Abstract

We investigated the influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical window on the imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The density distribution of flow fields around three typical optical windows, including a spherical window, an ellipsoidal window, and a paraboloidal window, were calculated by adopting the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations with the Spalart–Allmaras model provided by FLUENT. The fourth-order Runge–Kutta algorithm based ray-tracing program was used to simulate the optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the entrance pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the imaging quality of the airborne optical system was affected by the shape of the optical window and angle of attack of the aircraft.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Xu and Y. L. Cai, “Influence of altitude on aero-optic imaging deviation,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2949–2957 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Sjoqvist, O. Gustafsson, and M. Henriksson, “Laser beam propagation in close vicinity to a downscaled jet engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 137–148 (2004).
  7. M. Henriksson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, N. Wendelstein, and E. Sucher, “Laser beam propagation experiments along and across a jet engine plume,” Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150E (2008).
  8. M. Henriksson, O. Gustafsson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, and N. Wendelstein, “Laser beam propagation through a full scale aircraft turboprop engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 7836, 78360L (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Frumker and O. Pade, “Generic method for aero-optic evaluations,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3224–3228 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. T. Zarutski, E. Arad, and R. Arieli, “Experimental and computational study on the effects of bumps on the aerodynamics of missile’s noses,” presented at the 42nd Israeli Conference on Aerospace Sciences, Haifa, Israel, January1–18, 2002.
  16. H. S. Xiao and B. J. Zuo, “Joint influences of aerodynamic flow field and aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of airborne optical systems,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8625–8636 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. R. Whiteley and D. J. Goorskey, “Influence of aero-optical disturbances on acquisition, tracking, and pointing performance characteristics in laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8052, 805206 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

L. Xu and Y. L. Cai, “Influence of altitude on aero-optic imaging deviation,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2949–2957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Whiteley and D. J. Goorskey, “Influence of aero-optical disturbances on acquisition, tracking, and pointing performance characteristics in laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8052, 805206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Henriksson, O. Gustafsson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, and N. Wendelstein, “Laser beam propagation through a full scale aircraft turboprop engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 7836, 78360L (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Shi, “Numerical simulation of aero-optical effects for the flow field around the optical window,” J. Infrared Laser Eng. 39, 7–11 (2010), in Chinese.

Q. Gao, Z. F. Jiang, S. H. Yi, and Y. X. Zhao, “Optical path difference of the supersonic mixing layer,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3786–3792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Xiao and Z. G. Fan, “Imaging quality evaluation of aerodynamically heated optical dome using ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5049–5058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Henriksson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, N. Wendelstein, and E. Sucher, “Laser beam propagation experiments along and across a jet engine plume,” Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150E (2008).

2007

2004

E. Frumker and O. Pade, “Generic method for aero-optic evaluations,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3224–3228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Sjoqvist, O. Gustafsson, and M. Henriksson, “Laser beam propagation in close vicinity to a downscaled jet engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 137–148 (2004).

1998

J. Fei, “Study on aero-optical effect technology for high speed missile infrared image guide,” J. Infrared Laser Eng. 27, 42–44 (1998), in Chinese.

Arad, E.

T. Zarutski, E. Arad, and R. Arieli, “Experimental and computational study on the effects of bumps on the aerodynamics of missile’s noses,” presented at the 42nd Israeli Conference on Aerospace Sciences, Haifa, Israel, January1–18, 2002.

Arieli, R.

T. Zarutski, E. Arad, and R. Arieli, “Experimental and computational study on the effects of bumps on the aerodynamics of missile’s noses,” presented at the 42nd Israeli Conference on Aerospace Sciences, Haifa, Israel, January1–18, 2002.

Cai, Y. L.

Fan, Z. G.

Fei, J.

J. Fei, “Study on aero-optical effect technology for high speed missile infrared image guide,” J. Infrared Laser Eng. 27, 42–44 (1998), in Chinese.

Frumker, E.

Gao, Q.

Goorskey, D. J.

