Abstract

In this paper, design and simulation of conductive nanometric multilayer systems are discussed and optimum thickness of Ag and ZnS layers are calculated to reach simultaneously to high transmittance and low sheet resistance. The conductive transparent ZnS/Ag/ZnS/Ag/ZnS (ZAZAZ) nanometric multilayer systems are deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by a thermal evaporation method. The electrical, optical, and structural properties of these multilayers, such as sheet resistance, optical transmittance, and the root-mean-square surface roughness are obtained. High quality nanometric multilayer systems with sheet resistance of 2.7Ω/sq and the optical transmittance of 75.5% are obtained for the ZAZAZ system. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and tested on the ZAZAZ anode. The ZAZAZ multilayer anode based OLED shows the performance comparable to that of the indium-tin oxide anode based OLED.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Song, A. G. Aberle, and J. Xia, “Optimisation of ZnO:Al films by change of sputter gas pressure for solar cell application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 195, 291–296 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Fleischer, E. Arca, and I. V. Shvets, “Improving solar cell efficiency with optically optimised TCO layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 262–269 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Park and H. Ham, “Sputter-patterned ITO-based organic light-emitting diodes with leakage current cut-off layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 1872–1878 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Miyata, T. Hikosaka, and T. Minami, “High sensitivity chlorine gas sensors using multicomponent transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 69, 16–21 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Remes, M. Vanecek, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, and D. W. Sheel, “Optical properties of SnO2:F films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6287–6289 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. H. Kim, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, and G. Sung, “Electrical and optical characteristics of ITO films by pulsed laser deposition using a 10 wt. % SnO2-doped In2O3 ceramic target,” Thin Solid Films 475, 262–266 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. W. Kim, D. C. Choo, Y. S. No, W. K. Choi, and E. H. Choi, “High work function of Al-doped zinc-oxide thin films as transparent conductive anodes in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1917–1920 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. M. Maghanga, J. Jensen, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, and M. Mwamburi, “Transparent and conducting TiO2:Nb films made by sputter deposition: Application to spectrally selective solar reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 75–79 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Nam, Y. H. Kang, D. Jung, and Y. S. Kim, “Anode material properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering method for organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 518, 6245–6248 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. C. Lee and O. Ok Park, “Electron scattering mechanisms in indium-tin-oxide thin films: grain boundary and ionized impurity scattering,” Vacuum 75, 275–282 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. F. Wang, X. M. Tao, and R. X. Wang, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with a polymeric nanocomposite anode,” Nanotechnology 19, 145201 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. K. Park, J. W. Kang, S. I. Na, D. Y. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1994–2002 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. R. Sahu and J. L. Huang, “The properties of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films before and after annealing in the different atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 516, 208–211 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Dimopoulos, G. Z. Radnoczi, B. Pecz, and H. Bruckl, “Characterization of ZnO: Al/Au/ZnO: Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 1470–1474 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Neghabi, A. Behjat, S. M. B. Ghorashi, and S. M. A. Salehi, “The effect of annealing on structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured ZnS/Ag/ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5662–5666 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Yu, J. Leng, W. Xue, T. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 2270–2274 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122, 587–589 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. M. Lee, C. S. Choi, K. C. Choi, and H. C. Lee, “Low resistive transparent and flexible ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 electrode for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 13, 1654–1659 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Frank, E. Kauer, and H. Kostlin, “Transparent heat-reflecting coatings based on highly doped semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 77, 107–118 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Leftheriotis, S. Papaefthimiou, and P. Yianoulis, “Development of multilayer transparent conductive coatings,” Solid State Ionics 136, 655–661 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. Liu, X. Cai, and J. Mao, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Haacke, “New figure of merit for transparent conductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4086–4089 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10, 1163–1169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Zadsar, H. R. Fallah, M. H. Mahmoodzadeh, and S. V. Tabatabaei, “The effect of Ag layer thickness on the properties of WO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer films as anode in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132, 992–997 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Schuler and M. A. Aegerter, “Optical, electrical and structural properties of sol gel ZnO:Al coatings,” Thin Solid Films 351, 125–131 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. X. Sun, Y. Shi, H. Ji, X. Li, S. Cai, and C. Zheng, “Nanocasting synthesis of ordered mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials with controllable particle size and high thermal stability,” J. Alloys Compd. 545, 5–11 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

