Abstract

A pulse compressor consisting of a fiber and a compact hybrid grating-prism dispersive delay line (DDL) is used to compress readily-available 140-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser. We generate broadband pulses of up to 75 THz FWHM bandwidth in normally-dispersive single-mode conventional and photonic crystal fibers, with a potential of compression to 6 fs. Pulse dechirping in our hybrid DDL through second- and third-order dispersion (TOD) compensation results in 10× compression to 14 fs, limited by the bandwidth of the DDL transfer function and higher-order dispersion. The large tunability of the TOD of the hybrid DDL is shown.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. J. Tomlinson, R. H. Stolen, and C. V. Shank, “Compression of optical pulses chirped by self-phase modulation in fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 139–149 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454–458 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, “Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms,” Opt. Lett. 9, 150–152 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker, and C. V. Shank, “Compression of optical pulses to six femtoseconds by using cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 483–485 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kane, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, and G. Mourou, “Hybrid grating-prism stretcher-compressor system with cubic phase and wavelength tunability and decreased alignment sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1876–1878 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Zaouter, D. N. Papadopoulos, M. Hanna, F. Druon, E. Cormier, and P. Georges, “Third-order spectral phase compensation in parabolic pulse compression,” Opt. Express 15, 9372–9377 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Buckley, S. W. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of ten-cycle pulses from an ytterbium fiber laser with cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1340–1342 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kane and J. Squier, “Grism-pair stretcher-compressor system for simultaneous second- and third-order dispersion compensation in chirped-pulse amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 661–665 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Szipöcs, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, and K. Ferencz, “Chirped multilayer coatings for broadband dispersion control in femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 201–203 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, T. Schibli, U. Keller, H. A. Haus, C. Heine, R. Morf, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Design and fabrication of double-chirped mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 22, 831–833 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Steinmeyer and G. Stibenz, “Generation of sub-4-fs pulses via compression of a white-light continuum using only chirped mirrors,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 175–181 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi, M. J. Lederer, A. Boiko, and B. Luther-Davies, “Generation of 5  fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 373–375 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, J. Kim, R. Ell, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Morgner, “Controlled waveforms on the single-cycle scale from a femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Express 16, 9739–9745 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3  fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87,5–12 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Karasawa, L. Li, A. Suguro, H. Shigekawa, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, “Optical pulse compression to 5.0  fs by use of only a spatial light modulator for phase compensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1742–1746 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Yamane, Z. Zhang, K. Oka, R. Morita, M. Yamashita, and A. Suguro, “Optical pulse compression to 3.4  fs in the monocycle region by feedback phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2258–2260 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, U. Keller, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of 3.8  fs pulses from adaptive compression of a cascaded hollow fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1987–1989 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Palanjyan, A. Muradyan, A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Pulse compression down to 17 femtoseconds by generating broadband similariton,” Proc. SPIE 7998, 79980N (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Broadband similariton,” Laser Phys. 20, 1729–1732 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Generation of broadband similaritons for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3742–3747 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Chong, H. Liu, B. Nie, B. G. Bale, S. Wabnitz, W. H. Renninger, M. Dantus, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse generation without gain-bandwidth limitation in a laser with self-similar evolution,” Opt. Express 20, 14213–14220 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10  fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. E. Sherriff, “Analytic expressions for group-delay dispersion and cubic dispersion in arbitrary prism sequences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1224–1230 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. http://kosi.com/resources/gratings/prod_lit/Pulse_051206.pdf .

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Generation of broadband similaritons for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3742–3747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

K. Palanjyan, A. Muradyan, A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Pulse compression down to 17 femtoseconds by generating broadband similariton,” Proc. SPIE 7998, 79980N (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Broadband similariton,” Laser Phys. 20, 1729–1732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Nonlinear-dispersive similariton of passive fiber,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 4, 09009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

Y. Zaouter, D. N. Papadopoulos, M. Hanna, F. Druon, E. Cormier, and P. Georges, “Third-order spectral phase compensation in parabolic pulse compression,” Opt. Express 15, 9372–9377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3  fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87,5–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. Steinmeyer and G. Stibenz, “Generation of sub-4-fs pulses via compression of a white-light continuum using only chirped mirrors,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 175–181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Buckley, S. W. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of ten-cycle pulses from an ytterbium fiber laser with cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1340–1342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2001 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10  fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1987 (1)

1984 (2)

1969 (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

Angelow, G.

Apolonski, A.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3  fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87,5–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bale, B. G.

Barthélémy, A.

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Generation of broadband similaritons for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3742–3747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Nonlinear-dispersive similariton of passive fiber,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 4, 09009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

Biegert, J.

Binhammer, T.

Boiko, A.

Brito Cruz, C. H.

Buckley, J. R.

Chong, A.

Clark, S. W.

Cormier, E.

Dantus, M.

De Silvestri, S.

Druon, F.

Ell, R.

Emplit, P.

A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Nonlinear-dispersive similariton of passive fiber,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 4, 09009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

Fork, R. L.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Georges, P.

Gordon, J. P.

Hanna, M.

Harth, A.

Haus, H. A.

Heine, C.

Ippen, E. P.

Kane, S.

Karasawa, N.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

Kim, J.

Kockaert, P.

A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Nonlinear-dispersive similariton of passive fiber,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 4, 09009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3  fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87,5–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Szipöcs, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, and K. Ferencz, “Chirped multilayer coatings for broadband dispersion control in femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 201–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, M. J.

Li, L.

Liu, H.

Louradour, F.

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Generation of broadband similaritons for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3742–3747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Nonlinear-dispersive similariton of passive fiber,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 4, 09009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Martinez, O. E.

