Abstract

A Zr0.04Ti0.96O2 solid solution nanowire (NW) array was prepared and characterized in detail. Zr doping effectively changed ZrxTi1xO2’s bandgap and led to better photoelectric properties, which indicated the possibility for deep UV detector fabrication. Based on the NW array, high-performance Schottky diode UV detector with Ag electrode was fabricated. At 3V bias, the dark current of the detector is only 5 nA, and a high photoresponse of 5.6A/W was achieved because of the internal gain. The ratio of photocurrent to dark current is more than three orders of magnitude. The device is promising for large-area UV detector applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Liou and B. Nabet, “Simple analytical model of bias dependence of the photocurrent of metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 35, 15–23 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Zhang, M. Zhang, C. Feng, W. Chen, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “Schottky barrier characteristics and internal gain mechanism of TiO2 UV detectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 894–897 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Han, C. Fan, G. Wu, H. Chen, and M. Wang, “Low-temperature solution processed ultraviolet photodetector based on an ordered TiO2 nanorod array–polymer hybrid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13438–13445 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315–1320 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. K. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, B. R. Huang, M. Fujita, and Y. Horikoshi, “ZnO MSM photodetectors with Ru contact electrodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 281, 513–517 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. V. Averine, P. I. Kuznetzov, V. A. Zhitov, and N. V. Alkeev, “Solar-blind MSM-photodetectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 618–624 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66  O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 193509 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zhang, S. Ruan, T. Xie, C. Feng, P. Qu, W. Chen, and W. Dong, “Zr0.27Ti0.73O2 based MSM ultraviolet detectors with Pt electrodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 653–655 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. V. Kuryatkov, B. A. Borisov, and S. A. Nikishin, “247 nm solar-blind ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 096104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, “MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind photodetectors on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Zhang, C. Feng, C. Liu, T. Xie, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “ZrxTi1−xO2 based ultraviolet detectors series,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 934–936 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Zhang, S. Ruan, H. Li, M. Zhang, K. Lv, C. Feng, and W. Chen, “Schottky diode ultraviolet detector based on TiO2 nanowire array,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 83–85(2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Feng, K. Shankar, Oomman K. Varghese, M. Paulose, T. J. Latempa, and C. A. Grimes, “Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications,” Nano Lett. 8, 3781–3786 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. O. Katz, V. Garber, B. Meyler, G. Bahir, and J. Salzman, “Gain mechanism in GaN Schottky ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1417–1419 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Zou, Q. Zhang, K. Huang, and N. Marzari, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on sol-gel-derived TiO2 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 10725–10729 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

H. Zhang, M. Zhang, C. Feng, W. Chen, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “Schottky barrier characteristics and internal gain mechanism of TiO2 UV detectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 894–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, H. Li, M. Zhang, K. Lv, C. Feng, and W. Chen, “Schottky diode ultraviolet detector based on TiO2 nanowire array,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 83–85(2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, “MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind photodetectors on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Feng, C. Liu, T. Xie, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “ZrxTi1−xO2 based ultraviolet detectors series,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 934–936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, T. Xie, C. Feng, P. Qu, W. Chen, and W. Dong, “Zr0.27Ti0.73O2 based MSM ultraviolet detectors with Pt electrodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 653–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, C. Fan, G. Wu, H. Chen, and M. Wang, “Low-temperature solution processed ultraviolet photodetector based on an ordered TiO2 nanorod array–polymer hybrid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13438–13445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Zou, Q. Zhang, K. Huang, and N. Marzari, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on sol-gel-derived TiO2 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 10725–10729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. V. Averine, P. I. Kuznetzov, V. A. Zhitov, and N. V. Alkeev, “Solar-blind MSM-photodetectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 618–624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, K. Shankar, Oomman K. Varghese, M. Paulose, T. J. Latempa, and C. A. Grimes, “Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications,” Nano Lett. 8, 3781–3786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. V. Kuryatkov, B. A. Borisov, and S. A. Nikishin, “247 nm solar-blind ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 096104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. K. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, B. R. Huang, M. Fujita, and Y. Horikoshi, “ZnO MSM photodetectors with Ru contact electrodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 281, 513–517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315–1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66  O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 193509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, V. Garber, B. Meyler, G. Bahir, and J. Salzman, “Gain mechanism in GaN Schottky ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1417–1419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. Liou and B. Nabet, “Simple analytical model of bias dependence of the photocurrent of metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 35, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alkeev, N. V.

