Abstract

We show that a spectral resonance between the ππ* absorption band in liquid benzene and the third harmonic (TH) of a propagating 800 nm femtosecond laser beam causes large positive changes in the real refractive index at the TH wavelength. This produces an increase in the third-order optical susceptibility and leads to the enhancement of nonlinear optical effects including TH generation and self-focusing. Enhanced filamentation is observed in liquid benzene, but this effect is not seen in perdeuterated liquid benzene under similar irradiation conditions. Filamentation is associated with the decomposition of benzene molecules, plasma emission from the focal region, and the appearance of carbon nanoparticles. This indicates that a complex chemistry accompanies the onset of filamentation. Chemical products formed under these conditions have been characterized using combined gas chromatography mass spectroscopy techniques. We also find that the presence of a TH filament is indicated by the appearance of a photocurrent and increased electrical conductivity in the solution. This photocurrent is found to be 50–60 times smaller in C6D6 where the ππ* resonance with the TH is much weaker. The intensity dependence of this photocurrent confirms the role played by TH generation in the overall interaction.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  32. V. S. Antonov and V. S. Letokhov, “Laser multiphoton and multistep photoionization of molecules and mass spectrometry,” Appl. Phys. 24, 89–106 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. M. Boechat-Roberty, R. Neves, S. Pilling, A. F. Lago, and G. G. B. de Souza, “Dissociation of the benzene molecule by UV and soft x-rays in circumstellar environment,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 810–817 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. W. Fub, W. E. Schmid, and S. A. Trushin, “Time-resolved dissociative intense-laser field ionization for probing dynamics: femtosecond photochemical ring opening of 1,3-cyclohexadiene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8347–8362 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. M. Boechat-Roberty, R. Neves, S. Pilling, A. F. Lago, and G. G. B. de Souza, “Dissociation of the benzene molecule by UV and soft x-rays in circumstellar environment,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 810–817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Couairona and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. D’Amico, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filament amplification in liquids,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 49–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Schroeder, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Self-steepening is an abrupt process,” Opt. Commun. 266, 302–306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

V. V. Kislov, T. L. Nguyen, A. M. Mebel, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Smith, “Photodissociation of benzene under collision-free conditions: an ab initio/Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus study,” J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7008–7017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Shkrob and M. C. Sauer, “Electron localization in liquid acetonitrile,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 9120–9131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

J. S. Greever, J. B. M. Turner, and J. F. Kauffman, “Multiphoton excited conductance spectroscopy. 1. Application of the Born model to femtosecond laser excited multiphoton ionization of nonpolar liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8635–8641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Itakura, J. Watanabe, A. Hishikawa, and K. Yamanouchi, “Ionization and fragmentation dynamics of benzene in intense laser fields by tandem mass spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5598–5606 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Evans, E. Morikawa, and G. L. Findley, “Pressure studies of subthreshold photoionization: CH3I, C2H5I, and C6H6 perturbed by Ar and SF6,” Chem. Phys. 264, 419–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, M. Mizutani, and T. Inoue, “Dependence of the laser two-photon ionization process in solution on the laser pulse width,” Anal. Chem. 73, 2066–2069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, K. Vijayalakshmi, and S. L. Chin, “Dissociative ionization of benzene in intense ultra-fast laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 33, 4615–4626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Fub, W. E. Schmid, and S. A. Trushin, “Time-resolved dissociative intense-laser field ionization for probing dynamics: femtosecond photochemical ring opening of 1,3-cyclohexadiene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8347–8362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. R. Bhardwaj, K. Vijayalakshmi, and D. Mathur, “Dissociative ionization of benzene in intense laser fields of picosecond duration,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1392–1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. J. Smith, K. W. D. Ledingham, R. P. Singhal, H. S. Kilic, T. McCanny, A. J. Langley, P. F. Taday, and C. Kosmidis, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry of aromatic molecules subjected to high intensity laser beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 813–820 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. O. Saik and S. Lipsky, “The photoionization spectrum of liquid benzene,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 11858–11862 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. V. K. Sarma and C. Santhamm, “The near ultraviolet absorption spectra of 2,3-, 2,4- and 2,5-dimethylbenzonitriles,” Spectrochim. Acta 43A, 929–937 (1987).