K. Fleischer, E. Arca, and I. V. Shvets, “Improving solar cell efficiency with optically optimised TCO layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 262–269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, J. Leng, W. Xue, T. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 2270–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Lee, C. S. Choi, K. C. Choi, and H. C. Lee, “Low resistive transparent and flexible ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 electrode for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 13, 1654–1659 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Zadsar, H. R. Fallah, M. H. Mahmoodzadeh, and S. V. Tabatabaei, “The effect of Ag layer thickness on the properties of WO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer films as anode in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132, 992–997 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, Y. Shi, H. Ji, X. Li, S. Cai, and C. Zheng, “Nanocasting synthesis of ordered mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials with controllable particle size and high thermal stability,” J. Alloys Compd. 545, 5–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Neghabi, A. Behjat, S. M. B. Ghorashi, and S. M. A. Salehi, “The effect of annealing on structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured ZnS/Ag/ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5662–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Park and H. Ham, “Sputter-patterned ITO-based organic light-emitting diodes with leakage current cut-off layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 1872–1878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. M. Maghanga, J. Jensen, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, and M. Mwamburi, “Transparent and conducting TiO2:Nb films made by sputter deposition: Application to spectrally selective solar reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 75–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nam, Y. H. Kang, D. Jung, and Y. S. Kim, “Anode material properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering method for organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 518, 6245–6248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Dimopoulos, G. Z. Radnoczi, B. Pecz, and H. Bruckl, “Characterization of ZnO: Al/Au/ZnO: Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. K. Park, J. W. Kang, S. I. Na, D. Y. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1994–2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Remes, M. Vanecek, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, and D. W. Sheel, “Optical properties of SnO2:F films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6287–6289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10, 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Wang, X. M. Tao, and R. X. Wang, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with a polymeric nanocomposite anode,” Nanotechnology 19, 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Sahu and J. L. Huang, “The properties of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films before and after annealing in the different atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 516, 208–211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. W. Kim, D. C. Choo, Y. S. No, W. K. Choi, and E. H. Choi, “High work function of Al-doped zinc-oxide thin films as transparent conductive anodes in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1917–1920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. H. Kim, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, and G. Sung, “Electrical and optical characteristics of ITO films by pulsed laser deposition using a 10 wt. % SnO2-doped In2O3 ceramic target,” Thin Solid Films 475, 262–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. C. Lee and O. Ok Park, “Electron scattering mechanisms in indium-tin-oxide thin films: grain boundary and ionized impurity scattering,” Vacuum 75, 275–282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

X. Liu, X. Cai, and J. Mao, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Song, A. G. Aberle, and J. Xia, “Optimisation of ZnO:Al films by change of sputter gas pressure for solar cell application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 195, 291–296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Miyata, T. Hikosaka, and T. Minami, “High sensitivity chlorine gas sensors using multicomponent transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 69, 16–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Leftheriotis, S. Papaefthimiou, and P. Yianoulis, “Development of multilayer transparent conductive coatings,” Solid State Ionics 136, 655–661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Schuler and M. A. Aegerter, “Optical, electrical and structural properties of sol gel ZnO:Al coatings,” Thin Solid Films 351, 125–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1981

G. Frank, E. Kauer, and H. Kostlin, “Transparent heat-reflecting coatings based on highly doped semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 77, 107–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. Haacke, “New figure of merit for transparent conductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4086–4089 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aberle, A. G.

