Abstract

We present the design of a novel anamorphic integral field spectrometer for diffuse ultraviolet astronomy. The system is designed to be able to measure emissions from faint diffuse astrophysical sources across a large field with good spectral resolving power. The design uses a standard focal plane image slicer and an anamorphic relay mirror and spectrometer to achieve an exceptional area, field of view, resolving power (AΩR) product, the key figure of merit for a spectroscopic system intended to study line emission from extended or diffuse sources. We present a typical design with R1000 and an effective etendue (AΩ) of 1.5×104cm2sr.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  25. S. Osterman, University of Colorado (private communication, 2011)
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  27. Interactive Raytrace (IRT) is a registered trademark of Parsec Technology Inc., Boulder, Colorado.

2013 (2)

L. Iapichino, M. Viel, and S. Borgani, “Turbulence driven by structure formation in the circumgalactic medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 432, 2529–2540 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yue, A. Ferrara, R. Salvaterra, and X. Chen, “The contribution of high-redshift galaxies to the near-infrared background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 431, 383–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

P. J. E. Peebles, “Seeing cosmology grow,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 50, 1–28 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

F. W. Stecker and T. M. Venters, “Components of the extragalactic gamma-ray background,” Astrophys. J. 736, 40–53 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Tuttle, D. Schiminovich, R. Grange, S. Rahman, M. Matuszewski, B. Milliard, J.-M. Deharveng, and D. C. Martin, “FIREBALL: the first ultraviolet fiber fed spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. A. Cook, B. A. Hicks, P. G. Jung, and S. Chakrabarti, “Far-ultraviolet astronomical narrowband imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1936–1942 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Oppenheimer and R. Davé, “The nature and origin of low-redshift OVI absorbers,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 395, 1875–1904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. R. Furlanetto, L. A. Phillips, and M. Kamionkowski, “Highly-ionized oxygen absorbers in the intergalactic medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 359, 295–307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Kashlinsky, “Cosmic infrared background and early galaxy evolution [review article],” Phys. Rep. 409, 361–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, and A. Tremsin, “Characterizations of microchannel plate quantum efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 5898, 58980H (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Allington-Smith, C. M. Dubbeldam, R. Content, C. J. Dunlop, D. J. Robertson, J. Elias, B. Rodgers, and J. E. Turner, “Integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini near-infrared spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 701–710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

T. A. Cook, V. J. Gsell, J. Golub, and S. Chakrabarti, “SPINR-a wide-field ultraviolet spectral imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 585, 1177–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Green, “The IGM explorer: a Midex mission for studying the galaxy IGM connection,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 35, 1206 (2003).

1999 (1)

R. Cen and J. P. Ostriker, “Where are the baryons?” Astrophys. J. 514, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

S. Bowyer, “The cosmic far ultraviolet background,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 29, 59–88 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Abuter, R.

C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adam, G.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Adjali, L.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adolfo, J.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allevato, V.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allington-Smith, J. R.

J. R. Allington-Smith, C. M. Dubbeldam, R. Content, C. J. Dunlop, D. J. Robertson, J. Elias, B. Rodgers, and J. E. Turner, “Integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini near-infrared spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 701–710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arevalo, P.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arns, J.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bacon, R.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Baranne, A.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Bautz, M. W.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berg, P.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, H.

C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borgani, S.

L. Iapichino, M. Viel, and S. Borgani, “Turbulence driven by structure formation in the circumgalactic medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 432, 2529–2540 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, D.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, M.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

S. Bowyer, “The cosmic far ultraviolet background,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 29, 59–88 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Caillier, P.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Canizares, C. R.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cappelluti, N.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cen, R.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Cen and J. P. Ostriker, “Where are the baryons?” Astrophys. J. 514, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, S.

