Abstract

Depth variations in the attenuation coefficient for light in the ocean were calculated using a one-parameter model based on the chlorophyll-a concentration Cc and experimentally-determined Gaussian chlorophyll-depth profiles. The depth profiles were related to surface chlorophyll levels for the range 04mg/m2, representing clear, open ocean. The depth where Cc became negligible was calculated to be shallower for places of high surface chlorophyll; 111.5 m for surface chlorophyll 0.8<Cc<2.2mg/m3 compared with 415.5 m for surface Cc<0.04mg/m3. Below this depth is the absolute minimum attenuation for underwater ocean communication links, calculated to be 0.0092m1 at a wavelength of 430 nm. By combining this with satellite surface-chlorophyll data, it is possible to quantify the attenuation between any two locations in the ocean, with applications for low-noise or secure underwater communications and vertical links from the ocean surface.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Pontbriant, C. Farr, J. Ware, J. Preisig, and H. Popenoe, “Diffuse high-bandwidth optical communications,” OCEANS 2008, September 2008, pp. 1–4.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Li, Q. Lin, G. Ni, P. Shen, Y. Fan, L. Huang, and Y. Tan, “Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a concentration in the Indian Ocean with special reference to the variation of deep chlorophyll maximum,” J. Mar. Biol. 2012, 801248 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. P. Cochlan, J. Wikner, G. F. Steward, D. C. Smith, and F. Azam, “Spatial distribution of viruses, bacteria and chlorophyll a in neritic, oceanic and estuarine environments,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92, 77–88 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

D. M. Sigman and M. P. Hain, “The biological productivity of the ocean: section 1.” Nat. Educ. Knowl. 3, 21–25 (2012).

G. Li, Q. Lin, G. Ni, P. Shen, Y. Fan, L. Huang, and Y. Tan, “Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a concentration in the Indian Ocean with special reference to the variation of deep chlorophyll maximum,” J. Mar. Biol. 2012, 801248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

T. Kameda and S. Matsumura, “Chlorophyll biomass off Sanriku, Northwestern Pacific, estimated by Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and a vertical distribution model,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 509–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. P. Cochlan, J. Wikner, G. F. Steward, D. C. Smith, and F. Azam, “Spatial distribution of viruses, bacteria and chlorophyll a in neritic, oceanic and estuarine environments,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92, 77–88 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. J. Cullen, “The deep chlorophyll maximum: comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll a” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39, 791–803 (1982).

Azam, F.

W. P. Cochlan, J. Wikner, G. F. Steward, D. C. Smith, and F. Azam, “Spatial distribution of viruses, bacteria and chlorophyll a in neritic, oceanic and estuarine environments,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92, 77–88 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bankman, I. N.

J. W. Giles and I. N. Bankman, “Underwater optical communications systems. Part 2: basic design considerations,” Military Communications Conference, October 2005, pp. 1700–1705.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chancey, M. A.

M. A. Chancey, “Short range underwater optical communication links,” Masters thesis (North Carolina State University, 2005).

Claustre, H.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cochlan, W. P.

W. P. Cochlan, J. Wikner, G. F. Steward, D. C. Smith, and F. Azam, “Spatial distribution of viruses, bacteria and chlorophyll a in neritic, oceanic and estuarine environments,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92, 77–88 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, J. J.

J. J. Cullen, “The deep chlorophyll maximum: comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll a” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39, 791–803 (1982).

Esaias, W.

S. Hooker, E. Firestone, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, and C. McClain, “Volume 1: an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical report series (1992).

Fan, Y.

G. Li, Q. Lin, G. Ni, P. Shen, Y. Fan, L. Huang, and Y. Tan, “Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a concentration in the Indian Ocean with special reference to the variation of deep chlorophyll maximum,” J. Mar. Biol. 2012, 801248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Farr, C.

C. Pontbriant, C. Farr, J. Ware, J. Preisig, and H. Popenoe, “Diffuse high-bandwidth optical communications,” OCEANS 2008, September 2008, pp. 1–4.

Feldman, G.

S. Hooker, E. Firestone, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, and C. McClain, “Volume 1: an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical report series (1992).

Firestone, E.

S. Hooker, E. Firestone, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, and C. McClain, “Volume 1: an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical report series (1992).

Fry, E. S.

Giles, J. W.

