Abstract

The time-dependent absorption at 790 nm of TiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) and electron-beam evaporation (EBE) was measured. The pump source was a Ti:sapphire oscillator that was operated in CW and pulsed (50 fs) modes. The absorption coefficient of the IBS film under CW illumination was 8cm1, independent of time and power. Under pulsed illumination, there was evidence of three-photon absorption, and the total absorption increased 10-fold over time at the highest measured irradiance. The absorption of the EBE film had higher initial absorption (24cm1) and increased under both CW and pulsed illumination with time. An electron state model based on band-to-band excitation and electron trapping is presented that explains the observed results. The implications for laser-induced damage of oxide coatings are discussed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  2. M. Mero, J. Liu, and W. Rudolph, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  7. M. Mero, A. J. Sabbah, J. Zeller, and W. Rudolph, “Femtosecond dynamics of dielectric films in the pre-ablation regime,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 317–324 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  11. Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, X.-Q. Hu, K. Balasubramanian, and K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5665 (1993).
    [Crossref]
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  13. L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. A. Weber, C. Rodriguez, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, D. Patel, C. Menoni, and W. Rudolph, “Third harmonic microscopy of intrinsic and induced material anisotropy in dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 51, 121807 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  17. J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, and P. Roche, “An improved method for the determination of the extinction coefficient of thin film materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  18. H.-Y. Lee, S. J. Clark, and J. Robertson, “Calculation of point defects in rutile TiO2 by the screened-exchange hybrid functional,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 075209 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. W. Bahnemann, M. Hilgendorff, and R. Memming, “Charge carrier dynamics at TiO2 particles: reactivity of free and trapped holes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4265–4275 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2012 (2)

R. A. Weber, C. Rodriguez, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, D. Patel, C. Menoni, and W. Rudolph, “Third harmonic microscopy of intrinsic and induced material anisotropy in dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 51, 121807 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Lee, S. J. Clark, and J. Robertson, “Calculation of point defects in rutile TiO2 by the screened-exchange hybrid functional,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 075209 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Jupe, L. Jensen, S. Malobabic, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Linear and non-linear absorption of TixSi1-xO2-mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421S (2010).

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043523 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

M. Mero, J. Liu, and W. Rudolph, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, A. J. Sabbah, J. Zeller, and W. Rudolph, “Femtosecond dynamics of dielectric films in the pre-ablation regime,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 317–324 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

S. E. Bialkowski and A. Chartier, “Diffraction effects in single- and two-laser photothermal lens spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6711–6721 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. W. Bahnemann, M. Hilgendorff, and R. Memming, “Charge carrier dynamics at TiO2 particles: reactivity of free and trapped holes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4265–4275 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

Z. L. Wu, C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, and Z. X. Fan, “Relaxation of dielectric thin films under Ar+ laser irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 224–233 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. Shluger, M. Georgiev, and N. Itoh, “Self-trapped excitons and interstitial-vacancy pairs in oxides,” Phil. Mag. B 63(4), 955–964 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, and P. Roche, “An improved method for the determination of the extinction coefficient of thin film materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
[Crossref]

Alexandrovski, A.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[Crossref]

Allenspacher, P.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

Arndt, J.

Z. L. Wu, C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, and Z. X. Fan, “Relaxation of dielectric thin films under Ar+ laser irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 224–233 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ashkenasi, D.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bahnemann, D. W.

D. W. Bahnemann, M. Hilgendorff, and R. Memming, “Charge carrier dynamics at TiO2 particles: reactivity of free and trapped holes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4265–4275 (1997).
[Crossref]

Balasubramanian, K.

Bialkowski, S. E.

Borgogno, J. P.

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, and P. Roche, “An improved method for the determination of the extinction coefficient of thin film materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
[Crossref]

Chartier, A.

Clapp, B.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Clark, S. J.

H.-Y. Lee, S. J. Clark, and J. Robertson, “Calculation of point defects in rutile TiO2 by the screened-exchange hybrid functional,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 075209 (2012).
[Crossref]

Commandre, M.

Ehlers, H.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

Emmert, L. A.

R. A. Weber, C. Rodriguez, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, D. Patel, C. Menoni, and W. Rudolph, “Third harmonic microscopy of intrinsic and induced material anisotropy in dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 51, 121807 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043523 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z. X.

Z. L. Wu, C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, and Z. X. Fan, “Relaxation of dielectric thin films under Ar+ laser irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 224–233 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[Crossref]

Georgiev, M.