D. Song, A. G. Aberle, and J. Xia, “Optimisation of ZnO:Al films by change of sputter gas pressure for solar cell application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 195, 291–296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

T. Schuler and M. A. Aegerter, “Optical, electrical and structural properties of sol gel ZnO:Al coatings,” Thin Solid Films 351, 125–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arca, E.

K. Fleischer, E. Arca, and I. V. Shvets, “Improving solar cell efficiency with optically optimised TCO layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 262–269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Behjat, A.

M. Neghabi, A. Behjat, S. M. B. Ghorashi, and S. M. A. Salehi, “The effect of annealing on structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured ZnS/Ag/ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5662–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bruckl, H.

T. Dimopoulos, G. Z. Radnoczi, B. Pecz, and H. Bruckl, “Characterization of ZnO: Al/Au/ZnO: Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bruder, I.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, S.

X. Sun, Y. Shi, H. Ji, X. Li, S. Cai, and C. Zheng, “Nanocasting synthesis of ordered mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials with controllable particle size and high thermal stability,” J. Alloys Compd. 545, 5–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X.

X. Liu, X. Cai, and J. Mao, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. L.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10, 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. S.

S. M. Lee, C. S. Choi, K. C. Choi, and H. C. Lee, “Low resistive transparent and flexible ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 electrode for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 13, 1654–1659 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. H.

T. W. Kim, D. C. Choo, Y. S. No, W. K. Choi, and E. H. Choi, “High work function of Al-doped zinc-oxide thin films as transparent conductive anodes in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1917–1920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. C.

S. M. Lee, C. S. Choi, K. C. Choi, and H. C. Lee, “Low resistive transparent and flexible ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 electrode for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 13, 1654–1659 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

T. W. Kim, D. C. Choo, Y. S. No, W. K. Choi, and E. H. Choi, “High work function of Al-doped zinc-oxide thin films as transparent conductive anodes in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1917–1920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choo, D. C.

T. W. Kim, D. C. Choo, Y. S. No, W. K. Choi, and E. H. Choi, “High work function of Al-doped zinc-oxide thin films as transparent conductive anodes in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1917–1920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dimopoulos, T.

T. Dimopoulos, G. Z. Radnoczi, B. Pecz, and H. Bruckl, “Characterization of ZnO: Al/Au/ZnO: Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

Z. Remes, M. Vanecek, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, and D. W. Sheel, “Optical properties of SnO2:F films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6287–6289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fallah, H. R.

M. Zadsar, H. R. Fallah, M. H. Mahmoodzadeh, and S. V. Tabatabaei, “The effect of Ag layer thickness on the properties of WO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer films as anode in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132, 992–997 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, K.

K. Fleischer, E. Arca, and I. V. Shvets, “Improving solar cell efficiency with optically optimised TCO layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 262–269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Formica, N.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Frank, G.

G. Frank, E. Kauer, and H. Kostlin, “Transparent heat-reflecting coatings based on highly doped semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 77, 107–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Furubayashi, Y.

N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghorashi, S. M. B.

M. Neghabi, A. Behjat, S. M. B. Ghorashi, and S. M. A. Salehi, “The effect of annealing on structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured ZnS/Ag/ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5662–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, D. S.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

C. M. Maghanga, J. Jensen, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, and M. Mwamburi, “Transparent and conducting TiO2:Nb films made by sputter deposition: Application to spectrally selective solar reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 75–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haacke, G.

G. Haacke, “New figure of merit for transparent conductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4086–4089 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ham, H.

J. Park and H. Ham, “Sputter-patterned ITO-based organic light-emitting diodes with leakage current cut-off layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 1872–1878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hikosaka, T.

T. Miyata, T. Hikosaka, and T. Minami, “High sensitivity chlorine gas sensors using multicomponent transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 69, 16–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirose, Y.

N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hitosugi, T.

N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoang, N. L. H.

N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. L.