T. A. Cook, B. A. Hicks, P. G. Jung, and S. Chakrabarti, “Far-ultraviolet astronomical narrowband imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1936–1942 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Cook, V. J. Gsell, J. Golub, and S. Chakrabarti, “SPINR-a wide-field ultraviolet spectral imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 585, 1177–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Cotton, T. Cook, and S. Chakrabarti, “Single-element imaging spectrograph.,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1958–1962 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chave, R.

B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

B. Yue, A. Ferrara, R. Salvaterra, and X. Chen, “The contribution of high-redshift galaxies to the near-infrared background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 431, 383–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chung, R.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Comastri, A.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Content, R.

J. R. Allington-Smith, C. M. Dubbeldam, R. Content, C. J. Dunlop, D. J. Robertson, J. Elias, B. Rodgers, and J. E. Turner, “Integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini near-infrared spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 701–710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cook, T.

Cook, T. A.

T. A. Cook, B. A. Hicks, P. G. Jung, and S. Chakrabarti, “Far-ultraviolet astronomical narrowband imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1936–1942 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Cook, V. J. Gsell, J. Golub, and S. Chakrabarti, “SPINR-a wide-field ultraviolet spectral imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 585, 1177–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cotton, D. M.

Courtes, G.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Craig, N.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daguisé, E.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dalgarno, A.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davé, R.

B. D. Oppenheimer and R. Davé, “The nature and origin of low-redshift OVI absorbers,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 395, 1875–1904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deharveng, J.-M.

B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Tuttle, D. Schiminovich, R. Grange, S. Rahman, M. Matuszewski, B. Milliard, J.-M. Deharveng, and D. C. Martin, “FIREBALL: the first ultraviolet fiber fed spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delabre, B.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, W. V.

J. Edelstein, W. V. Dixon, and E. Korpela, “Galmatheia: a galactic plasma explorer,” in Ultraviolet-Optical Space Astronomy Beyond HST, J. A. Morse, J. M. Shull, and A. L. Kinney, eds., Vol. 164 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1999), p. 307.

Dubbeldam, C. M.

J. R. Allington-Smith, C. M. Dubbeldam, R. Content, C. J. Dunlop, D. J. Robertson, J. Elias, B. Rodgers, and J. E. Turner, “Integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini near-infrared spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 701–710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dubet, D.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Dubois, J.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, J. P.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Dunlop, C. J.

J. R. Allington-Smith, C. M. Dubbeldam, R. Content, C. J. Dunlop, D. J. Robertson, J. Elias, B. Rodgers, and J. E. Turner, “Integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini near-infrared spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 701–710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, J.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Edelstein, W. V. Dixon, and E. Korpela, “Galmatheia: a galactic plasma explorer,” in Ultraviolet-Optical Space Astronomy Beyond HST, J. A. Morse, J. M. Shull, and A. L. Kinney, eds., Vol. 164 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1999), p. 307.

Eisenhauer, F.

C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elias, J.

J. R. Allington-Smith, C. M. Dubbeldam, R. Content, C. J. Dunlop, D. J. Robertson, J. Elias, B. Rodgers, and J. E. Turner, “Integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini near-infrared spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 701–710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emsellem, E.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Evrard, J.

B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, A.

B. Yue, A. Ferrara, R. Salvaterra, and X. Chen, “The contribution of high-redshift galaxies to the near-infrared background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 431, 383–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferruit, P.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Feuerstein, M.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Finoguenov, A.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Furlanetto, S. R.

S. R. Furlanetto, L. A. Phillips, and M. Kamionkowski, “Highly-ionized oxygen absorbers in the intergalactic medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 359, 295–307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Genzel, R.

C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Georgantopoulos, I.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Georgelin, Y.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Gilli, R.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Godefroy, P.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Golub, J.

T. A. Cook, V. J. Gsell, J. Golub, and S. Chakrabarti, “SPINR-a wide-field ultraviolet spectral imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 585, 1177–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

S. E. Tuttle, D. Schiminovich, R. Grange, S. Rahman, M. Matuszewski, B. Milliard, J.-M. Deharveng, and D. C. Martin, “FIREBALL: the first ultraviolet fiber fed spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. C.