J. W. Giles and I. N. Bankman, “Underwater optical communications systems. Part 2: basic design considerations,” Military Communications Conference, October 2005, pp. 1700–1705.

Gregg, W.

S. Hooker, E. Firestone, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, and C. McClain, “Volume 1: an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical report series (1992).

Hain, M. P.

D. M. Sigman and M. P. Hain, “The biological productivity of the ocean: section 1.” Nat. Educ. Knowl. 3, 21–25 (2012).

Haltrin, V. I.

Hanson, F.

Hooker, S.

S. Hooker, E. Firestone, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, and C. McClain, “Volume 1: an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical report series (1992).

Hooker, S. B.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

G. Li, Q. Lin, G. Ni, P. Shen, Y. Fan, L. Huang, and Y. Tan, “Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a concentration in the Indian Ocean with special reference to the variation of deep chlorophyll maximum,” J. Mar. Biol. 2012, 801248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kameda, T.

T. Kameda and S. Matsumura, “Chlorophyll biomass off Sanriku, Northwestern Pacific, estimated by Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and a vertical distribution model,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 509–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, Q. Lin, G. Ni, P. Shen, Y. Fan, L. Huang, and Y. Tan, “Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a concentration in the Indian Ocean with special reference to the variation of deep chlorophyll maximum,” J. Mar. Biol. 2012, 801248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

G. Li, Q. Lin, G. Ni, P. Shen, Y. Fan, L. Huang, and Y. Tan, “Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a concentration in the Indian Ocean with special reference to the variation of deep chlorophyll maximum,” J. Mar. Biol. 2012, 801248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matsumura, S.

T. Kameda and S. Matsumura, “Chlorophyll biomass off Sanriku, Northwestern Pacific, estimated by Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and a vertical distribution model,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 509–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

S. Hooker, E. Firestone, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, and C. McClain, “Volume 1: an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical report series (1992).

Morel, A.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ni, G.

G. Li, Q. Lin, G. Ni, P. Shen, Y. Fan, L. Huang, and Y. Tan, “Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a concentration in the Indian Ocean with special reference to the variation of deep chlorophyll maximum,” J. Mar. Biol. 2012, 801248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pontbriant, C.

C. Pontbriant, C. Farr, J. Ware, J. Preisig, and H. Popenoe, “Diffuse high-bandwidth optical communications,” OCEANS 2008, September 2008, pp. 1–4.

Pope, R. M.

Popenoe, H.

C. Pontbriant, C. Farr, J. Ware, J. Preisig, and H. Popenoe, “Diffuse high-bandwidth optical communications,” OCEANS 2008, September 2008, pp. 1–4.

Preisig, J.

C. Pontbriant, C. Farr, J. Ware, J. Preisig, and H. Popenoe, “Diffuse high-bandwidth optical communications,” OCEANS 2008, September 2008, pp. 1–4.

Radic, S.

Shen, P.

G. Li, Q. Lin, G. Ni, P. Shen, Y. Fan, L. Huang, and Y. Tan, “Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a concentration in the Indian Ocean with special reference to the variation of deep chlorophyll maximum,” J. Mar. Biol. 2012, 801248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sigman, D. M.

D. M. Sigman and M. P. Hain, “The biological productivity of the ocean: section 1.” Nat. Educ. Knowl. 3, 21–25 (2012).

Smith, D. C.

W. P. Cochlan, J. Wikner, G. F. Steward, D. C. Smith, and F. Azam, “Spatial distribution of viruses, bacteria and chlorophyll a in neritic, oceanic and estuarine environments,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92, 77–88 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steward, G. F.

W. P. Cochlan, J. Wikner, G. F. Steward, D. C. Smith, and F. Azam, “Spatial distribution of viruses, bacteria and chlorophyll a in neritic, oceanic and estuarine environments,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92, 77–88 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

G. Li, Q. Lin, G. Ni, P. Shen, Y. Fan, L. Huang, and Y. Tan, “Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a concentration in the Indian Ocean with special reference to the variation of deep chlorophyll maximum,” J. Mar. Biol. 2012, 801248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uitz, J.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ware, J.

C. Pontbriant, C. Farr, J. Ware, J. Preisig, and H. Popenoe, “Diffuse high-bandwidth optical communications,” OCEANS 2008, September 2008, pp. 1–4.

Wikner, J.

