Abstract

Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials using a distributed-feedback (DFB) diode laser near 1.4 μm are reported. A H2O line located near 7161.41cm1 is selected based on its strong absorption strength and isolation from interference of neighboring transitions. Direct absorption spectra of H2O are obtained for the measurement path as well as the reference path by scanning the laser wavelength. The pressure and H2O vapor concentration in the headspace of a vial are inferred from a differential absorption signal, which is the difference between the measured and the referenced absorbance spectra. This sensor is calibration-free and no purge gas is needed. The demonstrated capability would enable measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials within 2.21% and 2.86%, respectively. A precision of 1.02 Torr and 390 ppm is found for the pressure and H2O concentration, respectively. A set of measurements for commercial freeze-dried products are also performed to illustrate the usefulness of this sensor.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. J. Pikal and S. Shah, “Intravial distribution of moisture during the secondary drying stage of freeze drying,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 17–24 (1997).
  2. S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, S. A. Luthra, and M. J. Pika, “Optimization of the secondary drying step in freeze drying using TDLAS technology,” AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. 12, 379–387 (2011).
  3. N. Genin, F. René, and G. Corrieu, “A method for on-line determination of residual water content and sublimation end-point during freeze drying,” Chem. Eng. Process. 35, 255–263 (1996).
  4. J. P. Connelly and J. V. Welch, “Monitor lyophilization with mass spectrometer gas analysis,” J. Parenter. Sci. Technol. 47, 70–75 (1993).
  5. N. Milton, M. J. Pikal, M. L. Roy, and S. L. Nail, “Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement as a method of monitoring product temperature during lyophilization,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 7–16 (1997).
  6. S. L. Nail and W. Johnson, “Methodology for in-process determination of residual water in freeze-dried products,” Dev. Biol. Stand. 74, 137–151 (1991).
  7. A. P. Mackenzie, “Apparatus for microscopic observations during freeze-drying,” Biodynamica 9, 213–222 (1964).
  8. R. L. Remmele, C. Stushnoff, and J. F. Carpenter, “Real-time in situ monitoring of lysozyme during lyophilization using infrared spectroscopy–dehydration stress in the presence of sucrose,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1548–1555 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. P. Marques, L. C. Loch, E. Wolff, and D. N. Rutledge, “Monitoring freeze drying by low resolution pulse NMR: determination of sublimation endpoint,” J. Food. Sci. 56, 1707–1710 (1991).
  10. R. K. Cavatur and R. Suryanarayanan, “Characterization of phase transitions during freeze-drying by in situ X-ray powder diffractometry,” Pharm. Dev. Technol. 3, 579–586 (1998).
  11. S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Li, X. L. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, Y. Zhao, L. Ma, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Simultaneous measurements of multiple flow parameters for scramjet characterization using tunable diode-laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6697–6707 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).
  14. S. A. Bone, P. G. Cummins, P. B. Davies, and S. A. Johnson, “Measurement of water vapor pressure and activity using infrared diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 834–843 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Y. Kuu, S. L. Nail, and G. Sacha, “Rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in response to step-changes in pressure set-point during freeze-drying,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 1136–1154 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, and M. J. Pikal, “Non-invasive product temperature determination during primary drying using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 3406–3418 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. P. Lin, C. C. Hsu, B. D. Kabakoff, and T. W. Patapoff, “Application of frequency-modulated spectroscopy in vacuum seal integrity testing of lyophilized biological products,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 58, 106–115 (2004).
  18. D. I. Duncan, J. R. Veale, I. Cook, and K. Ward, “Using laser-based headspace moisture analysis for rapid nondestructive moisture determination of sterile freeze-dried product,” Lighthouse Instruments White Paper.
  19. C. Priyadarshini, G. Somsubhra, K. D. Sathis, N. Parthiban, and B. David, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy: a review,” Int. J. Biol. Pharm. Res. 32, 82–88 (2012).
  20. http://www.cactus2000.de .
  21. E. E. Whiting, “New empirical approximation to the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 611–614 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Edner, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Uneus, and S. Wallin, “Differential optical-absorption spectroscopy system used for atmospheric mercury monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 25, 403–409 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Durry and G. Megie, “In situ measurements of H2O from a stratospheric balloon by diode laser direct-differential absorption spectroscopy at 1.39 μm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5601–5608 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

C. Priyadarshini, G. Somsubhra, K. D. Sathis, N. Parthiban, and B. David, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy: a review,” Int. J. Biol. Pharm. Res. 32, 82–88 (2012).

