C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “The influence of water coating on the optical scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46, 31–43 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “Application of the pseudo-spectral time domain method to compute particle single-scattering properties for size parameters up to 200,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1728–1740(2012).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, “From the single-scattering properties of ice crystals to climate prediction: a way forward,” Atmos. Res. 112, 45–69 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, L. Bi, R. L. Panetta, P. Yang, and M. A. Yurkin, “Comparison between the pseudo-spectral time domain method and the discrete dipole approximation for light scattering simulations,” Opt. Express 20, 16763–16776 (2012).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, Y. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1492–1508 (2011).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, “The discrete-dipole-approximation code ADDA: capabilities and known limitations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 2234–2247 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modeling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, E. Hesse, and S. Newman, “Short-wave and long-wave radiative properties of Saharan dust aerosol,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1149–1167 (2011).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

B. Yi, C. N. Hsu, P. Yang, and S.-C. Tsay, “Radiative transfer simulation of dust-like aerosols: uncertainties from particle shape and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 42, 631–644(2011).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Modeling optical properties of mineral aerosol particles by using nonsymmetric hexahedra,” Appl. Opt. 49, 334–342 (2010).

[CrossRef]

C. L. McConnell, P. Formenti, E. J. Highwood, and M. A. J. Harrison, “Using aircraft measurements to determine the refractive index of Saharan dust during the DODO experiments,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 3081–3098 (2010).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. M. Winker, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Simulation of the color ratio associated with the backscattering of radiation by ice particles at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.064 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H08 (2009).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Single-scattering properties of triaxial ellipsoidal particles for a size parameter range from the Rayleigh to geometric-optics regimes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 114–126 (2009).

[CrossRef]

T. Nousiainen, “Optical modeling of mineral dust particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1261–1279 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, A. J. Baran, M. A. J. Harrison, and C. L. McConnell, “Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol during the dust and biomass-burning experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C03(2008).

[CrossRef]

G. Chen, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Application of the pseudospectral time-domain method to the scattering of light by nonspherical particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 785–790 (2008).

[CrossRef]

E. Hesse, “Modeling diffraction during ray-tracing using the concept of energy flow lines,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1374–1383 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin, A. G. Hoekstra, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Systematic comparison of the discrete dipole approximation and the finite difference time domain method for large dielectric scatterers,” Opt. Express 15, 17902–17911(2007).

[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, K. Muinonen, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering of light by roughened Gaussian random particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 604–615 (2007).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muæoz, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “An update of the Amsterdam light scattering database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 437–443 (2006).

[CrossRef]

T. Nousiainen, M. Kahnert, and B. Veihelmann, “Light scattering modeling of small feldspar aerosol particles using polyhedral; prims and spheroids,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 471–487 (2006).

[CrossRef]

A. J. M. Clarke, E. Hesse, Z. Ulanowski, and P. H. Kaye, “A 3D implementation of ray-tracing with diffraction on facets: verification and a potential application,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 103–114 (2006).

[CrossRef]

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, and B. Veihelmann, “Spherical and spheroidal model particles as an error source in aerosol climate forcing and radiance computations: a case study for feldspar aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S13 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of soot aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D11211 (2005).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, H. Wie, H.-L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and Q. Fu, “Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5512–5523 (2005).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).

[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119–2124 (2001).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, and W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).

[CrossRef]

Q. H. Liu, “The PSTD algorithm: a time-domain method requiring only two cells per wavelength,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 158–165 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072–2085 (1996).

[CrossRef]

A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, “Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813–2825 (1996).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).

[CrossRef]

A. Macke and F. Tzschichholz, “Scattering of light by two-dimensional deterministic Koch islands,” Phys. A 191, 545–548 (1992).

[CrossRef]

G. R. Fournier and B. T. N. Evans, “Approximation to extinction efficiency for randomly oriented spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2042–2048 (1991).

[CrossRef]

K. Muinonen, “Scattering of light by crystals: a modified Kirchhoff approximation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3044–3050(1989).

[CrossRef]

W. B. Gordon, “Far-field approximations to the Kirchhoff–Helmholtz representations of scattered fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 23, 590–592 (1975).

[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek and J. A. Coakley, “Aerosols and climate,” Science 183, 75–77 (1974).

[CrossRef]

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).