S. V. Averine, P. I. Kuznetzov, V. A. Zhitov, and N. V. Alkeev, “Solar-blind MSM-photodetectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 618–624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. W.

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aslam, S.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315–1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Averine, S. V.

S. V. Averine, P. I. Kuznetzov, V. A. Zhitov, and N. V. Alkeev, “Solar-blind MSM-photodetectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 618–624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bahir, G.

O. Katz, V. Garber, B. Meyler, G. Bahir, and J. Salzman, “Gain mechanism in GaN Schottky ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1417–1419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, B. A.

V. V. Kuryatkov, B. A. Borisov, and S. A. Nikishin, “247 nm solar-blind ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 096104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, T. F.

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

T. K. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, B. R. Huang, M. Fujita, and Y. Horikoshi, “ZnO MSM photodetectors with Ru contact electrodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 281, 513–517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, “MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind photodetectors on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Y. Han, C. Fan, G. Wu, H. Chen, and M. Wang, “Low-temperature solution processed ultraviolet photodetector based on an ordered TiO2 nanorod array–polymer hybrid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13438–13445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, H. Li, M. Zhang, K. Lv, C. Feng, and W. Chen, “Schottky diode ultraviolet detector based on TiO2 nanowire array,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 83–85(2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, M. Zhang, C. Feng, W. Chen, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “Schottky barrier characteristics and internal gain mechanism of TiO2 UV detectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 894–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, T. Xie, C. Feng, P. Qu, W. Chen, and W. Dong, “Zr0.27Ti0.73O2 based MSM ultraviolet detectors with Pt electrodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 653–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, L. E.

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choopun, S.

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66  O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 193509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, J.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ding, K.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, “MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind photodetectors on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, W.

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, T. Xie, C. Feng, P. Qu, W. Chen, and W. Dong, “Zr0.27Ti0.73O2 based MSM ultraviolet detectors with Pt electrodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 653–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C.

Y. Han, C. Fan, G. Wu, H. Chen, and M. Wang, “Low-temperature solution processed ultraviolet photodetector based on an ordered TiO2 nanorod array–polymer hybrid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13438–13445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. W.

Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fei, Y.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, C.

H. Zhang, M. Zhang, C. Feng, W. Chen, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “Schottky barrier characteristics and internal gain mechanism of TiO2 UV detectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 894–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, H. Li, M. Zhang, K. Lv, C. Feng, and W. Chen, “Schottky diode ultraviolet detector based on TiO2 nanowire array,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 83–85(2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, T. Xie, C. Feng, P. Qu, W. Chen, and W. Dong, “Zr0.27Ti0.73O2 based MSM ultraviolet detectors with Pt electrodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 653–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Feng, C. Liu, T. Xie, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “ZrxTi1−xO2 based ultraviolet detectors series,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 934–936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

X. Feng, K. Shankar, Oomman K. Varghese, M. Paulose, T. J. Latempa, and C. A. Grimes, “Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications,” Nano Lett. 8, 3781–3786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franz, D.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315–1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

T. K. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, B. R. Huang, M. Fujita, and Y. Horikoshi, “ZnO MSM photodetectors with Ru contact electrodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 281, 513–517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garber, V.

O. Katz, V. Garber, B. Meyler, G. Bahir, and J. Salzman, “Gain mechanism in GaN Schottky ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1417–1419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grimes, C. A.

X. Feng, K. Shankar, Oomman K. Varghese, M. Paulose, T. J. Latempa, and C. A. Grimes, “Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications,” Nano Lett. 8, 3781–3786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, M.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Y. Han, C. Fan, G. Wu, H. Chen, and M. Wang, “Low-temperature solution processed ultraviolet photodetector based on an ordered TiO2 nanorod array–polymer hybrid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13438–13445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hobart, K. D.

