Abstract

A reflection mode digital holographic microscope with light emitting diode (LED) illumination and off-axis interferometry is proposed. The setup is comprised of a Linnik interferometer and a grating-based 4f imaging unit. Both object and reference waves travel coaxially and are split into multiple diffraction orders in the Fourier plane by the grating. The zeroth and first orders are filtered by a polarizing array to select orthogonally polarized object waves and reference waves. Subsequently, the object and reference waves are combined again in the output plane of the 4f system, and then the hologram with uniform contrast over the entire field of view can be acquired with the aid of a polarizer. The one-shot nature in the off-axis configuration enables an interferometric recording time on a millisecond scale. The validity of the proposed setup is illustrated by imaging nanostructured substrates, and the experimental results demonstrate that the phase noise is reduced drastically by an order of 68% when compared to a He–Ne laser-based result.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

2011

Y. C. Lin, C. J. Cheng, and T. C. Poon, “Optical sectioning with a low-coherence phase-shifting digital holographic microscope,” Appl. Opt. 50, B25–B30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Gao, B. Yao, J. Min, R. Guo, J. Zheng, T. Ye, I. Harder, V. Nercissian, and K. Mantel, “Parallel two-step phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry for microscopy based on a pair of cube beamsplitters,” Opt. Express 19, 1930–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Qu, C. O. Choo, Y. J. Yu, and A. Asundi, “Characterization and inspection of microlens array by single cube beam splitter microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 50, 886–890 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lim, S.-Y. Lee, and B. Lee, “Transflective digital holographic microscopy and its use for probing plasmonic light beaming,” Opt. Express 19, 5202–5212 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yaqoob, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, D. Fu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-shot full-field reflection phase microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 7587–7595 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Full-field and single-shot quantitative phase microscopy using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2465–2467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Merola, L. Miccio, M. Paturzo, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Driving and analysis of micro-objects by digital holographic microscope in microfluidics,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3079–3081 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Monemhaghdoust, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and C. Moser, “Dual wavelength full field imaging in low coherence digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 24005–24022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

L. Yu, S. Mohanty, J. Zhang, S. Genc, M. K. Kim, M. W. Berns, and Z. Chen, “Digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell dynamic evaluation during laser microsurgery,” Appl. Opt. 17, 12031–12038 (2009).

C. Remmersmann, S. Stürwald, B. Kemper, P. Langehanenberg, and G. von Bally, “Phase noise optimization in temporal phase-shifting digital holography with partial coherence light sources and its application in quantitative cell imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1463–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Kühn, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Axial sub-nanometer accuracy in digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kemper, S. Stürwald, C. Remmersmann, P. Langehanenberg, and G. von Bally, “Characterisation of light emitting diodes (LEDs) for application in digital holographic microscopy for inspection of micro and nanostructured surfaces,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 499–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kemper and G. V. Bally, “Digital holographic microscopy for live cell applications and technical inspection,” Appl. Opt. 47, A52–A61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

2004

S. D. Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. D. Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961–968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Dubois, M. L. Requena, C. Minetti, O. Monnom, and E. Istasse, “Partial spatial coherence effects in digital holographic microscopy with a laser source,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1131–1139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1996

Abdelsalam, D. G.

D. G. Abdelsalam and D. Kim, “Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy based on polarizing separation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 233–237 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aspert, N.

Asundi, A.

Bally, G. V.

Berns, M. W.

L. Yu, S. Mohanty, J. Zhang, S. Genc, M. K. Kim, M. W. Berns, and Z. Chen, “Digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell dynamic evaluation during laser microsurgery,” Appl. Opt. 17, 12031–12038 (2009).

Bhaduri, B.

Burton, D. R.

Calixto, S.

M. León-Rodríguez, R. Rodríguez-Vera, J. A. Rayas, and S. Calixto, “Digital holographic microscopy through a Mirau interferometric objective,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 240–245 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. León-Rodríguez, R. Rodríguez-Vera, J. A. Rayas, and S. Calixto, “High topographical accuracy by optical shot noise reduction in digital holographic microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 498–506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Charrière, F.

Chen, Z.

L. Yu, S. Mohanty, J. Zhang, S. Genc, M. K. Kim, M. W. Berns, and Z. Chen, “Digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell dynamic evaluation during laser microsurgery,” Appl. Opt. 17, 12031–12038 (2009).