[CrossRef]

P. C. Waterman, “Symmetry, unitarity, and geometry in electromagnetic scattering,” Phys. Rev. D 3, 825–839 (1971).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).

D. S. Jones, “Approximate methods in high-frequency scattering,” Proc. R. Soc. A 239, 338–348 (1957).

[CrossRef]

D. S. Jones, “High-frequency scattering of electromagnetic waves,” Proc. R. Soc. A 240, 206–213 (1957).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, and W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, “From the single-scattering properties of ice crystals to climate prediction: a way forward,” Atmos. Res. 112, 45–69 (2012).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, E. Hesse, and S. Newman, “Short-wave and long-wave radiative properties of Saharan dust aerosol,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1149–1167 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, A. J. Baran, M. A. J. Harrison, and C. L. McConnell, “Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol during the dust and biomass-burning experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C03(2008).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, Y. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1492–1508 (2011).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. M. Winker, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Simulation of the color ratio associated with the backscattering of radiation by ice particles at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.064 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H08 (2009).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, H. Wie, H.-L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and Q. Fu, “Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5512–5523 (2005).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, L. Bi, R. L. Panetta, P. Yang, and M. A. Yurkin, “Comparison between the pseudo-spectral time domain method and the discrete dipole approximation for light scattering simulations,” Opt. Express 20, 16763–16776 (2012).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, Y. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1492–1508 (2011).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Modeling optical properties of mineral aerosol particles by using nonsymmetric hexahedra,” Appl. Opt. 49, 334–342 (2010).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. M. Winker, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Simulation of the color ratio associated with the backscattering of radiation by ice particles at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.064 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H08 (2009).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Single-scattering properties of triaxial ellipsoidal particles for a size parameter range from the Rayleigh to geometric-optics regimes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 114–126 (2009).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. M. Winker, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Simulation of the color ratio associated with the backscattering of radiation by ice particles at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.064 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H08 (2009).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin, A. G. Hoekstra, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Systematic comparison of the discrete dipole approximation and the finite difference time domain method for large dielectric scatterers,” Opt. Express 15, 17902–17911(2007).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).

[CrossRef]

G. Chen, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Application of the pseudospectral time-domain method to the scattering of light by nonspherical particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 785–790 (2008).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek and J. A. Coakley, “Aerosols and climate,” Science 183, 75–77 (1974).

[CrossRef]

A. J. M. Clarke, E. Hesse, Z. Ulanowski, and P. H. Kaye, “A 3D implementation of ray-tracing with diffraction on facets: verification and a potential application,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 103–114 (2006).

[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek and J. A. Coakley, “Aerosols and climate,” Science 183, 75–77 (1974).

[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119–2124 (2001).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

G. R. Fournier and B. T. N. Evans, “Approximation to extinction efficiency for randomly oriented spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2042–2048 (1991).

[CrossRef]

K. J. Falconer, Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications (Wiley, 2003).

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

C. L. McConnell, P. Formenti, E. J. Highwood, and M. A. J. Harrison, “Using aircraft measurements to determine the refractive index of Saharan dust during the DODO experiments,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 3081–3098 (2010).

[CrossRef]

G. R. Fournier and B. T. N. Evans, “Approximation to extinction efficiency for randomly oriented spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2042–2048 (1991).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, H. Wie, H.-L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and Q. Fu, “Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5512–5523 (2005).

[CrossRef]

W. B. Gordon, “Far-field approximations to the Kirchhoff–Helmholtz representations of scattered fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 23, 590–592 (1975).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

C. L. McConnell, P. Formenti, E. J. Highwood, and M. A. J. Harrison, “Using aircraft measurements to determine the refractive index of Saharan dust during the DODO experiments,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 3081–3098 (2010).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, A. J. Baran, M. A. J. Harrison, and C. L. McConnell, “Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol during the dust and biomass-burning experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C03(2008).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, E. Hesse, and S. Newman, “Short-wave and long-wave radiative properties of Saharan dust aerosol,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1149–1167 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, A. J. Baran, M. A. J. Harrison, and C. L. McConnell, “Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol during the dust and biomass-burning experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C03(2008).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, E. Hesse, and S. Newman, “Short-wave and long-wave radiative properties of Saharan dust aerosol,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1149–1167 (2011).