M. R. Whiteley and D. J. Goorskey, “Influence of aero-optical disturbances on acquisition, tracking, and pointing performance characteristics in laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8052, 805206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, O.

M. Henriksson, O. Gustafsson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, and N. Wendelstein, “Laser beam propagation through a full scale aircraft turboprop engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 7836, 78360L (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Sjoqvist, O. Gustafsson, and M. Henriksson, “Laser beam propagation in close vicinity to a downscaled jet engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 137–148 (2004).

Harris, D. C.

D. C. Harris, Materials for Infrared Windows and Domes (SPIE, 1999).

Henriksson, M.

M. Henriksson, O. Gustafsson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, and N. Wendelstein, “Laser beam propagation through a full scale aircraft turboprop engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 7836, 78360L (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Henriksson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, N. Wendelstein, and E. Sucher, “Laser beam propagation experiments along and across a jet engine plume,” Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150E (2008).

L. Sjoqvist, O. Gustafsson, and M. Henriksson, “Laser beam propagation in close vicinity to a downscaled jet engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 137–148 (2004).

Jiang, Z. F.

Merzkirch, W.

W. Merzkirch, Flow Visualization, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1987).

Pade, O.

Seiffer, D.

M. Henriksson, O. Gustafsson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, and N. Wendelstein, “Laser beam propagation through a full scale aircraft turboprop engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 7836, 78360L (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Henriksson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, N. Wendelstein, and E. Sucher, “Laser beam propagation experiments along and across a jet engine plume,” Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150E (2008).

Shi, K.

K. Shi, “Numerical simulation of aero-optical effects for the flow field around the optical window,” J. Infrared Laser Eng. 39, 7–11 (2010), in Chinese.

Sjoqvist, L.

M. Henriksson, O. Gustafsson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, and N. Wendelstein, “Laser beam propagation through a full scale aircraft turboprop engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 7836, 78360L (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Henriksson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, N. Wendelstein, and E. Sucher, “Laser beam propagation experiments along and across a jet engine plume,” Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150E (2008).

L. Sjoqvist, O. Gustafsson, and M. Henriksson, “Laser beam propagation in close vicinity to a downscaled jet engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 137–148 (2004).

Sucher, E.

M. Henriksson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, N. Wendelstein, and E. Sucher, “Laser beam propagation experiments along and across a jet engine plume,” Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150E (2008).

Wang, T.

Wendelstein, N.

M. Henriksson, O. Gustafsson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, and N. Wendelstein, “Laser beam propagation through a full scale aircraft turboprop engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 7836, 78360L (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Henriksson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, N. Wendelstein, and E. Sucher, “Laser beam propagation experiments along and across a jet engine plume,” Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150E (2008).

Whiteley, M. R.

M. R. Whiteley and D. J. Goorskey, “Influence of aero-optical disturbances on acquisition, tracking, and pointing performance characteristics in laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8052, 805206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H. S.

Xu, D.

Xu, L.

Yang, Q. Y.

Yi, S. H.

Yin, X. L.

X. L. Yin, Principle of Aero-Optics (China Astronautics, 2003).

Zarutski, T.

T. Zarutski, E. Arad, and R. Arieli, “Experimental and computational study on the effects of bumps on the aerodynamics of missile’s noses,” presented at the 42nd Israeli Conference on Aerospace Sciences, Haifa, Israel, January1–18, 2002.

Zhao, Y.

Zhao, Y. X.

Zuo, B. J.

Appl. Opt.

J. Infrared Laser Eng.

K. Shi, “Numerical simulation of aero-optical effects for the flow field around the optical window,” J. Infrared Laser Eng. 39, 7–11 (2010), in Chinese.

J. Fei, “Study on aero-optical effect technology for high speed missile infrared image guide,” J. Infrared Laser Eng. 27, 42–44 (1998), in Chinese.

Proc. SPIE

L. Sjoqvist, O. Gustafsson, and M. Henriksson, “Laser beam propagation in close vicinity to a downscaled jet engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 137–148 (2004).