D. R. Sahu and J. L. Huang, “The properties of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films before and after annealing in the different atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 516, 208–211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J.

C. M. Maghanga, J. Jensen, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, and M. Mwamburi, “Transparent and conducting TiO2:Nb films made by sputter deposition: Application to spectrally selective solar reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 75–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ji, H.

X. Sun, Y. Shi, H. Ji, X. Li, S. Cai, and C. Zheng, “Nanocasting synthesis of ordered mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials with controllable particle size and high thermal stability,” J. Alloys Compd. 545, 5–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Z. Yu, J. Leng, W. Xue, T. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 2270–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jung, D.

E. Nam, Y. H. Kang, D. Jung, and Y. S. Kim, “Anode material properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering method for organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 518, 6245–6248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

H. K. Park, J. W. Kang, S. I. Na, D. Y. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1994–2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y. H.

E. Nam, Y. H. Kang, D. Jung, and Y. S. Kim, “Anode material properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering method for organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 518, 6245–6248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kauer, E.

G. Frank, E. Kauer, and H. Kostlin, “Transparent heat-reflecting coatings based on highly doped semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 77, 107–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

H. K. Park, J. W. Kang, S. I. Na, D. Y. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1994–2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

H. K. Park, J. W. Kang, S. I. Na, D. Y. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1994–2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, and G. Sung, “Electrical and optical characteristics of ITO films by pulsed laser deposition using a 10 wt. % SnO2-doped In2O3 ceramic target,” Thin Solid Films 475, 262–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. W.

T. W. Kim, D. C. Choo, Y. S. No, W. K. Choi, and E. H. Choi, “High work function of Al-doped zinc-oxide thin films as transparent conductive anodes in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1917–1920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. Y.

S. H. Kim, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, and G. Sung, “Electrical and optical characteristics of ITO films by pulsed laser deposition using a 10 wt. % SnO2-doped In2O3 ceramic target,” Thin Solid Films 475, 262–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

E. Nam, Y. H. Kang, D. Jung, and Y. S. Kim, “Anode material properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering method for organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 518, 6245–6248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Konuma, S.

N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kostlin, H.

G. Frank, E. Kauer, and H. Kostlin, “Transparent heat-reflecting coatings based on highly doped semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 77, 107–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. C.

S. M. Lee, C. S. Choi, K. C. Choi, and H. C. Lee, “Low resistive transparent and flexible ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 electrode for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 13, 1654–1659 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lee and O. Ok Park, “Electron scattering mechanisms in indium-tin-oxide thin films: grain boundary and ionized impurity scattering,” Vacuum 75, 275–282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

S. M. Lee, C. S. Choi, K. C. Choi, and H. C. Lee, “Low resistive transparent and flexible ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 electrode for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 13, 1654–1659 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leftheriotis, G.

G. Leftheriotis, S. Papaefthimiou, and P. Yianoulis, “Development of multilayer transparent conductive coatings,” Solid State Ionics 136, 655–661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leng, J.

Z. Yu, J. Leng, W. Xue, T. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 2270–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Sun, Y. Shi, H. Ji, X. Li, S. Cai, and C. Zheng, “Nanocasting synthesis of ordered mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials with controllable particle size and high thermal stability,” J. Alloys Compd. 545, 5–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lian, J.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, X. Cai, and J. Mao, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maghanga, C. M.

C. M. Maghanga, J. Jensen, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, and M. Mwamburi, “Transparent and conducting TiO2:Nb films made by sputter deposition: Application to spectrally selective solar reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 75–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mahmoodzadeh, M. H.

M. Zadsar, H. R. Fallah, M. H. Mahmoodzadeh, and S. V. Tabatabaei, “The effect of Ag layer thickness on the properties of WO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer films as anode in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132, 992–997 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mao, J.