2011 (2)

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, S. A. Luthra, and M. J. Pika, “Optimization of the secondary drying step in freeze drying using TDLAS technology,” AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. 12, 379–387 (2011).

F. Li, X. L. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, Y. Zhao, L. Ma, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Simultaneous measurements of multiple flow parameters for scramjet characterization using tunable diode-laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6697–6707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

W. Y. Kuu, S. L. Nail, and G. Sacha, “Rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in response to step-changes in pressure set-point during freeze-drying,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 1136–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, and M. J. Pikal, “Non-invasive product temperature determination during primary drying using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 3406–3418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).

2004 (1)

T. P. Lin, C. C. Hsu, B. D. Kabakoff, and T. W. Patapoff, “Application of frequency-modulated spectroscopy in vacuum seal integrity testing of lyophilized biological products,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 58, 106–115 (2004).

2000 (2)

G. Durry and G. Megie, “In situ measurements of H2O from a stratospheric balloon by diode laser direct-differential absorption spectroscopy at 1.39 μm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5601–5608 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. K. Cavatur and R. Suryanarayanan, “Characterization of phase transitions during freeze-drying by in situ X-ray powder diffractometry,” Pharm. Dev. Technol. 3, 579–586 (1998).

1997 (3)

M. J. Pikal and S. Shah, “Intravial distribution of moisture during the secondary drying stage of freeze drying,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 17–24 (1997).

R. L. Remmele, C. Stushnoff, and J. F. Carpenter, “Real-time in situ monitoring of lysozyme during lyophilization using infrared spectroscopy–dehydration stress in the presence of sucrose,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1548–1555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Milton, M. J. Pikal, M. L. Roy, and S. L. Nail, “Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement as a method of monitoring product temperature during lyophilization,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 7–16 (1997).

1996 (1)

N. Genin, F. René, and G. Corrieu, “A method for on-line determination of residual water content and sublimation end-point during freeze drying,” Chem. Eng. Process. 35, 255–263 (1996).

1993 (2)

J. P. Connelly and J. V. Welch, “Monitor lyophilization with mass spectrometer gas analysis,” J. Parenter. Sci. Technol. 47, 70–75 (1993).

S. A. Bone, P. G. Cummins, P. B. Davies, and S. A. Johnson, “Measurement of water vapor pressure and activity using infrared diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 834–843 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. L. Nail and W. Johnson, “Methodology for in-process determination of residual water in freeze-dried products,” Dev. Biol. Stand. 74, 137–151 (1991).

M. J. P. Marques, L. C. Loch, E. Wolff, and D. N. Rutledge, “Monitoring freeze drying by low resolution pulse NMR: determination of sublimation endpoint,” J. Food. Sci. 56, 1707–1710 (1991).

1986 (1)

1976 (1)

E. E. Whiting, “New empirical approximation to the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

A. P. Mackenzie, “Apparatus for microscopic observations during freeze-drying,” Biodynamica 9, 213–222 (1964).

Baer, D. S.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. A.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bone, S. A.

Bons, V.

H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, J. F.

R. L. Remmele, C. Stushnoff, and J. F. Carpenter, “Real-time in situ monitoring of lysozyme during lyophilization using infrared spectroscopy–dehydration stress in the presence of sucrose,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1548–1555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cavatur, R. K.

R. K. Cavatur and R. Suryanarayanan, “Characterization of phase transitions during freeze-drying by in situ X-ray powder diffractometry,” Pharm. Dev. Technol. 3, 579–586 (1998).