J. C. Green, “The IGM explorer: a Midex mission for studying the galaxy IGM connection,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 35, 1206 (2003).

Gsell, V. J.

T. A. Cook, V. J. Gsell, J. Golub, and S. Chakrabarti, “SPINR-a wide-field ultraviolet spectral imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 585, 1177–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

Heiles, C.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hicks, B. A.

Horrobin, M. J.

C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hull, J.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

Iapichino, L.

L. Iapichino, M. Viel, and S. Borgani, “Turbulence driven by structure formation in the circumgalactic medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 432, 2529–2540 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Iserlohe, C.

C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jarno, A.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jelinsky, S.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, E. B.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, H.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jorden, P.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, P. G.

Kamionkowski, M.

S. R. Furlanetto, L. A. Phillips, and M. Kamionkowski, “Highly-ionized oxygen absorbers in the intergalactic medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 359, 295–307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kashlinsky, A.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Kashlinsky, “Cosmic infrared background and early galaxy evolution [review article],” Phys. Rep. 409, 361–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Korpela, E.

J. Edelstein, W. V. Dixon, and E. Korpela, “Galmatheia: a galactic plasma explorer,” in Ultraviolet-Optical Space Astronomy Beyond HST, J. A. Morse, J. M. Shull, and A. L. Kinney, eds., Vol. 164 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1999), p. 307.

Korpela, E. J.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kosmalski, J.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lapère, V.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lapington, J. S.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, F.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lizon, J.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loupias, M.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martin, D. C.

B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Tuttle, D. Schiminovich, R. Grange, S. Rahman, M. Matuszewski, B. Milliard, J.-M. Deharveng, and D. C. Martin, “FIREBALL: the first ultraviolet fiber fed spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matuszewski, M.

B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Tuttle, D. Schiminovich, R. Grange, S. Rahman, M. Matuszewski, B. Milliard, J.-M. Deharveng, and D. C. Martin, “FIREBALL: the first ultraviolet fiber fed spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McKee, K.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, H. R.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Tuttle, D. Schiminovich, R. Grange, S. Rahman, M. Matuszewski, B. Milliard, J.-M. Deharveng, and D. C. Martin, “FIREBALL: the first ultraviolet fiber fed spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Nam, U.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
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Osantowski, J. F.

Osterman, S.

S. Osterman, University of Colorado (private communication, 2011)

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S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
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J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pecontal, E.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

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P. J. E. Peebles, “Seeing cosmology grow,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 50, 1–28 (2012).
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S. R. Furlanetto, L. A. Phillips, and M. Kamionkowski, “Highly-ionized oxygen absorbers in the intergalactic medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 359, 295–307 (2005).
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B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Tuttle, D. Schiminovich, R. Grange, S. Rahman, M. Matuszewski, B. Milliard, J.-M. Deharveng, and D. C. Martin, “FIREBALL: the first ultraviolet fiber fed spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ranalli, P.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

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F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

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F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. R. Allington-Smith, C. M. Dubbeldam, R. Content, C. J. Dunlop, D. J. Robertson, J. Elias, B. Rodgers, and J. E. Turner, “Integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini near-infrared spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 701–710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, B.

J. R. Allington-Smith, C. M. Dubbeldam, R. Content, C. J. Dunlop, D. J. Robertson, J. Elias, B. Rodgers, and J. E. Turner, “Integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini near-infrared spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 701–710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roncarelli, M.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, A.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Rovilos, E.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rupprecht, G.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, K.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salaun, Y.

F. Laurent, L. Adjali, J. Arns, R. Bacon, D. Boudon, P. Caillier, E. Daguisé, B. Delabre, J. Dubois, P. Godefroy, A. Jarno, P. Jorden, J. Kosmalski, V. Lapère, J. Lizon, M. Loupias, A. Pecontal, R. Reiss, A. Remillieux, E. Renault, G. Rupprecht, and Y. Salaun, “MUSE integral field unit: test results on the first out of 24,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salvaterra, R.