X. Liu, X. Cai, and J. Mao, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Minami, T.

T. Miyata, T. Hikosaka, and T. Minami, “High sensitivity chlorine gas sensors using multicomponent transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 69, 16–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, T.

T. Miyata, T. Hikosaka, and T. Minami, “High sensitivity chlorine gas sensors using multicomponent transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 69, 16–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mwamburi, M.

C. M. Maghanga, J. Jensen, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, and M. Mwamburi, “Transparent and conducting TiO2:Nb films made by sputter deposition: Application to spectrally selective solar reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 75–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

H. K. Park, J. W. Kang, S. I. Na, D. Y. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1994–2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nam, E.

E. Nam, Y. H. Kang, D. Jung, and Y. S. Kim, “Anode material properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering method for organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 518, 6245–6248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Neghabi, M.

M. Neghabi, A. Behjat, S. M. B. Ghorashi, and S. M. A. Salehi, “The effect of annealing on structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured ZnS/Ag/ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5662–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Niklasson, G. A.

C. M. Maghanga, J. Jensen, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, and M. Mwamburi, “Transparent and conducting TiO2:Nb films made by sputter deposition: Application to spectrally selective solar reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 75–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

No, Y. S.

T. W. Kim, D. C. Choo, Y. S. No, W. K. Choi, and E. H. Choi, “High work function of Al-doped zinc-oxide thin films as transparent conductive anodes in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1917–1920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pang, H.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Papaefthimiou, S.

G. Leftheriotis, S. Papaefthimiou, and P. Yianoulis, “Development of multilayer transparent conductive coatings,” Solid State Ionics 136, 655–661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. K.

H. K. Park, J. W. Kang, S. I. Na, D. Y. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1994–2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. Park and H. Ham, “Sputter-patterned ITO-based organic light-emitting diodes with leakage current cut-off layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 1872–1878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10, 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, N. M.

S. H. Kim, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, and G. Sung, “Electrical and optical characteristics of ITO films by pulsed laser deposition using a 10 wt. % SnO2-doped In2O3 ceramic target,” Thin Solid Films 475, 262–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, O. Ok

H. C. Lee and O. Ok Park, “Electron scattering mechanisms in indium-tin-oxide thin films: grain boundary and ionized impurity scattering,” Vacuum 75, 275–282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pecz, B.

T. Dimopoulos, G. Z. Radnoczi, B. Pecz, and H. Bruckl, “Characterization of ZnO: Al/Au/ZnO: Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Radnoczi, G. Z.

T. Dimopoulos, G. Z. Radnoczi, B. Pecz, and H. Bruckl, “Characterization of ZnO: Al/Au/ZnO: Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Remes, Z.

Z. Remes, M. Vanecek, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, and D. W. Sheel, “Optical properties of SnO2:F films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6287–6289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, D. R.

D. R. Sahu and J. L. Huang, “The properties of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films before and after annealing in the different atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 516, 208–211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salehi, S. M. A.

M. Neghabi, A. Behjat, S. M. B. Ghorashi, and S. M. A. Salehi, “The effect of annealing on structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured ZnS/Ag/ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5662–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schuler, T.

T. Schuler and M. A. Aegerter, “Optical, electrical and structural properties of sol gel ZnO:Al coatings,” Thin Solid Films 351, 125–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheel, D. W.

Z. Remes, M. Vanecek, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, and D. W. Sheel, “Optical properties of SnO2:F films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6287–6289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

X. Sun, Y. Shi, H. Ji, X. Li, S. Cai, and C. Zheng, “Nanocasting synthesis of ordered mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials with controllable particle size and high thermal stability,” J. Alloys Compd. 545, 5–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, T.

N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, I. V.

K. Fleischer, E. Arca, and I. V. Shvets, “Improving solar cell efficiency with optically optimised TCO layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 262–269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, D.