1981 (1)

V. S. Antonov and V. S. Letokhov, “Laser multiphoton and multistep photoionization of molecules and mass spectrometry,” Appl. Phys. 24, 89–106 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

V. S. Antonov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. N. Shibanov, “Photoionization mass-spectrometry of benzene and benzaldehyde molecules with an excimer KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. 22, 293–297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Miller, L. Andrews, P. A. Lund, and P. N. Schatz, “Argon matrix photolysis and photoionization studies of benzene. Absorption spectrum of benzene cation and benzene dimer cation,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4932–4939 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

L. Zandee and R. B. Bernstein, “Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and fragmentation of molecular beams: NO, I2, benzene and butadiene,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1359–1371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T.-W. Scott, A. J. Twarowski, and A.-C. Albrecht, “Multiphoton ionization of liquid benzene: the ionization mechanism,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 66, 1–4 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

P. M. Johnson, “The multiphoton ionization spectrum of benzene,” J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4143–4148 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

T. Inagaki, “Absorption spectra of pure liquid benzene in the ultraviolet region,” J. Chem. Phys. 57, 2526–2530 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

J. Momigny, C. Goffart, and L. D’or, “Photoionization studies by total ionization measurements. I. Benzene and its monohalogeno derivatives,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 1, 53–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, W. Liu, F. Theberge, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and H. Schroeder, Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2008).

Albrecht, A.-C.

T.-W. Scott, A. J. Twarowski, and A.-C. Albrecht, “Multiphoton ionization of liquid benzene: the ionization mechanism,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 66, 1–4 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L.

J. H. Miller, L. Andrews, P. A. Lund, and P. N. Schatz, “Argon matrix photolysis and photoionization studies of benzene. Absorption spectrum of benzene cation and benzene dimer cation,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4932–4939 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, V. S.

V. S. Antonov and V. S. Letokhov, “Laser multiphoton and multistep photoionization of molecules and mass spectrometry,” Appl. Phys. 24, 89–106 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Antonov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. N. Shibanov, “Photoionization mass-spectrometry of benzene and benzaldehyde molecules with an excimer KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. 22, 293–297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, K. Vijayalakshmi, and S. L. Chin, “Dissociative ionization of benzene in intense ultra-fast laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 33, 4615–4626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, W. Liu, F. Theberge, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and H. Schroeder, Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2008).

Berlman, I. B.

I. B. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic, 1965).

Bernstein, R. B.

L. Zandee and R. B. Bernstein, “Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and fragmentation of molecular beams: NO, I2, benzene and butadiene,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1359–1371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, K. Vijayalakshmi, and D. Mathur, “Dissociative ionization of benzene in intense laser fields of picosecond duration,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1392–1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boechat-Roberty, H. M.

H. M. Boechat-Roberty, R. Neves, S. Pilling, A. F. Lago, and G. G. B. de Souza, “Dissociation of the benzene molecule by UV and soft x-rays in circumstellar environment,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 810–817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

Centini, M.

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

H. Schroeder, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Self-steepening is an abrupt process,” Opt. Commun. 266, 302–306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, K. Vijayalakshmi, and S. L. Chin, “Dissociative ionization of benzene in intense ultra-fast laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 33, 4615–4626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, W. Liu, F. Theberge, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and H. Schroeder, Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2008).

Couairona, A.

A. Couairona and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, C.

C. D’Amico, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filament amplification in liquids,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 49–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D’or, L.

J. Momigny, C. Goffart, and L. D’or, “Photoionization studies by total ionization measurements. I. Benzene and its monohalogeno derivatives,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 1, 53–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

de Souza, G. G. B.

H. M. Boechat-Roberty, R. Neves, S. Pilling, A. F. Lago, and G. G. B. de Souza, “Dissociation of the benzene molecule by UV and soft x-rays in circumstellar environment,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 810–817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duley, W. W.

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. M.

C. M. Evans, E. Morikawa, and G. L. Findley, “Pressure studies of subthreshold photoionization: CH3I, C2H5I, and C6H6 perturbed by Ar and SF6,” Chem. Phys. 264, 419–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fazio, E.

