Abstract

The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon 40 years ago by the Apollo astronauts and the French-built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant, as well as valuable insight into the Moon’s interior. However, the precision of the ranging measurements are now being limited by the physical size of the arrays and a new generation of retroreflectors is required to make significant advances over current capabilities. Large single-cube retroreflectors represent the most promising approach to overcoming current limitations, and hollow retroreflectors in particular have the potential to maintain their good optical performance over the nearly 300 K temperature swing that occurs during the lunar cycle. Typically, epoxies are used for aligning and bonding hollow retroreflectors, but their thermal stability will predominantly be limited by the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the epoxy and the glass. A relatively new bonding method known as hydroxide catalysis bonding (HCB) has been used to adhere complex optical components for space-based missions. HCB has an extremely thin bond, a low CTE, and a high breaking strength that makes it an ideal candidate for bonding hollow retroreflectors for lunar laser ranging (LLR). In this work, we present results of a feasibility study of bonded Pyrex and fused silica hollow retroreflectors using both epoxy and HCB methods, including the results of thermally cycling the hollow retroreflectors from 295 to 185 K. Finally, we discuss the potential for using these retroreflectors for future LLR.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Merkowitz, “Tests of gravity using lunar laser ranging,” Living Rev. Relativity 13, 7 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. W. Murphy, “Lunar laser ranging: the millimeter challenge,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 076901 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. M. Merkowitz, P. W. Dabney, J. C. Livas, J. F. McGarry, G. A. Neumann, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Laser ranging for gravitational, lunar, and planetary science,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 16, 2151–2164 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, and D. H. Boggs, “Lunar laser ranging tests of the equivalence principle,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184004 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. M. N. Johnson, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184005 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Currie, S. DellAgnello, and G. D. Monache, “A lunar laser ranging retroreflector array for the 21st century,” Acta Astronaut. 68, 667–680 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Goodrow and T. Murphy, “Effects of thermal gradients on total internal reflection corner cubes,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8793–8799 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Gwo, “Ultra-precision bonding for cryogenic fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 3435, 136–142 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Gwo, “Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding,” U.S. patent6548176 (April15, 2013).
  14. P. Mammini, “A bonded precision optical assembly using potassium hydroxide,” Proc. SPIE 7425, 74250O (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Preston, B. Balaban, and G. Mueller, “Hydroxide-bonding strength measurements for space-based optical missions,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 5, 365–372 (2008).
  16. A. Preston and G. Mueller, “Bonding SiC to SiC using a sodium silicate solution,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 9, 764–771 (2012).
  17. E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Lyons and P. Hayes, “High-optical-quality cryogenic hollow retroreflectors,” Proc. SPIE 2540, 94–100 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

T. W. Murphy, “Lunar laser ranging: the millimeter challenge,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 076901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, and D. H. Boggs, “Lunar laser ranging tests of the equivalence principle,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. M. N. Johnson, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Preston and G. Mueller, “Bonding SiC to SiC using a sodium silicate solution,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 9, 764–771 (2012).

S. Goodrow and T. Murphy, “Effects of thermal gradients on total internal reflection corner cubes,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8793–8799 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Currie, S. DellAgnello, and G. D. Monache, “A lunar laser ranging retroreflector array for the 21st century,” Acta Astronaut. 68, 667–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Merkowitz, “Tests of gravity using lunar laser ranging,” Living Rev. Relativity 13, 7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. Mammini, “A bonded precision optical assembly using potassium hydroxide,” Proc. SPIE 7425, 74250O (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Preston, B. Balaban, and G. Mueller, “Hydroxide-bonding strength measurements for space-based optical missions,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 5, 365–372 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. M. Merkowitz, P. W. Dabney, J. C. Livas, J. F. McGarry, G. A. Neumann, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Laser ranging for gravitational, lunar, and planetary science,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 16, 2151–2164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Gwo, “Ultra-precision bonding for cryogenic fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 3435, 136–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Lyons and P. Hayes, “High-optical-quality cryogenic hollow retroreflectors,” Proc. SPIE 2540, 94–100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adelberger, E.