Matuschek, N.

Morf, R.

Morgner, U.

Morita, R.

Mouradian, L.

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Generation of broadband similaritons for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3742–3747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Palanjyan, A. Muradyan, A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Pulse compression down to 17 femtoseconds by generating broadband similariton,” Proc. SPIE 7998, 79980N (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Broadband similariton,” Laser Phys. 20, 1729–1732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Nonlinear-dispersive similariton of passive fiber,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 4, 09009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Muradyan, A.

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Generation of broadband similaritons for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3742–3747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Broadband similariton,” Laser Phys. 20, 1729–1732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Palanjyan, A. Muradyan, A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Pulse compression down to 17 femtoseconds by generating broadband similariton,” Proc. SPIE 7998, 79980N (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, S.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3  fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87,5–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nie, B.

Nisoli, M.

Oka, K.

Palanjyan, K.

K. Palanjyan, A. Muradyan, A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Pulse compression down to 17 femtoseconds by generating broadband similariton,” Proc. SPIE 7998, 79980N (2010).
[CrossRef]

Papadopoulos, D. N.

Pervak, V.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3  fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87,5–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rausch, S.

Renninger, W. H.

Rudd, J. V.

Sansone, G.

Schenkel, B.

Scheuer, V.

Schibli, T.

Shank, C. V.

Sherriff, R. E.

Shigekawa, H.

Spielmann, C.

Squier, J.

Stagira, S.

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Steinmeyer and G. Stibenz, “Generation of sub-4-fs pulses via compression of a white-light continuum using only chirped mirrors,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 175–181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stibenz, G.

G. Steinmeyer and G. Stibenz, “Generation of sub-4-fs pulses via compression of a white-light continuum using only chirped mirrors,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 175–181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Suguro, A.

Svelto, O.

Szipöcs, R.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3  fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87,5–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tilsch, M.

Tomlinson, W. J.

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Trubetskov, M. K.

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3  fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87,5–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

Vozzi, C.

Wabnitz, S.

Wise, F. W.

Yamane, K.

Yamashita, M.

Yesayan, G.

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Generation of broadband similaritons for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3742–3747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Broadband similariton,” Laser Phys. 20, 1729–1732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Palanjyan, A. Muradyan, A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Pulse compression down to 17 femtoseconds by generating broadband similariton,” Proc. SPIE 7998, 79980N (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Nonlinear-dispersive similariton of passive fiber,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 4, 09009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zaouter, Y.

Zeytunyan, A.

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Generation of broadband similaritons for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3742–3747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Broadband similariton,” Laser Phys. 20, 1729–1732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Palanjyan, A. Muradyan, A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Pulse compression down to 17 femtoseconds by generating broadband similariton,” Proc. SPIE 7998, 79980N (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Nonlinear-dispersive similariton of passive fiber,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 4, 09009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. Steinmeyer and G. Stibenz, “Generation of sub-4-fs pulses via compression of a white-light continuum using only chirped mirrors,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 175–181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Pervak, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, S. Naumov, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “1.5-octave chirped mirror for pulse compression down to sub-3  fs,” Appl. Phys. B 87,5–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10  fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. (1)

A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Nonlinear-dispersive similariton of passive fiber,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 4, 09009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Laser Phys. (1)

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Broadband similariton,” Laser Phys. 20, 1729–1732 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Zeytunyan, A. Muradyan, G. Yesayan, L. Mouradian, F. Louradour, and A. Barthélémy, “Generation of broadband similaritons for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3742–3747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (9)

B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, U. Keller, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of 3.8  fs pulses from adaptive compression of a cascaded hollow fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1987–1989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamane, Z. Zhang, K. Oka, R. Morita, M. Yamashita, and A. Suguro, “Optical pulse compression to 3.4  fs in the monocycle region by feedback phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2258–2260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Buckley, S. W. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of ten-cycle pulses from an ytterbium fiber laser with cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1340–1342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, T. Schibli, U. Keller, H. A. Haus, C. Heine, R. Morf, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Design and fabrication of double-chirped mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 22, 831–833 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi, M. J. Lederer, A. Boiko, and B. Luther-Davies, “Generation of 5  fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 373–375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, “Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms,” Opt. Lett. 9, 150–152 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker, and C. V. Shank, “Compression of optical pulses to six femtoseconds by using cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 483–485 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Szipöcs, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, and K. Ferencz, “Chirped multilayer coatings for broadband dispersion control in femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 201–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Kane, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, and G. Mourou, “Hybrid grating-prism stretcher-compressor system with cubic phase and wavelength tunability and decreased alignment sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1876–1878 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Palanjyan, A. Muradyan, A. Zeytunyan, G. Yesayan, and L. Mouradian, “Pulse compression down to 17 femtoseconds by generating broadband similariton,” Proc. SPIE 7998, 79980N (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

http://kosi.com/resources/gratings/prod_lit/Pulse_051206.pdf .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured spectra of broadband similaritons at the output of (a) a standard single-mode fiber, (b) LMA-5 PCF, and (c) and (d) corresponding calculated transform-limited pulses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of the hybrid DDL consisting of a prism pair in between a grating pair: M is the mirror, L=10cm and γ=50° for shortest pulses. (b) TOD-to-SOD ratio versus grating incident angle for different combinations of gratings and prisms.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectra of the similariton (gray dashed) and dechirped (black solid) pulses and (b) calculated autocorrelation trace of transform-limited pulse (blue dashed), and measured autocorrelation trace of dechirped pulse (red solid).

Metrics