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Findley, G. L.

C. M. Evans, E. Morikawa, and G. L. Findley, “Pressure studies of subthreshold photoionization: CH3I, C2H5I, and C6H6 perturbed by Ar and SF6,” Chem. Phys. 264, 419–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, J. V.

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

C. D’Amico, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filament amplification in liquids,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 49–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fub, W.

W. Fub, W. E. Schmid, and S. A. Trushin, “Time-resolved dissociative intense-laser field ionization for probing dynamics: femtosecond photochemical ring opening of 1,3-cyclohexadiene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8347–8362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. G.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goffart, C.

J. Momigny, C. Goffart, and L. D’or, “Photoionization studies by total ionization measurements. I. Benzene and its monohalogeno derivatives,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 1, 53–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Greever, J. S.

J. S. Greever, J. B. M. Turner, and J. F. Kauffman, “Multiphoton excited conductance spectroscopy. 1. Application of the Born model to femtosecond laser excited multiphoton ionization of nonpolar liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8635–8641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1967), p. 178.

Hishikawa, A.

R. Itakura, J. Watanabe, A. Hishikawa, and K. Yamanouchi, “Ionization and fragmentation dynamics of benzene in intense laser fields by tandem mass spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5598–5606 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. A.

H. Schroeder, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Self-steepening is an abrupt process,” Opt. Commun. 266, 302–306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, W. Liu, F. Theberge, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and H. Schroeder, Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2008).

Inagaki, T.

T. Inagaki, “Absorption spectra of pure liquid benzene in the ultraviolet region,” J. Chem. Phys. 57, 2526–2530 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

T. Ogawa, M. Mizutani, and T. Inoue, “Dependence of the laser two-photon ionization process in solution on the laser pulse width,” Anal. Chem. 73, 2066–2069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Itakura, R.

R. Itakura, J. Watanabe, A. Hishikawa, and K. Yamanouchi, “Ionization and fragmentation dynamics of benzene in intense laser fields by tandem mass spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5598–5606 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, A.

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. M.

P. M. Johnson, “The multiphoton ionization spectrum of benzene,” J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4143–4148 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, W. Liu, F. Theberge, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and H. Schroeder, Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2008).

Karimi, R.

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kauffman, J. F.

J. S. Greever, J. B. M. Turner, and J. F. Kauffman, “Multiphoton excited conductance spectroscopy. 1. Application of the Born model to femtosecond laser excited multiphoton ionization of nonpolar liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8635–8641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kilic, H. S.

D. J. Smith, K. W. D. Ledingham, R. P. Singhal, H. S. Kilic, T. McCanny, A. J. Langley, P. F. Taday, and C. Kosmidis, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry of aromatic molecules subjected to high intensity laser beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 813–820 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kislov, V. V.

V. V. Kislov, T. L. Nguyen, A. M. Mebel, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Smith, “Photodissociation of benzene under collision-free conditions: an ab initio/Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus study,” J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7008–7017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, W. Liu, F. Theberge, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and H. Schroeder, Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2008).

Kosmidis, C.

D. J. Smith, K. W. D. Ledingham, R. P. Singhal, H. S. Kilic, T. McCanny, A. J. Langley, P. F. Taday, and C. Kosmidis, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry of aromatic molecules subjected to high intensity laser beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 813–820 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, S.

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lago, A. F.

H. M. Boechat-Roberty, R. Neves, S. Pilling, A. F. Lago, and G. G. B. de Souza, “Dissociation of the benzene molecule by UV and soft x-rays in circumstellar environment,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 810–817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langley, A. J.

D. J. Smith, K. W. D. Ledingham, R. P. Singhal, H. S. Kilic, T. McCanny, A. J. Langley, P. F. Taday, and C. Kosmidis, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry of aromatic molecules subjected to high intensity laser beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 813–820 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ledingham, K. W. D.

D. J. Smith, K. W. D. Ledingham, R. P. Singhal, H. S. Kilic, T. McCanny, A. J. Langley, P. F. Taday, and C. Kosmidis, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry of aromatic molecules subjected to high intensity laser beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 813–820 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leonenko, Z.