D. Song, A. G. Aberle, and J. Xia, “Optimisation of ZnO:Al films by change of sputter gas pressure for solar cell application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 195, 291–296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, Y. Shi, H. Ji, X. Li, S. Cai, and C. Zheng, “Nanocasting synthesis of ordered mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials with controllable particle size and high thermal stability,” J. Alloys Compd. 545, 5–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sung, G.

S. H. Kim, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, and G. Sung, “Electrical and optical characteristics of ITO films by pulsed laser deposition using a 10 wt. % SnO2-doped In2O3 ceramic target,” Thin Solid Films 475, 262–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tabatabaei, S. V.

M. Zadsar, H. R. Fallah, M. H. Mahmoodzadeh, and S. V. Tabatabaei, “The effect of Ag layer thickness on the properties of WO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer films as anode in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132, 992–997 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. M.

G. F. Wang, X. M. Tao, and R. X. Wang, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with a polymeric nanocomposite anode,” Nanotechnology 19, 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

Z. Remes, M. Vanecek, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, and D. W. Sheel, “Optical properties of SnO2:F films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6287–6289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. F.

G. F. Wang, X. M. Tao, and R. X. Wang, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with a polymeric nanocomposite anode,” Nanotechnology 19, 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. X.

G. F. Wang, X. M. Tao, and R. X. Wang, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with a polymeric nanocomposite anode,” Nanotechnology 19, 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, J.

D. Song, A. G. Aberle, and J. Xia, “Optimisation of ZnO:Al films by change of sputter gas pressure for solar cell application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 195, 291–296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xue, W.

Z. Yu, J. Leng, W. Xue, T. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 2270–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yates, H. M.

Z. Remes, M. Vanecek, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, and D. W. Sheel, “Optical properties of SnO2:F films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6287–6289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yianoulis, P.

G. Leftheriotis, S. Papaefthimiou, and P. Yianoulis, “Development of multilayer transparent conductive coatings,” Solid State Ionics 136, 655–661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10, 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, J. Leng, W. Xue, T. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 2270–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yun, C.

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10, 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zadsar, M.

M. Zadsar, H. R. Fallah, M. H. Mahmoodzadeh, and S. V. Tabatabaei, “The effect of Ag layer thickness on the properties of WO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer films as anode in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132, 992–997 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Z. Yu, J. Leng, W. Xue, T. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 2270–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Z. Yu, J. Leng, W. Xue, T. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 2270–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

Z. Yu, J. Leng, W. Xue, T. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 2270–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, C.

X. Sun, Y. Shi, H. Ji, X. Li, S. Cai, and C. Zheng, “Nanocasting synthesis of ordered mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials with controllable particle size and high thermal stability,” J. Alloys Compd. 545, 5–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

T. W. Kim, D. C. Choo, Y. S. No, W. K. Choi, and E. H. Choi, “High work function of Al-doped zinc-oxide thin films as transparent conductive anodes in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 1917–1920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, J. Leng, W. Xue, T. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 2270–2274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Song, A. G. Aberle, and J. Xia, “Optimisation of ZnO:Al films by change of sputter gas pressure for solar cell application,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 195, 291–296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd.

X. Sun, Y. Shi, H. Ji, X. Li, S. Cai, and C. Zheng, “Nanocasting synthesis of ordered mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials with controllable particle size and high thermal stability,” J. Alloys Compd. 545, 5–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Haacke, “New figure of merit for transparent conductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4086–4089 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

M. Zadsar, H. R. Fallah, M. H. Mahmoodzadeh, and S. V. Tabatabaei, “The effect of Ag layer thickness on the properties of WO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer films as anode in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132, 992–997 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Pang, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhou, J. Lian, L. Cao, J. Zhang, and X. Zhou, “ZnS/Ag/ZnS coating as transparent anode for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 122, 587–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

G. F. Wang, X. M. Tao, and R. X. Wang, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with a polymeric nanocomposite anode,” Nanotechnology 19, 145201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron.