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, X.

Chen, L.

Connelly, J. P.

J. P. Connelly and J. V. Welch, “Monitor lyophilization with mass spectrometer gas analysis,” J. Parenter. Sci. Technol. 47, 70–75 (1993).

Cook, I.

D. I. Duncan, J. R. Veale, I. Cook, and K. Ward, “Using laser-based headspace moisture analysis for rapid nondestructive moisture determination of sterile freeze-dried product,” Lighthouse Instruments White Paper.

Corrieu, G.

N. Genin, F. René, and G. Corrieu, “A method for on-line determination of residual water content and sublimation end-point during freeze drying,” Chem. Eng. Process. 35, 255–263 (1996).

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cummins, P. G.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

David, B.

C. Priyadarshini, G. Somsubhra, K. D. Sathis, N. Parthiban, and B. David, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy: a review,” Int. J. Biol. Pharm. Res. 32, 82–88 (2012).

Davies, P. B.

Davis, S. J.

H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).

Debo, D. J.

H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, D. I.

D. I. Duncan, J. R. Veale, I. Cook, and K. Ward, “Using laser-based headspace moisture analysis for rapid nondestructive moisture determination of sterile freeze-dried product,” Lighthouse Instruments White Paper.

Durry, G.

Edner, H.

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Finson, M.

H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genin, N.

N. Genin, F. René, and G. Corrieu, “A method for on-line determination of residual water content and sublimation end-point during freeze drying,” Chem. Eng. Process. 35, 255–263 (1996).

Gieseler, H.

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, S. A. Luthra, and M. J. Pika, “Optimization of the secondary drying step in freeze drying using TDLAS technology,” AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. 12, 379–387 (2011).

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, and M. J. Pikal, “Non-invasive product temperature determination during primary drying using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 3406–3418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gu, H.

Hanson, R. K.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. C.

T. P. Lin, C. C. Hsu, B. D. Kabakoff, and T. W. Patapoff, “Application of frequency-modulated spectroscopy in vacuum seal integrity testing of lyophilized biological products,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 58, 106–115 (2004).

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, T. P.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. A.

Johnson, W.

S. L. Nail and W. Johnson, “Methodology for in-process determination of residual water in freeze-dried products,” Dev. Biol. Stand. 74, 137–151 (1991).

Kabakoff, B. D.

T. P. Lin, C. C. Hsu, B. D. Kabakoff, and T. W. Patapoff, “Application of frequency-modulated spectroscopy in vacuum seal integrity testing of lyophilized biological products,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 58, 106–115 (2004).

Kessler, W. J.

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, S. A. Luthra, and M. J. Pika, “Optimization of the secondary drying step in freeze drying using TDLAS technology,” AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. 12, 379–387 (2011).

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, and M. J. Pikal, “Non-invasive product temperature determination during primary drying using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 3406–3418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuu, W. Y.

W. Y. Kuu, S. L. Nail, and G. Sacha, “Rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in response to step-changes in pressure set-point during freeze-drying,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 1136–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Li, Z.

Lin, T. P.

T. P. Lin, C. C. Hsu, B. D. Kabakoff, and T. W. Patapoff, “Application of frequency-modulated spectroscopy in vacuum seal integrity testing of lyophilized biological products,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 58, 106–115 (2004).

Loch, L. C.

M. J. P. Marques, L. C. Loch, E. Wolff, and D. N. Rutledge, “Monitoring freeze drying by low resolution pulse NMR: determination of sublimation endpoint,” J. Food. Sci. 56, 1707–1710 (1991).

Luthra, S. A.

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, S. A. Luthra, and M. J. Pika, “Optimization of the secondary drying step in freeze drying using TDLAS technology,” AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. 12, 379–387 (2011).

Ma, L.

Mackenzie, A. P.

A. P. Mackenzie, “Apparatus for microscopic observations during freeze-drying,” Biodynamica 9, 213–222 (1964).

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marques, M. J. P.

