ac+4.18[10.52exp(10.8a)]bbc=1ω0+4.18[10.52exp(10.8a)]bbbω0,

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