Four potential laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) tracers, 1-phenyloctane, 1-phenyldecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, and 2-methylnaphthalene, are characterized for diesel engine applications. These tracers, embedded in the diesel primary reference fuels and iso-, match the relevant physical properties of commercial diesel fuel much better than the commonly used toluene/iso-octane/-heptane tracer-fuel system does. The temperature and pressure dependencies of the fluorescence intensities and spectra were measured in a flow cell in nitrogen for each candidate tracer molecule. The results show that the signal intensities of the methylnaphthalenes are about two orders of magnitude higher than for 1-phenyloctane and 1-phenyldecane and show a strong temperature but no pressure, dependence. An analysis of the fluorescence spectrum of 1-methylnaphthalene shows that it also can be used for two-color detection LIF thermometry by choosing appropriate optical filters.
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