[CrossRef]

E. Hesse, “Modeling diffraction during ray-tracing using the concept of energy flow lines,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1374–1383 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. J. M. Clarke, E. Hesse, Z. Ulanowski, and P. H. Kaye, “A 3D implementation of ray-tracing with diffraction on facets: verification and a potential application,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 103–114 (2006).

[CrossRef]

C. L. McConnell, P. Formenti, E. J. Highwood, and M. A. J. Harrison, “Using aircraft measurements to determine the refractive index of Saharan dust during the DODO experiments,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 3081–3098 (2010).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, “The discrete-dipole-approximation code ADDA: capabilities and known limitations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 2234–2247 (2011).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin, A. G. Hoekstra, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Systematic comparison of the discrete dipole approximation and the finite difference time domain method for large dielectric scatterers,” Opt. Express 15, 17902–17911(2007).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muæoz, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “An update of the Amsterdam light scattering database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 437–443 (2006).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).

[CrossRef]

B. Yi, C. N. Hsu, P. Yang, and S.-C. Tsay, “Radiative transfer simulation of dust-like aerosols: uncertainties from particle shape and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 42, 631–644(2011).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, Y. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1492–1508 (2011).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. M. Winker, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Simulation of the color ratio associated with the backscattering of radiation by ice particles at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.064 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H08 (2009).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, H. Wie, H.-L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and Q. Fu, “Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5512–5523 (2005).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, H. Wie, H.-L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and Q. Fu, “Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5512–5523 (2005).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, E. Hesse, and S. Newman, “Short-wave and long-wave radiative properties of Saharan dust aerosol,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1149–1167 (2011).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, A. J. Baran, M. A. J. Harrison, and C. L. McConnell, “Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol during the dust and biomass-burning experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C03(2008).

[CrossRef]

D. S. Jones, “Approximate methods in high-frequency scattering,” Proc. R. Soc. A 239, 338–348 (1957).

[CrossRef]

D. S. Jones, “High-frequency scattering of electromagnetic waves,” Proc. R. Soc. A 240, 206–213 (1957).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Modeling optical properties of mineral aerosol particles by using nonsymmetric hexahedra,” Appl. Opt. 49, 334–342 (2010).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Single-scattering properties of triaxial ellipsoidal particles for a size parameter range from the Rayleigh to geometric-optics regimes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 114–126 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modeling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011).

[CrossRef]

T. Nousiainen, M. Kahnert, and B. Veihelmann, “Light scattering modeling of small feldspar aerosol particles using polyhedral; prims and spheroids,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 471–487 (2006).

[CrossRef]

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, and B. Veihelmann, “Spherical and spheroidal model particles as an error source in aerosol climate forcing and radiance computations: a case study for feldspar aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S13 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, Y. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1492–1508 (2011).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Modeling optical properties of mineral aerosol particles by using nonsymmetric hexahedra,” Appl. Opt. 49, 334–342 (2010).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. M. Winker, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Simulation of the color ratio associated with the backscattering of radiation by ice particles at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.064 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H08 (2009).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Single-scattering properties of triaxial ellipsoidal particles for a size parameter range from the Rayleigh to geometric-optics regimes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 114–126 (2009).

[CrossRef]

G. Chen, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Application of the pseudospectral time-domain method to the scattering of light by nonspherical particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 785–790 (2008).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, H. Wie, H.-L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and Q. Fu, “Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5512–5523 (2005).

[CrossRef]

A. J. M. Clarke, E. Hesse, Z. Ulanowski, and P. H. Kaye, “A 3D implementation of ray-tracing with diffraction on facets: verification and a potential application,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 103–114 (2006).

[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119–2124 (2001).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. A. Kokhanovsky, Polarization Optics of Random Media (Springer, 2003).

A. A. Kokhanovsky, Light Scattering Media Optics: Problems and Solutions (Springer, 2004).

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles(Cambridge University, 2002).

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modeling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, and W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072–2085 (1996).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, L. Bi, R. L. Panetta, P. Yang, and M. A. Yurkin, “Comparison between the pseudo-spectral time domain method and the discrete dipole approximation for light scattering simulations,” Opt. Express 20, 16763–16776 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “The influence of water coating on the optical scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46, 31–43 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “Application of the pseudo-spectral time domain method to compute particle single-scattering properties for size parameters up to 200,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1728–1740(2012).

[CrossRef]

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of soot aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D11211 (2005).