B. Yue, A. Ferrara, R. Salvaterra, and X. Chen, “The contribution of high-redshift galaxies to the near-infrared background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 431, 383–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Say, F.

R. Bacon, G. Adam, A. Baranne, G. Courtes, D. Dubet, J. P. Dubois, E. Emsellem, P. Ferruit, Y. Georgelin, G. Monnet, E. Pecontal, A. Rousset, and F. Say, “3D spectrography at high spatial resolution. I. Concept and realization of the integral field spectrograph TIGER,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 113, 347–357 (1995).

Schegerer, A.

C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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S. E. Tuttle, D. Schiminovich, R. Grange, S. Rahman, M. Matuszewski, B. Milliard, J.-M. Deharveng, and D. C. Martin, “FIREBALL: the first ultraviolet fiber fed spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773227 (2010).
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B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, J.

C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shull, J. M.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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O. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, and A. Tremsin, “Characterizations of microchannel plate quantum efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 5898, 58980H (2005).
[CrossRef]

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F. W. Stecker and T. M. Venters, “Components of the extragalactic gamma-ray background,” Astrophys. J. 736, 40–53 (2011).
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C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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C. Iserlohe, M. Tecza, F. Eisenhauer, R. Genzel, N. A. Thatte, R. Abuter, M. J. Horrobin, A. Schegerer, J. Schreiber, and H. Bonnet, “On-sky performance of SPIFFI: the integral field spectrometer for SINFONI at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1123–1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tremsin, A.

O. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, and A. Tremsin, “Characterizations of microchannel plate quantum efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 5898, 58980H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J. E.

J. R. Allington-Smith, C. M. Dubbeldam, R. Content, C. J. Dunlop, D. J. Robertson, J. Elias, B. Rodgers, and J. E. Turner, “Integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini near-infrared spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 701–710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, S.

B. Milliard, D. C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, J. Evrard, M. Matuszewski, S. Rahman, S. Tuttle, R. McLean, J.-M. Deharveng, F. Mirc, R. Grange, and R. Chave, “FIREBALL: the faint intergalactic medium redshifted emission balloon: overview and first science flight results,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. E. Tuttle, D. Schiminovich, R. Grange, S. Rahman, M. Matuszewski, B. Milliard, J.-M. Deharveng, and D. C. Martin, “FIREBALL: the first ultraviolet fiber fed spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 773227 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vallerga, J.

O. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, and A. Tremsin, “Characterizations of microchannel plate quantum efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 5898, 58980H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Venters, T. M.

F. W. Stecker and T. M. Venters, “Components of the extragalactic gamma-ray background,” Astrophys. J. 736, 40–53 (2011).
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L. Iapichino, M. Viel, and S. Borgani, “Turbulence driven by structure formation in the circumgalactic medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 432, 2529–2540 (2013).
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N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Witt, A. N.

S. Chakrabarti, M. W. Bautz, C. R. Canizares, R. Cen, T. A. Cook, N. Craig, A. Dalgarno, C. Heiles, E. B. Jenkins, J. S. Lapington, H. R. Miller, J. P. Ostriker, K. R. Sembach, J. M. Shull, and A. N. Witt, “Spectroscopy and photometry of IGM’s diffuse radiation (SPIDR): a NASA small explorer mission,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 356–363 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yue, B.

B. Yue, A. Ferrara, R. Salvaterra, and X. Chen, “The contribution of high-redshift galaxies to the near-infrared background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 431, 383–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yuk, I.

