Abstract

Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing in general requires careful registration of the reimaged telescope primary mirror to the Shack–Hartmann mask or lenslet array. The registration requirements are particularly demanding for applications in which segmented mirrors are phased using a physical optics generalization of the Shack–Hartmann test. In such cases the registration tolerances are less than 0.1% of the diameter of the primary mirror. We present a pupil registration algorithm suitable for such high accuracy applications that is based on the one used successfully for phasing the segments of the Keck telescopes. The pupil is aligned in four degrees of freedom (translations, rotation, and magnification) by balancing the intensities of subimages formed by small subapertures that straddle the periphery of the mirror. We describe the algorithm in general terms and then in the specific context of two very different geometries: the 492 segment Thirty Meter Telescope, and the seven “segment” Giant Magellan Telescope. Through detailed simulations we explore the accuracy of the algorithm and its sensitivity to such effects as cross talk, noise/counting statistics, atmospheric scintillation, and segment reflectivity variations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. A. Murta, General Polygon Clipper Library. http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/toby/alan/software/ .
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2012

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2008

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42-m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

Anguiano, G.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arciniega, S.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouchez, A.

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bringas, V.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavaller, L.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chanan, G.

Chapa, O.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chavoya, A.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cobos, F.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, S.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dekens, F.

Devaney, N.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dohlen, K.

Dorantes, A.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Espejo, C.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farah, A.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farahani, A.

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

Filgueira, J. M.

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flores, R.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garfias, F.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gilmozzi, R.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42-m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Godoy, J.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, J. L.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, H.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacoby, G.

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johns, M.

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kirkman, D.

Lara, G.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mast, T.

Mazzanti, S.

McCarthy, P. J.

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

Michaels, S.

Miller, J.

J. Miller, private communication (1987).

Montoya, J. M.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nava, R.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

Ohara, C.

Raybould, K.

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–376.

Sanchez, B.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, G. H.

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shectman, S.

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, M.

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42-m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tejada, C.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toral, R.

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Troy, M.

Vigan, A.

Appl. Opt.

Proc. SPIE

S. Cuevas, B. Sanchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernandez, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico,” Proc. SPIE 6046, 604628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “The status of the Thirty Meter Telescope project,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121A (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Johns, P. J. McCarthy, K. Raybould, A. Bouchez, A. Farahani, J. M. Filgueira, G. Jacoby, S. Shectman, and M. Sheehan, “Giant Magellan Telescope: overview,” Proc. SPIE 8444, 84441H (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The 42-m European ELT: status,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 701219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Miller, private communication (1987).

A. Murta, General Polygon Clipper Library. http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/toby/alan/software/ .

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–376.

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