S. M. Lee, C. S. Choi, K. C. Choi, and H. C. Lee, “Low resistive transparent and flexible ZnO/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 electrode for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 13, 1654–1659 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Park and H. Ham, “Sputter-patterned ITO-based organic light-emitting diodes with leakage current cut-off layers,” Org. Electron. 12, 1872–1878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10, 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

T. Miyata, T. Hikosaka, and T. Minami, “High sensitivity chlorine gas sensors using multicomponent transparent conducting oxide thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 69, 16–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

C. M. Maghanga, J. Jensen, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, and M. Mwamburi, “Transparent and conducting TiO2:Nb films made by sputter deposition: Application to spectrally selective solar reflectors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 75–79 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Park, J. W. Kang, S. I. Na, D. Y. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1994–2002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fleischer, E. Arca, and I. V. Shvets, “Improving solar cell efficiency with optically optimised TCO layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 262–269 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ionics

G. Leftheriotis, S. Papaefthimiou, and P. Yianoulis, “Development of multilayer transparent conductive coatings,” Solid State Ionics 136, 655–661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

X. Liu, X. Cai, and J. Mao, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441, 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Schuler and M. A. Aegerter, “Optical, electrical and structural properties of sol gel ZnO:Al coatings,” Thin Solid Films 351, 125–131 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Sahu and J. L. Huang, “The properties of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films before and after annealing in the different atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 516, 208–211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Dimopoulos, G. Z. Radnoczi, B. Pecz, and H. Bruckl, “Characterization of ZnO: Al/Au/ZnO: Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 1470–1474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Neghabi, A. Behjat, S. M. B. Ghorashi, and S. M. A. Salehi, “The effect of annealing on structural, electrical and optical properties of nanostructured ZnS/Ag/ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5662–5666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Frank, E. Kauer, and H. Kostlin, “Transparent heat-reflecting coatings based on highly doped semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 77, 107–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. Nam, Y. H. Kang, D. Jung, and Y. S. Kim, “Anode material properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering method for organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 518, 6245–6248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, T. Hitosugi, N. L. H. Hoang, Y. Furubayashi, Y. Hirose, S. Konuma, T. Shimada, and T. Hasegawa, “Structural, electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO) polycrystalline films,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5754–5757 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Remes, M. Vanecek, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, and D. W. Sheel, “Optical properties of SnO2:F films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Thin Solid Films 517, 6287–6289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kim, N. M. Park, T. Y. Kim, and G. Sung, “Electrical and optical characteristics of ITO films by pulsed laser deposition using a 10 wt. % SnO2-doped In2O3 ceramic target,” Thin Solid Films 475, 262–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

H. C. Lee and O. Ok Park, “Electron scattering mechanisms in indium-tin-oxide thin films: grain boundary and ionized impurity scattering,” Vacuum 75, 275–282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Computer simulation of spectral transmittance and reflectance of ZnS(20nm)/Ag(xnm)/ZnS(20nm)/Ag(xnm)/ZnS(20nm) nano-multilayers for different thickness of Ag layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Figure of merit (FTC) values of the ZnS(20nm)/Ag(xnm)/ZnS(20nm)/Ag(xnm)/ZnS(20nm) nano-multilayers for different thicknesses of Ag layer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the experimental transmittance spectra of ZnS(30 nm)/Ag(12 nm)/ZnS(30 nm)/Ag(12 nm)/ZnS(30 nm) with simulation results.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Atomic force microscope (AFM) images of the surface of (a) ZnS(30 nm)/Ag(12 nm)/ZnS(30 nm)/Ag(12 nm)/ZnS(30 nm) and (b) ITO.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) J–V and (b) L–V characteristic of OLEDs with ZAZAZ and ITO anodes. Shown in the inset is the structure of the OLEDs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Current efficiency–current density characteristic of ZAZAZ-based OLED and ITO-based OLED.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R=(1+2ε0C0Rsh)2,
FTC=T55010Rsh,

Metrics