W. P. Cochlan, J. Wikner, G. F. Steward, D. C. Smith, and F. Azam, “Spatial distribution of viruses, bacteria and chlorophyll a in neritic, oceanic and estuarine environments,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92, 77–88 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. (1)

J. J. Cullen, “The deep chlorophyll maximum: comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll a” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39, 791–803 (1982).

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Biol. (1)

G. Li, Q. Lin, G. Ni, P. Shen, Y. Fan, L. Huang, and Y. Tan, “Vertical patterns of early summer chlorophyll a concentration in the Indian Ocean with special reference to the variation of deep chlorophyll maximum,” J. Mar. Biol. 2012, 801248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Oceanogr. (1)

T. Kameda and S. Matsumura, “Chlorophyll biomass off Sanriku, Northwestern Pacific, estimated by Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and a vertical distribution model,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 509–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (1)

W. P. Cochlan, J. Wikner, G. F. Steward, D. C. Smith, and F. Azam, “Spatial distribution of viruses, bacteria and chlorophyll a in neritic, oceanic and estuarine environments,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92, 77–88 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Educ. Knowl. (1)

D. M. Sigman and M. P. Hain, “The biological productivity of the ocean: section 1.” Nat. Educ. Knowl. 3, 21–25 (2012).

Other (4)

S. Hooker, E. Firestone, W. Esaias, G. Feldman, W. Gregg, and C. McClain, “Volume 1: an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” SeaWiFS Technical report series (1992).

C. Pontbriant, C. Farr, J. Ware, J. Preisig, and H. Popenoe, “Diffuse high-bandwidth optical communications,” OCEANS 2008, September 2008, pp. 1–4.

M. A. Chancey, “Short range underwater optical communication links,” Masters thesis (North Carolina State University, 2005).

J. W. Giles and I. N. Bankman, “Underwater optical communications systems. Part 2: basic design considerations,” Military Communications Conference, October 2005, pp. 1700–1705.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption spectrum for the range 400nm<λ<700nm of (a) pure water and (b) typical profile for specific absorption by chlorophyll (calculated at the ocean surface, where Cc<0.04mg/m2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Chlorophyll-concentration depth profiles for different ranges of surface chlorophyll levels, where (a) is S1–S4, and (b) is S5–S9. Definitions of S1–S9 are given in Appendix A.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Attenuation coefficient varies with wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm and depths between 0 and 250 m for (a) and (b), and 0–100 m for (c) and (d). Each subplot represents a different chlorophyll-concentration profile, each of which is based on a different range of surface chlorophyll concentrations, where (a) shows S2, which is 0.040.08mg/m3 surface chlorophyll, (b) is S4 with 0.12–0.2 mg/m3, (c) is S6 with 0.3–0.4 mg/m3, and (d) is for S8, representing 0.8–2.2 mg/m3 surface chlorophyll concentration.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameter Values for S1–S9 Chlorophyll Concentration Profiles, Where Each S Group is Defined by the Surface Chlorophyll Level Cchl-surf, Adapted from [12]

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c(λ)=a(λ)+b(λ),
I=I0ec(λ)d.
a(λ)=aw(λ)+af0Cfexp(kfλ)+ah0Chexp(khλ)+ac0(λ)(Cc/Cc0)0.602,
ac0(λ)=A(λ)CcB(λ),
b(λ)=bw(λ)+bs0(λ)Cs+bl0(λ)Cl,
bw(λ)=0.005826(400/λ)4.322,
bs0(λ)=1.1513(400/λ)1.7,
bl0(λ)=0.3411(400/λ)0.3.
Cf=1.74098Ccexp(0.12327Cc),
Ch=0.19334Ccexp(0.12343Cc),
Cs=0.01739Ccexp(0.11631Cc),
Cl=0.76284Ccexp(0.03092Cc).
Cc(z)=B0+Sz+hσ2πexp[(zzmax)22σ2],
σ=h2π[Cchl(zmax)B0Szmax].
z=B0/S,
a(λ,z)=aw(λ)+af0exp(kfλ)Cf(z)+ah0exp(khλ)Ch(z)+ac0(λ,z)[Cc(z)]0.602,
b(λ,z)=bw(λ)+bs0(λ)Cs(z)+bl0(λ)Cl(z),
ac0(λ,z)=A(λ)Cc(z)B(λ).

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