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Antonov and V. S. Letokhov, “Laser multiphoton and multistep photoionization of molecules and mass spectrometry,” Appl. Phys. 24, 89–106 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Antonov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. N. Shibanov, “Photoionization mass-spectrometry of benzene and benzaldehyde molecules with an excimer KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. 22, 293–297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

V. V. Kislov, T. L. Nguyen, A. M. Mebel, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Smith, “Photodissociation of benzene under collision-free conditions: an ab initio/Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus study,” J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7008–7017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipsky, S.

V. O. Saik and S. Lipsky, “The photoionization spectrum of liquid benzene,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 11858–11862 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, W. Liu, F. Theberge, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and H. Schroeder, Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2008).

Lund, P. A.

J. H. Miller, L. Andrews, P. A. Lund, and P. N. Schatz, “Argon matrix photolysis and photoionization studies of benzene. Absorption spectrum of benzene cation and benzene dimer cation,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4932–4939 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

H. Schroeder, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Self-steepening is an abrupt process,” Opt. Commun. 266, 302–306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, W. Liu, F. Theberge, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and H. Schroeder, Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2008).

Mathur, D.

V. R. Bhardwaj, K. Vijayalakshmi, and D. Mathur, “Dissociative ionization of benzene in intense laser fields of picosecond duration,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1392–1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCanny, T.

D. J. Smith, K. W. D. Ledingham, R. P. Singhal, H. S. Kilic, T. McCanny, A. J. Langley, P. F. Taday, and C. Kosmidis, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry of aromatic molecules subjected to high intensity laser beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 813–820 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mebel, A. M.

V. V. Kislov, T. L. Nguyen, A. M. Mebel, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Smith, “Photodissociation of benzene under collision-free conditions: an ab initio/Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus study,” J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7008–7017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. H.

J. H. Miller, L. Andrews, P. A. Lund, and P. N. Schatz, “Argon matrix photolysis and photoionization studies of benzene. Absorption spectrum of benzene cation and benzene dimer cation,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4932–4939 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, M.

T. Ogawa, M. Mizutani, and T. Inoue, “Dependence of the laser two-photon ionization process in solution on the laser pulse width,” Anal. Chem. 73, 2066–2069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mochidzuki, Y.

T. Nakamura, Y. Mochidzuki, and S. Sato, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2007).

Momigny, J.

J. Momigny, C. Goffart, and L. D’or, “Photoionization studies by total ionization measurements. I. Benzene and its monohalogeno derivatives,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 1, 53–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Moores, B.

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, E.

C. M. Evans, E. Morikawa, and G. L. Findley, “Pressure studies of subthreshold photoionization: CH3I, C2H5I, and C6H6 perturbed by Ar and SF6,” Chem. Phys. 264, 419–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairona and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filament amplification in liquids,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 49–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, Y. Mochidzuki, and S. Sato, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2007).

Neves, R.

H. M. Boechat-Roberty, R. Neves, S. Pilling, A. F. Lago, and G. G. B. de Souza, “Dissociation of the benzene molecule by UV and soft x-rays in circumstellar environment,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 810–817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T. L.

V. V. Kislov, T. L. Nguyen, A. M. Mebel, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Smith, “Photodissociation of benzene under collision-free conditions: an ab initio/Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus study,” J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7008–7017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

T. Ogawa, M. Mizutani, and T. Inoue, “Dependence of the laser two-photon ionization process in solution on the laser pulse width,” Anal. Chem. 73, 2066–2069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pettazzi, F.

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pilling, S.

H. M. Boechat-Roberty, R. Neves, S. Pilling, A. F. Lago, and G. G. B. de Souza, “Dissociation of the benzene molecule by UV and soft x-rays in circumstellar environment,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 810–817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

C. D’Amico, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filament amplification in liquids,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 49–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roppo, V.

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saik, V. O.

V. O. Saik and S. Lipsky, “The photoionization spectrum of liquid benzene,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 11858–11862 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sanderson, J. H.

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Santhamm, C.

T. V. K. Sarma and C. Santhamm, “The near ultraviolet absorption spectra of 2,3-, 2,4- and 2,5-dimethylbenzonitriles,” Spectrochim. Acta 43A, 929–937 (1987).