Cheng, C. J.

Chiarini, M.

S. D. Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. D. Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961–968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chmelík, R.

Choi, W.

Choi, Y.

Choo, C. O.

Clark, R. L.

Clegg, D. B.

Colomb, T.

Coppola, G.

S. D. Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. D. Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961–968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cuche, E.

Dan, D.

Dasari, R. R.

Depeursinge, C.

Z. Monemhaghdoust, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and C. Moser, “Dual wavelength full field imaging in low coherence digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 24005–24022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kühn, F. Charrière, T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, Y. Emery, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Axial sub-nanometer accuracy in digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Charrière, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, F. Montfort, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Automatic procedure for aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy and applications to specimen shape compensation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 851–863 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Charrière, J. Kühn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, K. Weible, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Characterization of microlenses by digital holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 829–835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. J. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holographic microscopy: a noninvasive contrast imaging technique allowing quantitative visualization of living cells with subwavelength axial accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 30, 468–470 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4070–4075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Simultaneous amplitude contrast and quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by numerical reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6994–7001 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duan, T.

Dubois, F.

Emery, Y.

Faridian, A.

Feld, M. S.

Ferraro, P.

F. Merola, L. Miccio, M. Paturzo, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Driving and analysis of micro-objects by digital holographic microscope in microfluidics,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3079–3081 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. D. Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961–968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

F. Merola, L. Miccio, M. Paturzo, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Driving and analysis of micro-objects by digital holographic microscope in microfluidics,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3079–3081 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. D. Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961–968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, D.

Gao, P.

Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

Genc, S.

L. Yu, S. Mohanty, J. Zhang, S. Genc, M. K. Kim, M. W. Berns, and Z. Chen, “Digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell dynamic evaluation during laser microsurgery,” Appl. Opt. 17, 12031–12038 (2009).

Grilli, S.

F. Merola, L. Miccio, M. Paturzo, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Driving and analysis of micro-objects by digital holographic microscope in microfluidics,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3079–3081 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. D. Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961–968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

Han, J.

Harder, I.

Herraez, M. A.

Ikeda, T.

Iodice, M.

S. D. Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. D. Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961–968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Istasse, E.

Jenness, N. J.

Jericho, M. H.

Jericho, S. M.

Kemper, B.

Kim, D.

D. G. Abdelsalam and D. Kim, “Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy based on polarizing separation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 233–237 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kim, J. W. You, and S. Kim, “White light on-axis digital holographic microscopy based on spectral phase shifting,” Opt. Express 14, 229–234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. K.

L. Yu, S. Mohanty, J. Zhang, S. Genc, M. K. Kim, M. W. Berns, and Z. Chen, “Digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell dynamic evaluation during laser microsurgery,” Appl. Opt. 17, 12031–12038 (2009).

N. Warnasooriya and M. K. Kim, “LED-based multi-wavelength phase imaging interference microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 9239–9247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Mann, L. Yu, C.-M. Lo, and M. K. Kim, “High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography,” Opt. Express 13, 8693–8698 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Klages, P.

Kolman, P.

Komrska, J.

Kowarschik, R.

Kreuzer, H. J.

Kühn, J.

Lalor, M. J.

Langehanenberg, P.

C. Remmersmann, S. Stürwald, B. Kemper, P. Langehanenberg, and G. von Bally, “Phase noise optimization in temporal phase-shifting digital holography with partial coherence light sources and its application in quantitative cell imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1463–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kemper, S. Stürwald, C. Remmersmann, P. Langehanenberg, and G. von Bally, “Characterisation of light emitting diodes (LEDs) for application in digital holographic microscopy for inspection of micro and nanostructured surfaces,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 499–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, K. J.

Lee, S.-Y.

Lei, M.

León-Rodríguez, M.

M. León-Rodríguez, R. Rodríguez-Vera, J. A. Rayas, and S. Calixto, “Digital holographic microscopy through a Mirau interferometric objective,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 240–245 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. León-Rodríguez, R. Rodríguez-Vera, J. A. Rayas, and S. Calixto, “High topographical accuracy by optical shot noise reduction in digital holographic microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 498–506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Lim, Y.

Lin, Y. C.

Lo, C.-M.

Lovicar, L.

Ma, B.

Magistretti, P. J.

Mann, C. J.

Mantel, K.

Marquet, P.

Martínez-León, L.

Merola, F.

Miccio, L.