A. Shluger, M. Georgiev, and N. Itoh, “Self-trapped excitons and interstitial-vacancy pairs in oxides,” Phil. Mag. B 63(4), 955–964 (1991).
[Crossref]

Guenther, K. H.

Hilgendorff, M.

D. W. Bahnemann, M. Hilgendorff, and R. Memming, “Charge carrier dynamics at TiO2 particles: reactivity of free and trapped holes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4265–4275 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.-Q.

Itoh, N.

A. Shluger, M. Georgiev, and N. Itoh, “Self-trapped excitons and interstitial-vacancy pairs in oxides,” Phil. Mag. B 63(4), 955–964 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jasapara, J. C.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jensen, L.

M. Jupe, L. Jensen, S. Malobabic, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Linear and non-linear absorption of TixSi1-xO2-mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421S (2010).

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

Jupe, M.

M. Jupe, L. Jensen, S. Malobabic, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Linear and non-linear absorption of TixSi1-xO2-mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421S (2010).

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

Kautek, W.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kruger, J.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lazarides, B.

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, and P. Roche, “An improved method for the determination of the extinction coefficient of thin film materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Lee, S. J. Clark, and J. Robertson, “Calculation of point defects in rutile TiO2 by the screened-exchange hybrid functional,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 075209 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

M. Mero, J. Liu, and W. Rudolph, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lorenz, M.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Madebach, H.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

Malobabic, S.

M. Jupe, L. Jensen, S. Malobabic, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Linear and non-linear absorption of TixSi1-xO2-mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421S (2010).

Markosyan, A.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[Crossref]

Martin, S.

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Memming, R.

D. W. Bahnemann, M. Hilgendorff, and R. Memming, “Charge carrier dynamics at TiO2 particles: reactivity of free and trapped holes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4265–4275 (1997).
[Crossref]

Menoni, C.

R. A. Weber, C. Rodriguez, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, D. Patel, C. Menoni, and W. Rudolph, “Third harmonic microscopy of intrinsic and induced material anisotropy in dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 51, 121807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mero, M.

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043523 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, J. Liu, and W. Rudolph, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, A. J. Sabbah, J. Zeller, and W. Rudolph, “Femtosecond dynamics of dielectric films in the pre-ablation regime,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 317–324 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, D. N.

R. A. Weber, C. Rodriguez, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, D. Patel, C. Menoni, and W. Rudolph, “Third harmonic microscopy of intrinsic and induced material anisotropy in dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 51, 121807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Patel, D.

R. A. Weber, C. Rodriguez, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, D. Patel, C. Menoni, and W. Rudolph, “Third harmonic microscopy of intrinsic and induced material anisotropy in dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 51, 121807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pelletier, E.

Reichling, M.

Riede, W.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

Ristau, D.

M. Jupe, L. Jensen, S. Malobabic, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Linear and non-linear absorption of TixSi1-xO2-mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421S (2010).

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Robertson, J.

H.-Y. Lee, S. J. Clark, and J. Robertson, “Calculation of point defects in rutile TiO2 by the screened-exchange hybrid functional,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 075209 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roche, P.

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, and P. Roche, “An improved method for the determination of the extinction coefficient of thin film materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, C.

R. A. Weber, C. Rodriguez, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, D. Patel, C. Menoni, and W. Rudolph, “Third harmonic microscopy of intrinsic and induced material anisotropy in dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 51, 121807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Route, R.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[Crossref]

Rudolph, W.

R. A. Weber, C. Rodriguez, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, D. Patel, C. Menoni, and W. Rudolph, “Third harmonic microscopy of intrinsic and induced material anisotropy in dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 51, 121807 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043523 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, J. Liu, and W. Rudolph, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, A. J. Sabbah, J. Zeller, and W. Rudolph, “Femtosecond dynamics of dielectric films in the pre-ablation regime,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 317–324 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sabbah, A. J.

M. Mero, A. J. Sabbah, J. Zeller, and W. Rudolph, “Femtosecond dynamics of dielectric films in the pre-ablation regime,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 317–324 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, H.

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

Shluger, A.

A. Shluger, M. Georgiev, and N. Itoh, “Self-trapped excitons and interstitial-vacancy pairs in oxides,” Phil. Mag. B 63(4), 955–964 (1991).
[Crossref]

Starke, K.

M. Jupe, L. Jensen, S. Malobabic, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Linear and non-linear absorption of TixSi1-xO2-mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421S (2010).

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stoian, R.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. Z.

Z. L. Wu, C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, and Z. X. Fan, “Relaxation of dielectric thin films under Ar+ laser irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 224–233 (1992).
[Crossref]

Weber, R. A.