Sarma, T. V. K.

T. V. K. Sarma and C. Santhamm, “The near ultraviolet absorption spectra of 2,3-, 2,4- and 2,5-dimethylbenzonitriles,” Spectrochim. Acta 43A, 929–937 (1987).

Sato, S.

T. Nakamura, Y. Mochidzuki, and S. Sato, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2007).

Sauer, M. C.

I. A. Shkrob and M. C. Sauer, “Electron localization in liquid acetonitrile,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 9120–9131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, P. N.

J. H. Miller, L. Andrews, P. A. Lund, and P. N. Schatz, “Argon matrix photolysis and photoionization studies of benzene. Absorption spectrum of benzene cation and benzene dimer cation,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4932–4939 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, W. E.

W. Fub, W. E. Schmid, and S. A. Trushin, “Time-resolved dissociative intense-laser field ionization for probing dynamics: femtosecond photochemical ring opening of 1,3-cyclohexadiene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8347–8362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, H.

H. Schroeder, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Self-steepening is an abrupt process,” Opt. Commun. 266, 302–306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, W. Liu, F. Theberge, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and H. Schroeder, Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2008).

Scott, T.-W.

T.-W. Scott, A. J. Twarowski, and A.-C. Albrecht, “Multiphoton ionization of liquid benzene: the ionization mechanism,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 66, 1–4 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shibanov, A. N.

V. S. Antonov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. N. Shibanov, “Photoionization mass-spectrometry of benzene and benzaldehyde molecules with an excimer KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. 22, 293–297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shkrob, I. A.

I. A. Shkrob and M. C. Sauer, “Electron localization in liquid acetonitrile,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 9120–9131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sibilia, C.

M. Centini, V. Roppo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, C. Sibilia, J. W. Haus, J. V. Foreman, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and M. Scalora, “Inhibition of linear absorption in opaque materials using phase-locked harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Singhal, R. P.

D. J. Smith, K. W. D. Ledingham, R. P. Singhal, H. S. Kilic, T. McCanny, A. J. Langley, P. F. Taday, and C. Kosmidis, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry of aromatic molecules subjected to high intensity laser beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 813–820 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

D. J. Smith, K. W. D. Ledingham, R. P. Singhal, H. S. Kilic, T. McCanny, A. J. Langley, P. F. Taday, and C. Kosmidis, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry of aromatic molecules subjected to high intensity laser beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 813–820 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. C.

V. V. Kislov, T. L. Nguyen, A. M. Mebel, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Smith, “Photodissociation of benzene under collision-free conditions: an ab initio/Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus study,” J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7008–7017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

D. J. Smith, K. W. D. Ledingham, R. P. Singhal, H. S. Kilic, T. McCanny, A. J. Langley, P. F. Taday, and C. Kosmidis, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometry of aromatic molecules subjected to high intensity laser beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 813–820 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, K. Vijayalakshmi, and S. L. Chin, “Dissociative ionization of benzene in intense ultra-fast laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 33, 4615–4626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Theberge, F.

S. L. Chin, W. Liu, F. Theberge, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, and H. Schroeder, Some Fundamental Concepts of Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2008).

Trushin, S. A.

W. Fub, W. E. Schmid, and S. A. Trushin, “Time-resolved dissociative intense-laser field ionization for probing dynamics: femtosecond photochemical ring opening of 1,3-cyclohexadiene,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8347–8362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J. B. M.

J. S. Greever, J. B. M. Turner, and J. F. Kauffman, “Multiphoton excited conductance spectroscopy. 1. Application of the Born model to femtosecond laser excited multiphoton ionization of nonpolar liquids,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8635–8641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Twarowski, A. J.

T.-W. Scott, A. J. Twarowski, and A.-C. Albrecht, “Multiphoton ionization of liquid benzene: the ionization mechanism,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 66, 1–4 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vailionis, A.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vijayalakshmi, K.

A. Talebpour, A. D. Bandrauk, K. Vijayalakshmi, and S. L. Chin, “Dissociative ionization of benzene in intense ultra-fast laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 33, 4615–4626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, K. Vijayalakshmi, and D. Mathur, “Dissociative ionization of benzene in intense laser fields of picosecond duration,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1392–1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wales, B.