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. M. N. Johnson, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alley, C.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Balaban, B.

A. Preston, B. Balaban, and G. Mueller, “Hydroxide-bonding strength measurements for space-based optical missions,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 5, 365–372 (2008).

Battat, J.

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. M. N. Johnson, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bender, P.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Beveridge, N.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bezensek, R.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogenstahl, J.

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boggs, D. H.

J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, and D. H. Boggs, “Lunar laser ranging tests of the equivalence principle,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bower, K.

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cagnoli, G.

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, L.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Currie, D.

D. Currie, S. DellAgnello, and G. D. Monache, “A lunar laser ranging retroreflector array for the 21st century,” Acta Astronaut. 68, 667–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dabney, P. W.

S. M. Merkowitz, P. W. Dabney, J. C. Livas, J. F. McGarry, G. A. Neumann, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Laser ranging for gravitational, lunar, and planetary science,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 16, 2151–2164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, D.

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DellAgnello, S.

D. Currie, S. DellAgnello, and G. D. Monache, “A lunar laser ranging retroreflector array for the 21st century,” Acta Astronaut. 68, 667–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deshpande, A.

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dicke, R.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Eckhardt, D.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ehrersberger, P.

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elliffe, E.

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faller, J.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Goodrow, S.

Gwo, D.

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Gwo, “Ultra-precision bonding for cryogenic fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 3435, 136–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Gwo, “Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding,” U.S. patent6548176 (April15, 2013).

Hayes, P.

J. Lyons and P. Hayes, “High-optical-quality cryogenic hollow retroreflectors,” Proc. SPIE 2540, 94–100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, M.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoyle, C.

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. M. N. Johnson, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huff, L.

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jesse, E.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N.

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. M. N.

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. M. N. Johnson, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaula, W.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Killow, C.

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lipa, J.

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Livas, J. C.

S. M. Merkowitz, P. W. Dabney, J. C. Livas, J. F. McGarry, G. A. Neumann, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Laser ranging for gravitational, lunar, and planetary science,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 16, 2151–2164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, J.

J. Lyons and P. Hayes, “High-optical-quality cryogenic hollow retroreflectors,” Proc. SPIE 2540, 94–100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mammini, P.

P. Mammini, “A bonded precision optical assembly using potassium hydroxide,” Proc. SPIE 7425, 74250O (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGarry, J. F.

S. M. Merkowitz, P. W. Dabney, J. C. Livas, J. F. McGarry, G. A. Neumann, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Laser ranging for gravitational, lunar, and planetary science,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 16, 2151–2164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, R.

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Merkowitz, S.

S. Merkowitz, “Tests of gravity using lunar laser ranging,” Living Rev. Relativity 13, 7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Merkowitz, S. M.

S. M. Merkowitz, P. W. Dabney, J. C. Livas, J. F. McGarry, G. A. Neumann, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Laser ranging for gravitational, lunar, and planetary science,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 16, 2151–2164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michelsen, E.

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monache, G. D.

D. Currie, S. DellAgnello, and G. D. Monache, “A lunar laser ranging retroreflector array for the 21st century,” Acta Astronaut. 68, 667–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, R.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

A. Preston and G. Mueller, “Bonding SiC to SiC using a sodium silicate solution,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 9, 764–771 (2012).

A. Preston, B. Balaban, and G. Mueller, “Hydroxide-bonding strength measurements for space-based optical missions,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 5, 365–372 (2008).

Mullholland, J.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T.

Murphy, T. W.

T. W. Murphy, “Lunar laser ranging: the millimeter challenge,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 076901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. M. N. Johnson, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murray, P.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nawrodt, R.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, G. A.

S. M. Merkowitz, P. W. Dabney, J. C. Livas, J. F. McGarry, G. A. Neumann, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Laser ranging for gravitational, lunar, and planetary science,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 16, 2151–2164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plotkin, H.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Poultney, S.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Preston, A.