Min, J.

Minetti, C.

Mir, M.

Mohanty, S.

L. Yu, S. Mohanty, J. Zhang, S. Genc, M. K. Kim, M. W. Berns, and Z. Chen, “Digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell dynamic evaluation during laser microsurgery,” Appl. Opt. 17, 12031–12038 (2009).

Monemhaghdoust, Z.

Monnom, O.

Montfort, F.

Moser, C.

Natale, P. D.

S. D. Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. D. Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961–968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nercissian, V.

Nicola, S. D.

S. D. Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. D. Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961–968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

Paturzo, M.

Pedrini, G.

Petruck, P.

Pham, H.

Poon, T. C.

Popescu, G.

Qu, W. J.

Rappaz, B.

Rayas, J. A.

M. León-Rodríguez, R. Rodríguez-Vera, J. A. Rayas, and S. Calixto, “Digital holographic microscopy through a Mirau interferometric objective,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 240–245 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. León-Rodríguez, R. Rodríguez-Vera, J. A. Rayas, and S. Calixto, “High topographical accuracy by optical shot noise reduction in digital holographic microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 498–506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Remmersmann, C.

C. Remmersmann, S. Stürwald, B. Kemper, P. Langehanenberg, and G. von Bally, “Phase noise optimization in temporal phase-shifting digital holography with partial coherence light sources and its application in quantitative cell imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1463–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kemper, S. Stürwald, C. Remmersmann, P. Langehanenberg, and G. von Bally, “Characterisation of light emitting diodes (LEDs) for application in digital holographic microscopy for inspection of micro and nanostructured surfaces,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 499–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Requena, M. L.

Riesenberg, R.

Rinehart, M. T.

Rodríguez-Vera, R.

M. León-Rodríguez, R. Rodríguez-Vera, J. A. Rayas, and S. Calixto, “Digital holographic microscopy through a Mirau interferometric objective,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 240–245 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. León-Rodríguez, R. Rodríguez-Vera, J. A. Rayas, and S. Calixto, “High topographical accuracy by optical shot noise reduction in digital holographic microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 498–506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shaked, N. T.

Stürwald, S.

C. Remmersmann, S. Stürwald, B. Kemper, P. Langehanenberg, and G. von Bally, “Phase noise optimization in temporal phase-shifting digital holography with partial coherence light sources and its application in quantitative cell imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1463–1472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kemper, S. Stürwald, C. Remmersmann, P. Langehanenberg, and G. von Bally, “Characterisation of light emitting diodes (LEDs) for application in digital holographic microscopy for inspection of micro and nanostructured surfaces,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 499–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

von Bally, G.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Polarization filtering and interference imaging: (a) schematic of 4f spatial filtering and off-axis interferometry; (b) interference fringes obtained without grating and polarization filter; (c) fringes taken with proposed scheme. Only stripes (1024×200 pixels) of the whole holograms are shown in (b) and (c). O and R, vertically polarized object wave and horizontally polarized reference wave, respectively; G is the, grating; L1L2 are the lenses; P is the linear polarizer; and the polarization filter placed at the Fourier plane of lens L1 is comprised of two polarizers with orthogonal polarizations.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup: NPBS is the nonpolarizing beam splitter; L1L5 are achromatic lenses with focal lengths of f2=f3=f4=100mm, f5=200mm; P1P4 are linear polarizers; A is the aperture; MO1 is the 20× microscope objective; MO2 and MO3 are identical microscope objectives (25×, NA=0.4); M1 is the mirror; S is the sample; and G is a grating with period of 15 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measuring the results of a nanostructured silicon substrate: (a) the hologram with LED illumination; (b) Fourier spectrum of RDI; (c) topographic phase image reconstructed from (a); (d) the hologram with He–Ne laser illumination; (e) topographic phase image reconstructed from (d); (f) height profiles at the cross sections marked with dashed lines in (c) and (e).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measuring the results of a binary grating: (a) the hologram with LED illumination, fringe pattern in the inset is enlarged to view clearly; (b) topographic phase map; (c) pseudo 3D representation of the phase map in (b); (d) height profile along the white line in (b).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

O0(x,y)=a0O(x,y)[10],
R1(x,y)=a1Aexp(i2π1Mdx)[01].
I(x,y)=|O0|2+|R1|2+R1*O0+R1O0*.
h(x,y)=λ4πφ(x,y).

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