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, J.

R. Itakura, J. Watanabe, A. Hishikawa, and K. Yamanouchi, “Ionization and fragmentation dynamics of benzene in intense laser fields by tandem mass spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5598–5606 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wesolowski, M. J.

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamanouchi, K.

R. Itakura, J. Watanabe, A. Hishikawa, and K. Yamanouchi, “Ionization and fragmentation dynamics of benzene in intense laser fields by tandem mass spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5598–5606 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat. Commun. 2, 445 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zaidi, A. A.

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zandee, L.

L. Zandee and R. B. Bernstein, “Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and fragmentation of molecular beams: NO, I2, benzene and butadiene,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1359–1371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

T. Ogawa, M. Mizutani, and T. Inoue, “Dependence of the laser two-photon ionization process in solution on the laser pulse width,” Anal. Chem. 73, 2066–2069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (2)

V. S. Antonov and V. S. Letokhov, “Laser multiphoton and multistep photoionization of molecules and mass spectrometry,” Appl. Phys. 24, 89–106 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Antonov, V. S. Letokhov, and A. N. Shibanov, “Photoionization mass-spectrometry of benzene and benzaldehyde molecules with an excimer KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. 22, 293–297 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. D’Amico, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filament amplification in liquids,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 49–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carbon (1)

M. J. Wesolowski, S. Kuzmin, B. Moores, B. Wales, R. Karimi, A. A. Zaidi, Z. Leonenko, J. H. Sanderson, and W. W. Duley, “Polyyne synthesis and amorphous carbon nano-particle formation by femtosecond irradiation of benzene,” Carbon 49, 625–630 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

C. M. Evans, E. Morikawa, and G. L. Findley, “Pressure studies of subthreshold photoionization: CH3I, C2H5I, and C6H6 perturbed by Ar and SF6,” Chem. Phys. 264, 419–435 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T.-W. Scott, A. J. Twarowski, and A.-C. Albrecht, “Multiphoton ionization of liquid benzene: the ionization mechanism,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 66, 1–4 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. (1)

J. Momigny, C. Goffart, and L. D’or, “Photoionization studies by total ionization measurements. I. Benzene and its monohalogeno derivatives,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 1, 53–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (7)

J. H. Miller, L. Andrews, P. A. Lund, and P. N. Schatz, “Argon matrix photolysis and photoionization studies of benzene. Absorption spectrum of benzene cation and benzene dimer cation,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4932–4939 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Johnson, “The multiphoton ionization spectrum of benzene,” J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4143–4148 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Itakura, J. Watanabe, A. Hishikawa, and K. Yamanouchi, “Ionization and fragmentation dynamics of benzene in intense laser fields by tandem mass spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5598–5606 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Kislov, T. L. Nguyen, A. M. Mebel, S. H. Lin, and S. C. Smith, “Photodissociation of benzene under collision-free conditions: an ab initio/Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus study,” J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7008–7017 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Zandee and R. B. Bernstein, “Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and fragmentation of molecular beams: NO, I2, benzene and butadiene,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1359–1371 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Inagaki, “Absorption spectra of pure liquid benzene in the ultraviolet region,” J. Chem. Phys. 57, 2526–2530 (1972).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral components in the interaction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence of the ionic photocurrent, ip, on laser intensity, I, for liquid C6D6 and C6D6 under the same irradiation conditions. The fits shown have n=1.41 (C6H6) and n=1.32 (C6D6).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Upper panel: the ππ* absorption band in liquid C6H6. Lower panel: modification of the refractive index due to excitation of the ππ* band superimposed on the TH component.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spatial dependence of the ionic photocurrent in C6H6 versus distance of the focal position.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

GC/MC chromatogram of molecular species generated in liquid C6H6 after fs irradiation. The chemical structures of some molecules are shown.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. List of Synthesized Organic Molecules Identified with Probability >50% Arranged in Descending Order of Arbitrary Count Number

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ(3)(ω1+ω2+ω3=ω4)=Kj=141ωres2ωj2+iδωj,
Δn(ω)=ωπcΔβ(ω)ωωdω,
β=β01+I/Is,

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