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horikoshi, Y.

T. K. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, B. R. Huang, M. Fujita, and Y. Horikoshi, “ZnO MSM photodetectors with Ru contact electrodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 281, 513–517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, B. R.

T. K. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, B. R. Huang, M. Fujita, and Y. Horikoshi, “ZnO MSM photodetectors with Ru contact electrodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 281, 513–517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, “MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind photodetectors on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, “MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind photodetectors on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.

J. Zou, Q. Zhang, K. Huang, and N. Marzari, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on sol-gel-derived TiO2 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 10725–10729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hullavarad, S. S.

W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D. Y.

Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Z. G.

Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katz, O.

O. Katz, V. Garber, B. Meyler, G. Bahir, and J. Salzman, “Gain mechanism in GaN Schottky ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1417–1419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Katzer, D. S.

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kong, X.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kub, F. J.

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kung, P.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuryatkov, V. V.

V. V. Kuryatkov, B. A. Borisov, and S. A. Nikishin, “247 nm solar-blind ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 096104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetzov, P. I.

S. V. Averine, P. I. Kuznetzov, V. A. Zhitov, and N. V. Alkeev, “Solar-blind MSM-photodetectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 618–624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Latempa, T. J.

X. Feng, K. Shankar, Oomman K. Varghese, M. Paulose, T. J. Latempa, and C. A. Grimes, “Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications,” Nano Lett. 8, 3781–3786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, H. Li, M. Zhang, K. Lv, C. Feng, and W. Chen, “Schottky diode ultraviolet detector based on TiO2 nanowire array,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 83–85(2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. K.

T. K. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, B. R. Huang, M. Fujita, and Y. Horikoshi, “ZnO MSM photodetectors with Ru contact electrodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 281, 513–517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, “MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind photodetectors on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liou, L.

L. Liou and B. Nabet, “Simple analytical model of bias dependence of the photocurrent of metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 35, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

H. Zhang, M. Zhang, C. Feng, W. Chen, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “Schottky barrier characteristics and internal gain mechanism of TiO2 UV detectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 894–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Feng, C. Liu, T. Xie, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “ZrxTi1−xO2 based ultraviolet detectors series,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 934–936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G.

G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lv, K.

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, H. Li, M. Zhang, K. Lv, C. Feng, and W. Chen, “Schottky diode ultraviolet detector based on TiO2 nanowire array,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 83–85(2012).
[CrossRef]

Marzari, N.

J. Zou, Q. Zhang, K. Huang, and N. Marzari, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on sol-gel-derived TiO2 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 10725–10729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyler, B.

O. Katz, V. Garber, B. Meyler, G. Bahir, and J. Salzman, “Gain mechanism in GaN Schottky ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1417–1419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Modolo, J. A.

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nabet, B.

L. Liou and B. Nabet, “Simple analytical model of bias dependence of the photocurrent of metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 35, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nagaraj, B.

W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nikishin, S. A.

V. V. Kuryatkov, B. A. Borisov, and S. A. Nikishin, “247 nm solar-blind ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 096104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paulose, M.

X. Feng, K. Shankar, Oomman K. Varghese, M. Paulose, T. J. Latempa, and C. A. Grimes, “Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications,” Nano Lett. 8, 3781–3786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qu, P.

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, T. Xie, C. Feng, P. Qu, W. Chen, and W. Dong, “Zr0.27Ti0.73O2 based MSM ultraviolet detectors with Pt electrodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 653–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Razeghib, M.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S.

H. Zhang, M. Zhang, C. Feng, W. Chen, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “Schottky barrier characteristics and internal gain mechanism of TiO2 UV detectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 894–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, H. Li, M. Zhang, K. Lv, C. Feng, and W. Chen, “Schottky diode ultraviolet detector based on TiO2 nanowire array,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 83–85(2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, T. Xie, C. Feng, P. Qu, W. Chen, and W. Dong, “Zr0.27Ti0.73O2 based MSM ultraviolet detectors with Pt electrodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 653–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Feng, C. Liu, T. Xie, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “ZrxTi1−xO2 based ultraviolet detectors series,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 934–936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salzman, J.