[CrossRef]

Q. H. Liu, “The PSTD algorithm: a time-domain method requiring only two cells per wavelength,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 158–165 (1997).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. M. Winker, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Simulation of the color ratio associated with the backscattering of radiation by ice particles at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.064 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H08 (2009).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin, A. G. Hoekstra, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Systematic comparison of the discrete dipole approximation and the finite difference time domain method for large dielectric scatterers,” Opt. Express 15, 17902–17911(2007).

[CrossRef]

A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, “Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813–2825 (1996).

[CrossRef]

A. Macke and F. Tzschichholz, “Scattering of light by two-dimensional deterministic Koch islands,” Phys. A 191, 545–548 (1992).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).

[CrossRef]

B. B. Mandelbrot, The Fractal Geometry of Nature (Freeman, 1983).

C. L. McConnell, P. Formenti, E. J. Highwood, and M. A. J. Harrison, “Using aircraft measurements to determine the refractive index of Saharan dust during the DODO experiments,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 3081–3098 (2010).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, A. J. Baran, M. A. J. Harrison, and C. L. McConnell, “Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol during the dust and biomass-burning experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C03(2008).

[CrossRef]

S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modeling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of soot aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D11211 (2005).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, H. Wie, H.-L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and Q. Fu, “Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5512–5523 (2005).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles(Cambridge University, 2002).

H. Volten, O. Muæoz, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “An update of the Amsterdam light scattering database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 437–443 (2006).

[CrossRef]

A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, “Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813–2825 (1996).

[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, K. Muinonen, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering of light by roughened Gaussian random particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 604–615 (2007).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).

[CrossRef]

K. Muinonen, “Scattering of light by crystals: a modified Kirchhoff approximation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3044–3050(1989).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, E. Hesse, and S. Newman, “Short-wave and long-wave radiative properties of Saharan dust aerosol,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1149–1167 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modeling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011).

[CrossRef]

T. Nousiainen, “Optical modeling of mineral dust particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1261–1279 (2009).

[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, K. Muinonen, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering of light by roughened Gaussian random particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 604–615 (2007).

[CrossRef]

T. Nousiainen, M. Kahnert, and B. Veihelmann, “Light scattering modeling of small feldspar aerosol particles using polyhedral; prims and spheroids,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 471–487 (2006).

[CrossRef]

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, and B. Veihelmann, “Spherical and spheroidal model particles as an error source in aerosol climate forcing and radiance computations: a case study for feldspar aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S13 (2005).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, E. Hesse, and S. Newman, “Short-wave and long-wave radiative properties of Saharan dust aerosol,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1149–1167 (2011).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, A. J. Baran, M. A. J. Harrison, and C. L. McConnell, “Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol during the dust and biomass-burning experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C03(2008).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, L. Bi, R. L. Panetta, P. Yang, and M. A. Yurkin, “Comparison between the pseudo-spectral time domain method and the discrete dipole approximation for light scattering simulations,” Opt. Express 20, 16763–16776 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “The influence of water coating on the optical scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46, 31–43 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “Application of the pseudo-spectral time domain method to compute particle single-scattering properties for size parameters up to 200,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1728–1740(2012).

[CrossRef]

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).

[CrossRef]

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).

[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119–2124 (2001).

[CrossRef]

A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, “Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813–2825 (1996).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).

[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119–2124 (2001).

[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, K. Muinonen, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering of light by roughened Gaussian random particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 604–615 (2007).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles(Cambridge University, 2002).

B. Yi, C. N. Hsu, P. Yang, and S.-C. Tsay, “Radiative transfer simulation of dust-like aerosols: uncertainties from particle shape and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 42, 631–644(2011).

[CrossRef]

A. Macke and F. Tzschichholz, “Scattering of light by two-dimensional deterministic Koch islands,” Phys. A 191, 545–548 (1992).

[CrossRef]

A. J. M. Clarke, E. Hesse, Z. Ulanowski, and P. H. Kaye, “A 3D implementation of ray-tracing with diffraction on facets: verification and a potential application,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 103–114 (2006).

[CrossRef]

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).

[CrossRef]

T. Nousiainen, M. Kahnert, and B. Veihelmann, “Light scattering modeling of small feldspar aerosol particles using polyhedral; prims and spheroids,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 471–487 (2006).

[CrossRef]

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, and B. Veihelmann, “Spherical and spheroidal model particles as an error source in aerosol climate forcing and radiance computations: a case study for feldspar aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S13 (2005).

