Abstract

We experimentally observed three types of pulses generated in an erbium-doped fiber laser by incorporating a homemade graphene saturable absorber (GSA). The generated pulses from the laser oscillator include dual-wavelength dark pulses, fundamentally step-like pulses, and non-soliton second-harmonic pulses. These operation regimes are first reported by using graphene as the saturable absorber. Our results will further indicate that the GSA can function well for obtaining various ultrafast pulse phenomena, highlighting the practical potential of graphene in ultrafast photonics technologies.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

Junqing Zhao, Peiguang Yan, and Shuang-Chen Ruan, "Observations of three types of pulses in an erbium-doped fiber laser by incorporating a graphene saturable absorber: erratum," Appl. Opt. 53, 458-458 (2014)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-53-3-458

References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Y. Tang, L. Li, Y. F. Song, L. M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Shen, “Evidence of dark solitons in all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013849 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (5)

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G. R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20, 2460–2465 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, K. Grodecki, P. Paletko, W. Strupinski, Z. Jankiewicz, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2770–2775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dual-wavelength domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3525–3530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, H. Lu, and L. Duan, “Dual-wavelength step-like pulses in an ultra-large negative-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3996–4001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (8)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yin, W. Xu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and J. Liu, “Observation of dark pulse in a dispersion-managed fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4338–4341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 18, 4428–4433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18, 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

C. Milián, D. V. Skryabin, and A. Ferrando, “Continuum generation by dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2096–2098 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer grapheme as a saturable absorbable for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, K. Grodecki, P. Paletko, W. Strupinski, Z. Jankiewicz, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2770–2775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

Ahmad, H.

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer grapheme as a saturable absorbable for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhadra, S. K.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. M.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. H.

Cho, J.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Damanhuri, S. S. A.

Das, S.

Dimyati, K.

Du, G.

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L.

Ferrando, A.

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuse, K.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18, 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grodecki, K.

Halder, A.

Harun, S. W.

Hasan, T.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. L.

Huang, S. H.

Ismail, M. A.

Jang, S. Y.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jankiewicz, Z.

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R. J.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 18, 4428–4433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. H.

Lee, J. H.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

D. Y. Tang, L. Li, Y. F. Song, L. M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Shen, “Evidence of dark solitons in all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013849 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. J.

Lin, B.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

Lin, S. C.

Lin, Z. B.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

H. Yin, W. Xu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and J. Liu, “Observation of dark pulse in a dispersion-managed fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4338–4341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Loh, K.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer grapheme as a saturable absorbable for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

Luo, A. P.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yin, W. Xu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and J. Liu, “Observation of dark pulse in a dispersion-managed fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4338–4341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z. C.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yin, W. Xu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and J. Liu, “Observation of dark pulse in a dispersion-managed fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4338–4341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maillotte, H.

Mao, D.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18, 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Milián, C.

Millot, G.

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer grapheme as a saturable absorbable for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ning, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pal, M.

Paletko, P.

Pasternak, I.

Paul, M. C.

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S.

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Saidin, N.

Seve, E.

Shen, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, L. Li, Y. F. Song, L. M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Shen, “Evidence of dark solitons in all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013849 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer grapheme as a saturable absorbable for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

Sobon, G.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, K. Grodecki, P. Paletko, W. Strupinski, Z. Jankiewicz, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2770–2775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. F.

D. Y. Tang, L. Li, Y. F. Song, L. M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Shen, “Evidence of dark solitons in all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013849 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sotor, J.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, K. Grodecki, P. Paletko, W. Strupinski, Z. Jankiewicz, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2770–2775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Strupinski, W.

Su, C. Y.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sylvestre, T.

Tang, D.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, L. Li, Y. F. Song, L. M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Shen, “Evidence of dark solitons in all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013849 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dual-wavelength domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3525–3530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 18, 4428–4433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer grapheme as a saturable absorbable for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, S.

Wang, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, S. K.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer grapheme as a saturable absorbable for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H.

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dual-wavelength domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3525–3530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

Xu, W.

H. Yin, W. Xu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and J. Liu, “Observation of dark pulse in a dispersion-managed fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4338–4341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W. C.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18, 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, P.

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer grapheme as a saturable absorbable for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. Y.

Yin, H.

H. Yin, W. Xu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and J. Liu, “Observation of dark pulse in a dispersion-managed fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4338–4341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Zen, D. I. M.

Zhang, G.

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

D. Y. Tang, L. Li, Y. F. Song, L. M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Shen, “Evidence of dark solitons in all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013849 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dual-wavelength domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3525–3530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 18, 4428–4433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer grapheme as a saturable absorbable for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

D. Y. Tang, L. Li, Y. F. Song, L. M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Shen, “Evidence of dark solitons in all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013849 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dual-wavelength domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 19, 3525–3530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 18, 4428–4433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer grapheme as a saturable absorbable for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Yin, W. Xu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and J. Liu, “Observation of dark pulse in a dispersion-managed fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4338–4341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Y. Yu, G. Du, G. Zhang, J. Cheng, H. Wei, and J. Luo, “Multi-wavelength graphene-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Eng. 51, 074201(2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 045803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. Li, Y. F. Song, L. M. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Y. Shen, “Evidence of dark solitons in all-normal-dispersion-fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 013849 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Fabrication process of the GSA sample. (b) Side and (c) top views of the prepared GSA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Piece of GSA adhered onto a fiber connector. (b) Two fiber connectors sandwiching a piece of GSA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the graphene mode-locked fiber laser. LD, laser diode; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; CS980, a type of single-mode fiber from Corning Inc.; EDF, erbium-doped fiber; ISO, isolator; OC, output coupler; GSA, graphene saturable absorber; PC, polarization controller.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Oscilloscope trace of a dark pulse train. (b) Typical output spectrum with the dark pulse operation regime.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Oscilloscope trace of a step-like pulse train. (b) Out spectrum of the step-like pulse operation regime. (c) Oscilloscope trace of second-harmonic pulse train. (d) Out spectrum of second-harmonic pulse operation regime.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Emission of (a) single step-like pulse and (b) two second-harmonic pulses during the same temporal duration.

Equations (1)

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N=γP0T02/|β2|=1,

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