O. Katz, V. Garber, B. Meyler, G. Bahir, and J. Salzman, “Gain mechanism in GaN Schottky ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1417–1419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, F. J.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shan, C. X.

Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, K.

X. Feng, K. Shankar, Oomman K. Varghese, M. Paulose, T. J. Latempa, and C. A. Grimes, “Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications,” Nano Lett. 8, 3781–3786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R. P.

W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66  O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 193509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Z.

Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66  O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 193509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

T. K. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, B. R. Huang, M. Fujita, and Y. Horikoshi, “ZnO MSM photodetectors with Ru contact electrodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 281, 513–517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, I.

W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tao, C.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, Oomman K.

X. Feng, K. Shankar, Oomman K. Varghese, M. Paulose, T. J. Latempa, and C. A. Grimes, “Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications,” Nano Lett. 8, 3781–3786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T.

W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66  O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 193509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vispute, R. D.

W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66  O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 193509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Y. Han, C. Fan, G. Wu, H. Chen, and M. Wang, “Low-temperature solution processed ultraviolet photodetector based on an ordered TiO2 nanorod array–polymer hybrid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13438–13445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watts, J.

G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, M.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315–1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.

Y. Han, C. Fan, G. Wu, H. Chen, and M. Wang, “Low-temperature solution processed ultraviolet photodetector based on an ordered TiO2 nanorod array–polymer hybrid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13438–13445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, T.

H. Zhang, C. Feng, C. Liu, T. Xie, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “ZrxTi1−xO2 based ultraviolet detectors series,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 934–936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, T. Xie, C. Feng, P. Qu, W. Chen, and W. Dong, “Zr0.27Ti0.73O2 based MSM ultraviolet detectors with Pt electrodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 653–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xin, X.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315–1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315–1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66  O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 193509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Z.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, “MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind photodetectors on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, H. Li, M. Zhang, K. Lv, C. Feng, and W. Chen, “Schottky diode ultraviolet detector based on TiO2 nanowire array,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 83–85(2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, M. Zhang, C. Feng, W. Chen, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “Schottky barrier characteristics and internal gain mechanism of TiO2 UV detectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 894–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, T. Xie, C. Feng, P. Qu, W. Chen, and W. Dong, “Zr0.27Ti0.73O2 based MSM ultraviolet detectors with Pt electrodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 653–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Feng, C. Liu, T. Xie, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “ZrxTi1−xO2 based ultraviolet detectors series,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 934–936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

H. Zhang, M. Zhang, C. Feng, W. Chen, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “Schottky barrier characteristics and internal gain mechanism of TiO2 UV detectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 894–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, H. Li, M. Zhang, K. Lv, C. Feng, and W. Chen, “Schottky diode ultraviolet detector based on TiO2 nanowire array,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 83–85(2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

J. Zou, Q. Zhang, K. Huang, and N. Marzari, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on sol-gel-derived TiO2 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 10725–10729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. H.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315–1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315–1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Q.

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, “MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind photodetectors on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhitov, V. A.

S. V. Averine, P. I. Kuznetzov, V. A. Zhitov, and N. V. Alkeev, “Solar-blind MSM-photodetectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 618–624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

H. Zhang, M. Zhang, C. Feng, W. Chen, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “Schottky barrier characteristics and internal gain mechanism of TiO2 UV detectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 894–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Feng, C. Liu, T. Xie, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “ZrxTi1−xO2 based ultraviolet detectors series,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 934–936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

J. Zou, Q. Zhang, K. Huang, and N. Marzari, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on sol-gel-derived TiO2 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 10725–10729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