[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, K. Muinonen, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering of light by roughened Gaussian random particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 604–615 (2007).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muæoz, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “An update of the Amsterdam light scattering database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 437–443 (2006).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

P. C. Waterman, “Symmetry, unitarity, and geometry in electromagnetic scattering,” Phys. Rev. D 3, 825–839 (1971).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muæoz, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “An update of the Amsterdam light scattering database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 437–443 (2006).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, H. Wie, H.-L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and Q. Fu, “Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5512–5523 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. M. Winker, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Simulation of the color ratio associated with the backscattering of radiation by ice particles at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.064 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H08 (2009).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “The influence of water coating on the optical scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46, 31–43 (2012).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “Application of the pseudo-spectral time domain method to compute particle single-scattering properties for size parameters up to 200,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1728–1740(2012).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, L. Bi, R. L. Panetta, P. Yang, and M. A. Yurkin, “Comparison between the pseudo-spectral time domain method and the discrete dipole approximation for light scattering simulations,” Opt. Express 20, 16763–16776 (2012).

[CrossRef]

B. Yi, C. N. Hsu, P. Yang, and S.-C. Tsay, “Radiative transfer simulation of dust-like aerosols: uncertainties from particle shape and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 42, 631–644(2011).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, Y. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1492–1508 (2011).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Modeling optical properties of mineral aerosol particles by using nonsymmetric hexahedra,” Appl. Opt. 49, 334–342 (2010).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. M. Winker, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Simulation of the color ratio associated with the backscattering of radiation by ice particles at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.064 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H08 (2009).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Single-scattering properties of triaxial ellipsoidal particles for a size parameter range from the Rayleigh to geometric-optics regimes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 114–126 (2009).

[CrossRef]

G. Chen, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Application of the pseudospectral time-domain method to the scattering of light by nonspherical particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 785–790 (2008).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, H. Wie, H.-L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and Q. Fu, “Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5512–5523 (2005).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, and W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072–2085 (1996).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).

B. Yi, C. N. Hsu, P. Yang, and S.-C. Tsay, “Radiative transfer simulation of dust-like aerosols: uncertainties from particle shape and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 42, 631–644(2011).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, L. Bi, R. L. Panetta, P. Yang, and M. A. Yurkin, “Comparison between the pseudo-spectral time domain method and the discrete dipole approximation for light scattering simulations,” Opt. Express 20, 16763–16776 (2012).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, “The discrete-dipole-approximation code ADDA: capabilities and known limitations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 2234–2247 (2011).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin, A. G. Hoekstra, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Systematic comparison of the discrete dipole approximation and the finite difference time domain method for large dielectric scatterers,” Opt. Express 15, 17902–17911(2007).

[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, K. Muinonen, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering of light by roughened Gaussian random particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 604–615 (2007).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “The influence of water coating on the optical scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46, 31–43 (2012).

[CrossRef]

K. Muinonen, “Scattering of light by crystals: a modified Kirchhoff approximation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3044–3050(1989).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Single-scattering properties of triaxial ellipsoidal particles for a size parameter range from the Rayleigh to geometric-optics regimes,” Appl. Opt. 48, 114–126 (2009).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn, “Modeling optical properties of mineral aerosol particles by using nonsymmetric hexahedra,” Appl. Opt. 49, 334–342 (2010).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, H. Wie, H.-L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, G. W. Kattawar, M. I. Mishchenko, and Q. Fu, “Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5512–5523 (2005).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).

[CrossRef]

G. R. Fournier and B. T. N. Evans, “Approximation to extinction efficiency for randomly oriented spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2042–2048 (1991).

[CrossRef]

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).

[CrossRef]

S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modeling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011).

[CrossRef]

C. L. McConnell, P. Formenti, E. J. Highwood, and M. A. J. Harrison, “Using aircraft measurements to determine the refractive index of Saharan dust during the DODO experiments,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 3081–3098 (2010).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, “From the single-scattering properties of ice crystals to climate prediction: a way forward,” Atmos. Res. 112, 45–69 (2012).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).

W. B. Gordon, “Far-field approximations to the Kirchhoff–Helmholtz representations of scattered fields,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 23, 590–592 (1975).