A. Preston and G. Mueller, “Bonding SiC to SiC using a sodium silicate solution,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 9, 764–771 (2012).

A. Preston, B. Balaban, and G. Mueller, “Hydroxide-bonding strength measurements for space-based optical missions,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 5, 365–372 (2008).

Reid, S.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D.

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romero, E.

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rowan, S.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samad, R.

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Silverberg, E.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Stubbs, C.

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. M. N. Johnson, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, M.

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, H.

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. M. N. Johnson, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Triebes, K.

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turyshev, S. G.

J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, and D. H. Boggs, “Lunar laser ranging tests of the equivalence principle,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Veggel, A.

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, D.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. G.

J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, and D. H. Boggs, “Lunar laser ranging tests of the equivalence principle,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zagwodzki, T. W.

S. M. Merkowitz, P. W. Dabney, J. C. Livas, J. F. McGarry, G. A. Neumann, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Laser ranging for gravitational, lunar, and planetary science,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 16, 2151–2164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Acta Astronaut. (1)

D. Currie, S. DellAgnello, and G. D. Monache, “A lunar laser ranging retroreflector array for the 21st century,” Acta Astronaut. 68, 667–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

D. Gwo, S. Wang, K. Bower, D. Davidson, P. Ehrersberger, L. Huff, E. Romero, M. Sullivan, K. Triebes, and J. Lipa, “The gravity Probe-B star-tracking telescope,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1401–1405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Class. Quantum Grav. (4)

E. Elliffe, J. Bogenstahl, A. Deshpande, J. Hough, C. Killow, S. Reid, D. Robertson, S. Rowan, and G. Cagnoli, “Hydroxide-catalysis bonding for stable optical systems for space,” Class. Quantum Grav. 22, S257–S267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Beveridge, A. Van Veggel, M. Hendry, P. Murray, R. Montgomery, E. Jesse, J. Scott, R. Bezensek, L. Cunningham, J. Hough, R. Nawrodt, S. Reid, and S. Rowan, “Low-temperature strength tests and SEM imaging of hydroxide catalysis bonds in silicon,” Class. Quantum Grav. 28, 085014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Williams, S. G. Turyshev, and D. H. Boggs, “Lunar laser ranging tests of the equivalence principle,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. M. N. Johnson, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 184005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (2)

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, N. Johnson, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Laser ranging to the lost Lunokhod 1 reflector,” Icarus 211, 1103–1108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Murphy, E. Adelberger, J. Battat, C. Hoyle, R. McMillan, E. Michelsen, R. Samad, C. Stubbs, and H. Swanson, “Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon,” Icarus 208, 31–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. (2)

A. Preston, B. Balaban, and G. Mueller, “Hydroxide-bonding strength measurements for space-based optical missions,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 5, 365–372 (2008).

A. Preston and G. Mueller, “Bonding SiC to SiC using a sodium silicate solution,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech. 9, 764–771 (2012).

Int. J. Mod. Phys. D (1)

S. M. Merkowitz, P. W. Dabney, J. C. Livas, J. F. McGarry, G. A. Neumann, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Laser ranging for gravitational, lunar, and planetary science,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 16, 2151–2164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Living Rev. Relativity (1)

S. Merkowitz, “Tests of gravity using lunar laser ranging,” Living Rev. Relativity 13, 7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. Lyons and P. Hayes, “High-optical-quality cryogenic hollow retroreflectors,” Proc. SPIE 2540, 94–100 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Gwo, “Ultra-precision bonding for cryogenic fused-silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 3435, 136–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Mammini, “A bonded precision optical assembly using potassium hydroxide,” Proc. SPIE 7425, 74250O (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

T. W. Murphy, “Lunar laser ranging: the millimeter challenge,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 076901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mullholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, and C. Alley, “The lunar laser ranging experiment,” Science 182, 229–238 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. Gwo, “Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding,” U.S. patent6548176 (April15, 2013).

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