M. Henriksson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, N. Wendelstein, and E. Sucher, “Laser beam propagation experiments along and across a jet engine plume,” Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150E (2008).

M. Henriksson, O. Gustafsson, L. Sjoqvist, D. Seiffer, and N. Wendelstein, “Laser beam propagation through a full scale aircraft turboprop engine exhaust,” Proc. SPIE 7836, 78360L (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Whiteley and D. J. Goorskey, “Influence of aero-optical disturbances on acquisition, tracking, and pointing performance characteristics in laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8052, 805206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

FLUENT 6.3 User’s Guide (2004), http://www.ansys.com .

W. Merzkirch, Flow Visualization, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1987).

X. L. Yin, Principle of Aero-Optics (China Astronautics, 2003).

D. C. Harris, Materials for Infrared Windows and Domes (SPIE, 1999).

T. Zarutski, E. Arad, and R. Arieli, “Experimental and computational study on the effects of bumps on the aerodynamics of missile’s noses,” presented at the 42nd Israeli Conference on Aerospace Sciences, Haifa, Israel, January1–18, 2002.

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Figures (33)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Round-head high-speed aircraft with sphere optical window.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Round-head high-speed aircraft with ellipsoid optical window.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Round-head high-speed aircraft with paraboloid optical window.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Computational grid model for the CFD computation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Cross-sectional view of the grid model for optical transmission simulation of the aerodynamic flow field (in red) and grid model for the aerodynamic computation (in black). (a) Spherical window, (b) ellipsoid window, and (c) paraboloid window.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Definitions for azimuth and elevation incident angles. Curved arrows indicate positive angles [1].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Mean density contour of the aerodynamic flow field surrounding the spherical window at the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Mean density contour of the aerodynamic flow field surrounding the ellipsoid window at the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Mean density contour of the aerodynamic flow field surrounding the paraboloid window at the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Wave aberration result of the airborne optical system for the spherical window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Wave aberration result of the airborne optical system for the ellipsoid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Wave aberration result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

PSF result of the airborne optical system for the spherical window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

PSF result of the airborne optical system for the ellipsoid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

PSF result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

MTF result of the airborne optical system for the spherical window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

MTF result of the airborne optical system for the ellipsoid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

MTF result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Encircled energy results of the airborne optical system.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Mean density contour of the aerodynamic flow field surrounding the paraboloid window at the angle of attack of 5°.

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Mean density contour of the aerodynamic flow field surrounding the paraboloid window at the angle of attack of 15°.

Fig. 22.
Fig. 22.

Wave aberration result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 5°.

Fig. 23.
Fig. 23.

Wave aberration result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 15°.

Fig. 24.
Fig. 24.

PSF result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 5°.

Fig. 25.
Fig. 25.

PSF result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 15°.

Fig. 26.
Fig. 26.

MTF result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 5°.

Fig. 27.
Fig. 27.

MTF result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/90° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 15°.

Fig. 28.
Fig. 28.

Wave aberration result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/80° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 29.
Fig. 29.

Wave aberration result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 15°/75° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 30.
Fig. 30.

PSF result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/80° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 31.
Fig. 31.

PSF result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 15°/75° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 32.
Fig. 32.

MTF result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 0°/80° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Fig. 33.
Fig. 33.

MTF result of the airborne optical system for the paraboloid window at 15°/75° (azimuth/elevation) incident angle and the angle of attack of 0°.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Boundary Conditions for Aerodynamic Computation

Tables Icon

Table 2. PV Values of Wave Aberration for Three Typical Windows with Different Grid Density

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n=1+KGDρ,
KGD(λ)=2.23×104(1+7.52×103λ2).
nFlow=i=18niFlowdi2i=18di2,
OPL=iOPLiFlow,
OPLiFlow=(1+KGDρi)liFlow,
Wk(x,y)=2πλ(OPLkOPL0),
OPL0=1NkOPLk,
W(x,y)=kWk(x,y)=k2πλ(OPLkOPL0).

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