R. A. Weber, C. Rodriguez, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, D. Patel, C. Menoni, and W. Rudolph, “Third harmonic microscopy of intrinsic and induced material anisotropy in dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 51, 121807 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z. L.

Zeller, J.

M. Mero, A. J. Sabbah, J. Zeller, and W. Rudolph, “Femtosecond dynamics of dielectric films in the pre-ablation regime,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 317–324 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. A (2)

M. Mero, A. J. Sabbah, J. Zeller, and W. Rudolph, “Femtosecond dynamics of dielectric films in the pre-ablation regime,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 317–324 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. A. Emmert, M. Mero, and W. Rudolph, “Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043523 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

D. W. Bahnemann, M. Hilgendorff, and R. Memming, “Charge carrier dynamics at TiO2 particles: reactivity of free and trapped holes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4265–4275 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

R. A. Weber, C. Rodriguez, D. N. Nguyen, L. A. Emmert, D. Patel, C. Menoni, and W. Rudolph, “Third harmonic microscopy of intrinsic and induced material anisotropy in dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 51, 121807 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, B. Clapp, J. C. Jasapara, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, K. Starke, J. Kruger, S. Martin, and W. Kautek, “On the damage behavior of dielectric films when illuminated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 44, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phil. Mag. B (1)

A. Shluger, M. Georgiev, and N. Itoh, “Self-trapped excitons and interstitial-vacancy pairs in oxides,” Phil. Mag. B 63(4), 955–964 (1991).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Mero, J. Liu, and W. Rudolph, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Lee, S. J. Clark, and J. Robertson, “Calculation of point defects in rutile TiO2 by the screened-exchange hybrid functional,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 075209 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, “Photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI): new developments,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Jupe, L. Jensen, S. Malobabic, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Linear and non-linear absorption of TixSi1-xO2-mixtures,” Proc. SPIE 7842, 78421S (2010).

L. Jensen, M. Jupe, H. Madebach, H. Ehlers, K. Starke, D. Ristau, W. Riede, P. Allenspacher, and H. Schroeder, “Damage threshold investigations of high power laser optics under atmospheric and vacuum conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030U (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Wu, C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, and Z. X. Fan, “Relaxation of dielectric thin films under Ar+ laser irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 1848, 224–233 (1992).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, and P. Roche, “An improved method for the determination of the extinction coefficient of thin film materials,” Thin Solid Films 102, 209–220 (1983).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

S. E. Bialkowski, Photothermal Spectroscopy Methods for Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 1996).

Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 40th Anniversary Collected Papers on DVD (SPIE, 2009).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photothermal pump-probe setup. APD, avalanche photodiode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Third-harmonic microscope images (10 μm by 10 μm) of (a) IBS and (b) EBE TiO2 films.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time-resolved absorption of the IBS TiO2 film for (a) pulsed illumination at (1) 57kW/cm2, (2) 110kW/cm2, and (3) 200kW/cm2 average irradiance and (b) CW illumination. (The pulsed data are normalized to the average CW value.)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Initial absorption versus the average irradiance for the IBS TiO2 film under pulsed illumination. The absorption coefficient obtained with CW illumination is shown for comparison.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time-resolved absorption coefficient for the EBE film under (a) CW illumination at (1) 9.3kW/cm2, (2) 28kW/cm2, (3) 78kW/cm2, and (4) 141kW/cm2 irradiance and (b) pulsed illumination at (1) 9.3kW/cm2, (2) 25kW/cm2, (3) 87kW/cm2, and (4) 180kW/cm2 average irradiance.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Initial absorption versus irradiance of EBE film under CW illumination. Inset: absorption coefficient versus irradiance multiplied by time (I3t) for irradiance values 9.3kW/cm2, 28kW/cm2, 56kW/cm2, and 78kW/cm2.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simplified energy level scheme for TiO2 (solid arrows, optical transitions; dashed arrows, relaxation processes). Levels A and B1 are existing trap states near VB and CB, respectively. B2 is a laser-induced state. States Ci represent midgap levels potentially associated with boundary and interface states.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Time-resolved absorption with relaxation for IBS film under pulsed illumination: (a) long time scale and (b) short time scale.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Long-term time-resolved absorption for EBE film under CW illumination at two irradiances.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Time-resolved absorption measurements of the EBE film under pulsed illumination repeated on the same spot with a 10-min relaxation between exposures.

Equations (2)

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α(I,t)=αi(I)+Δα(I,t),
αi(I)=α0+α2I2

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