J. Edelstein, E. J. Korpela, J. Adolfo, M. Bowen, M. Feuerstein, J. Hull, S. Jelinsky, K. Nishikida, K. McKee, P. Berg, R. Chung, J. Fischer, K. Min, S. Oh, J. Rhee, K. Ryu, J. Shinn, W. Han, H. Jin, D. Lee, U. Nam, J. Park, K. Seon, and I. Yuk, “The SPEAR instrument and on-orbit performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 644, L159–L162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zamorani, G.

N. Cappelluti, P. Ranalli, M. Roncarelli, P. Arevalo, G. Zamorani, A. Comastri, R. Gilli, E. Rovilos, C. Vignali, V. Allevato, A. Finoguenov, T. Miyaji, F. Nicastro, I. Georgantopoulos, and A. Kashlinsky, “The nature of the unresolved extragalactic cosmic soft X-ray background,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 651–663 (2012).
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Other (3)

Interactive Raytrace (IRT) is a registered trademark of Parsec Technology Inc., Boulder, Colorado.

J. Edelstein, W. V. Dixon, and E. Korpela, “Galmatheia: a galactic plasma explorer,” in Ultraviolet-Optical Space Astronomy Beyond HST, J. A. Morse, J. M. Shull, and A. L. Kinney, eds., Vol. 164 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1999), p. 307.

S. Osterman, University of Colorado (private communication, 2011)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Key figure of merit for any instrument designed to observe faint diffuse astronomical emission is the effective etendue-resolving power product (AΩR). The instrument described here, the anamorphic IFU (AI) achieves a high AΩR while maintaining a compact field of view suitable for the observation of discrete targets, such as galaxies or other nebulae. The values for the comparison instruments are for the response to a diffuse target which fills the aperture, not the more widely reported point source response. Data from MI [14], SPEAR [15], SPIDR [12], SPINR [16],[17], and references therein for all others.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AI telescope forms an image of a science field. The image slicer in the focal plane uses a set of mirrored slits on the image (upper middle) to select off five slices. The AI slit and relay mirrors shift these images vertically, demagnify, and reimage them to a spectrograph slit (lower right), and the spectrograph disperses the light to form spectra (lower left) of each pixel in the slits. The instrument modeled below uses a 10-slit IFU. Only five are depicted here for clarity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

We depict three AI spectrometers behind a single telescope. All of the calculations and parameters in this paper are for a single spectrometer. In this view, three AI systems have been packed behind a single telescope which directs the light to the slit array located at the telescope focal plane. The array breaks the image up with a series of reflective slits and directs the light to a series of relay mirrors (one per slit). The relay mirrors reimage each slit from the focal plane onto the long entrance slit of the spectrometer. By adjusting the position and angle of the relay mirrors the image slicer converts a compact square array of slits at the focal plane to a series of slits stacked vertically at the spectrometer entrance aperture (see Fig. 2). The grating then disperses the light and focuses the dispersed slit onto the detector located back-to-back with the slit array. (The camera mirror is for a tracking camera to register the spectra in the sky.)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Our raytrace results show that the system will maintain a typical angular resolution of 0.7 with a worst case angular resolution of 1.1 (50% enclosed energy).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Our raytrace results show that the system will maintain a typical spectral resolution of 1.0 Å with a worst case spectral resolution of 1.3 Å (50% enclosed energy).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

We have performed a Monte Carlo raytrace simulation of AI. The central panel shows the full detector image with rays from each of the ten slits positioned at the center, top, and bottom of the field of view (θ=0±5) of each slit. The three vertical lines in the central panel represent three different wavelengths (λ=1030.0, 1060.0, and 1091.8 Å) on the detector. The outer panels depict the response of the system to a line source that fills the slit in the dispersion direction and is narrow in the imaging direction. This source is appropriate for evaluating both the imaging performance and the spectral performance for a source which fills the slit. Each panel shows pairs of spots (red and blue dots) separated by 1 in the cross-dispersion direction (shown vertically) in the sky and 1 Å in wavelength (shown horizontally). The coordinate system is consistent between the seven images.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. System Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters for the System Modeleda

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