[CrossRef]

B. Yi, C. N. Hsu, P. Yang, and S.-C. Tsay, “Radiative transfer simulation of dust-like aerosols: uncertainties from particle shape and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 42, 631–644(2011).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. W. Kattawar, W. J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. N. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 995–1014 (2007).

[CrossRef]

A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, “Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813–2825 (1996).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, and W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, A. J. Baran, M. A. J. Harrison, and C. L. McConnell, “Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol during the dust and biomass-burning experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C03(2008).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muñoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001).

[CrossRef]

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, and B. Veihelmann, “Spherical and spheroidal model particles as an error source in aerosol climate forcing and radiance computations: a case study for feldspar aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D18S13 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of soot aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D11211 (2005).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. M. Winker, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Simulation of the color ratio associated with the backscattering of radiation by ice particles at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.064 μm,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H08 (2009).

[CrossRef]

G. Chen, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Application of the pseudospectral time-domain method to the scattering of light by nonspherical particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 785–790 (2008).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, “Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072–2085 (1996).

[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Muæoz, J. W. Hovenier, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “An update of the Amsterdam light scattering database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 437–443 (2006).

[CrossRef]

T. Nousiainen, “Optical modeling of mineral dust particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1261–1279 (2009).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “Application of the pseudo-spectral time domain method to compute particle single-scattering properties for size parameters up to 200,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1728–1740(2012).

[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: a review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 535–575 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, “The discrete-dipole-approximation code ADDA: capabilities and known limitations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 2234–2247 (2011).

[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, K. Muinonen, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering of light by roughened Gaussian random particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 604–615 (2007).

[CrossRef]

L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, Y. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1492–1508 (2011).

[CrossRef]

T. Nousiainen, M. Kahnert, and B. Veihelmann, “Light scattering modeling of small feldspar aerosol particles using polyhedral; prims and spheroids,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 471–487 (2006).

[CrossRef]

A. J. M. Clarke, E. Hesse, Z. Ulanowski, and P. H. Kaye, “A 3D implementation of ray-tracing with diffraction on facets: verification and a potential application,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 103–114 (2006).

[CrossRef]

E. Hesse, “Modeling diffraction during ray-tracing using the concept of energy flow lines,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1374–1383 (2008).

[CrossRef]

Q. H. Liu, “The PSTD algorithm: a time-domain method requiring only two cells per wavelength,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 158–165 (1997).

[CrossRef]

C. Liu, L. Bi, R. L. Panetta, P. Yang, and M. A. Yurkin, “Comparison between the pseudo-spectral time domain method and the discrete dipole approximation for light scattering simulations,” Opt. Express 20, 16763–16776 (2012).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin, A. G. Hoekstra, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Systematic comparison of the discrete dipole approximation and the finite difference time domain method for large dielectric scatterers,” Opt. Express 15, 17902–17911(2007).

[CrossRef]

A. Macke and F. Tzschichholz, “Scattering of light by two-dimensional deterministic Koch islands,” Phys. A 191, 545–548 (1992).

[CrossRef]

P. C. Waterman, “Symmetry, unitarity, and geometry in electromagnetic scattering,” Phys. Rev. D 3, 825–839 (1971).

[CrossRef]

D. S. Jones, “Approximate methods in high-frequency scattering,” Proc. R. Soc. A 239, 338–348 (1957).

[CrossRef]

D. S. Jones, “High-frequency scattering of electromagnetic waves,” Proc. R. Soc. A 240, 206–213 (1957).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, E. Hesse, and S. Newman, “Short-wave and long-wave radiative properties of Saharan dust aerosol,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1149–1167 (2011).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, B. T. Johnson, S. R. Osborne, A. J. Baran, M. Brooks, S. F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R. P. Allan, M. J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H. E. Brindley, S. Christopher, and P. Gupta, “Motivation, rationale and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137, 1106–1116 (2011).

[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek and J. A. Coakley, “Aerosols and climate,” Science 183, 75–77 (1974).

[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119–2124 (2001).

[CrossRef]

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

B. B. Mandelbrot, The Fractal Geometry of Nature (Freeman, 1983).

K. J. Falconer, Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications (Wiley, 2003).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles(Cambridge University, 2002).

A. A. Kokhanovsky, Polarization Optics of Random Media (Springer, 2003).

A. A. Kokhanovsky, Light Scattering Media Optics: Problems and Solutions (Springer, 2004).