L. Liou and B. Nabet, “Simple analytical model of bias dependence of the photocurrent of metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 35, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, M. Zhang, C. Feng, W. Chen, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “Schottky barrier characteristics and internal gain mechanism of TiO2 UV detectors,” Appl. Opt. 51, 894–897 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Anderson, L. E. Chipman, F. J. Kub, D. Park, M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, J. A. Modolo, K. D. Hobart, and D. S. Katzer, “Gallium arsenide metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes as optoelectronic mixers for microwave single–sideband modulation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 28–33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghib, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 762–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Kong, C. Liu, W. Dong, X. Zhang, C. Tao, L. Shen, J. Zhou, Y. Fei, and S. Ruan, “Metal-semiconductor-metal TiO2 ultraviolet detectors with Ni electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 123502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, R. D. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, “Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on epitaxial Mg0.34Zn0.66  O thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 193509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, C. X. Shan, D. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “MgxZn1−xO-based photodetectors covering the whole solar-blind spectrum range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, S. S. Hullavarad, B. Nagaraj, I. Takeuchi, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, R. D. Vispute, and H. Shen, “Compositionally-tuned epitaxial cubic MgxZn1−xO on Si(100) for deep ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3424–3426 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zheng, F. Huang, K. Ding, J. Huang, D. Chen, Z. Zhan, and Z. Lin, “MgZnO-based metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind photodetectors on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 221112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, V. Garber, B. Meyler, G. Bahir, and J. Salzman, “Gain mechanism in GaN Schottky ultraviolet detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1417–1419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

H. Zhang, C. Feng, C. Liu, T. Xie, J. Zhou, and S. Ruan, “ZrxTi1−xO2 based ultraviolet detectors series,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 934–936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, H. Li, M. Zhang, K. Lv, C. Feng, and W. Chen, “Schottky diode ultraviolet detector based on TiO2 nanowire array,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33, 83–85(2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Ruan, T. Xie, C. Feng, P. Qu, W. Chen, and W. Dong, “Zr0.27Ti0.73O2 based MSM ultraviolet detectors with Pt electrodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32, 653–655 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315–1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

V. V. Kuryatkov, B. A. Borisov, and S. A. Nikishin, “247 nm solar-blind ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 096104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

T. K. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, B. R. Huang, M. Fujita, and Y. Horikoshi, “ZnO MSM photodetectors with Ru contact electrodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 281, 513–517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.

G. Liu, H. Lu, Z. Chen, F. Li, L. Wang, J. Watts, G. Lu, and H. Cheng, “Ti-Zr-O nanotube arrays with controlled morphology, crystal structure and optical properties,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9, 6501–6510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

J. Zou, Q. Zhang, K. Huang, and N. Marzari, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on sol-gel-derived TiO2 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 10725–10729 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, C. Fan, G. Wu, H. Chen, and M. Wang, “Low-temperature solution processed ultraviolet photodetector based on an ordered TiO2 nanorod array–polymer hybrid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13438–13445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

X. Feng, K. Shankar, Oomman K. Varghese, M. Paulose, T. J. Latempa, and C. A. Grimes, “Vertically aligned single crystal TiO2 nanowire arrays grown directly on transparent conducting oxide coated glass: synthesis details and applications,” Nano Lett. 8, 3781–3786 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron.

S. V. Averine, P. I. Kuznetzov, V. A. Zhitov, and N. V. Alkeev, “Solar-blind MSM-photodetectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 618–624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

XRD patterns of TiO2 and Zr0.04Ti0.96O2 NW arrays. Inset shows the UV detector’s structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of the Zr0.04Ti0.96O2 NWs arrays: (a) top view and (b) sectional view.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

UV-visible absorption spectra of TiO2 and Zr0.04Ti0.96O2 NW arrays. Inset shows the variations of (αhv)2 versus hv.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

XPS spectra of Zr0.04Ti0.96O2 NWs arrays: spectra of (a)  Ti2p and (b) Zr3d.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

IV characteristics of the UV detector based on Zr0.04Ti0.96O2 solid-solution NW arrays in dark and under illumination.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral responses of Zr0.04Ti0.96O2 and TiO2 NW devices. The inset shows the photocurrents of the detectors at reverse bias under 340 nm illumination.

Equations (3)

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2dsinθ=kλ(k=0,1,2),
ΔEg=π2h22R2(1me*+1mh*)1.82e2εR+polarization terms,
Ci=Ai/SiAi/Si,

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