M. J. P. Marques, L. C. Loch, E. Wolff, and D. N. Rutledge, “Monitoring freeze drying by low resolution pulse NMR: determination of sublimation endpoint,” J. Food. Sci. 56, 1707–1710 (1991).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G.

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milton, N.

N. Milton, M. J. Pikal, M. L. Roy, and S. L. Nail, “Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement as a method of monitoring product temperature during lyophilization,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 7–16 (1997).

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mulhall, P. A.

H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).

Nail, S. L.

W. Y. Kuu, S. L. Nail, and G. Sacha, “Rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in response to step-changes in pressure set-point during freeze-drying,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 1136–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Milton, M. J. Pikal, M. L. Roy, and S. L. Nail, “Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement as a method of monitoring product temperature during lyophilization,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 7–16 (1997).

S. L. Nail and W. Johnson, “Methodology for in-process determination of residual water in freeze-dried products,” Dev. Biol. Stand. 74, 137–151 (1991).

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parthiban, N.

C. Priyadarshini, G. Somsubhra, K. D. Sathis, N. Parthiban, and B. David, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy: a review,” Int. J. Biol. Pharm. Res. 32, 82–88 (2012).

Patapoff, T. W.

T. P. Lin, C. C. Hsu, B. D. Kabakoff, and T. W. Patapoff, “Application of frequency-modulated spectroscopy in vacuum seal integrity testing of lyophilized biological products,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 58, 106–115 (2004).

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pika, M. J.

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, S. A. Luthra, and M. J. Pika, “Optimization of the secondary drying step in freeze drying using TDLAS technology,” AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. 12, 379–387 (2011).

Pikal, M. J.

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, and M. J. Pikal, “Non-invasive product temperature determination during primary drying using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 3406–3418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).

N. Milton, M. J. Pikal, M. L. Roy, and S. L. Nail, “Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement as a method of monitoring product temperature during lyophilization,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 7–16 (1997).

M. J. Pikal and S. Shah, “Intravial distribution of moisture during the secondary drying stage of freeze drying,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 17–24 (1997).

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Priyadarshini, C.

C. Priyadarshini, G. Somsubhra, K. D. Sathis, N. Parthiban, and B. David, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy: a review,” Int. J. Biol. Pharm. Res. 32, 82–88 (2012).

Remmele, R. L.

R. L. Remmele, C. Stushnoff, and J. F. Carpenter, “Real-time in situ monitoring of lysozyme during lyophilization using infrared spectroscopy–dehydration stress in the presence of sucrose,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1548–1555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

René, F.

N. Genin, F. René, and G. Corrieu, “A method for on-line determination of residual water content and sublimation end-point during freeze drying,” Chem. Eng. Process. 35, 255–263 (1996).

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roy, M. L.

N. Milton, M. J. Pikal, M. L. Roy, and S. L. Nail, “Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement as a method of monitoring product temperature during lyophilization,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 7–16 (1997).

Rutledge, D. N.

M. J. P. Marques, L. C. Loch, E. Wolff, and D. N. Rutledge, “Monitoring freeze drying by low resolution pulse NMR: determination of sublimation endpoint,” J. Food. Sci. 56, 1707–1710 (1991).

Sacha, G.

W. Y. Kuu, S. L. Nail, and G. Sacha, “Rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in response to step-changes in pressure set-point during freeze-drying,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 1136–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sathis, K. D.

C. Priyadarshini, G. Somsubhra, K. D. Sathis, N. Parthiban, and B. David, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy: a review,” Int. J. Biol. Pharm. Res. 32, 82–88 (2012).

Schneid, S. C.

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, S. A. Luthra, and M. J. Pika, “Optimization of the secondary drying step in freeze drying using TDLAS technology,” AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. 12, 379–387 (2011).

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, and M. J. Pikal, “Non-invasive product temperature determination during primary drying using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 3406–3418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shah, S.

M. J. Pikal and S. Shah, “Intravial distribution of moisture during the secondary drying stage of freeze drying,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 17–24 (1997).

Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Somsubhra, G.

C. Priyadarshini, G. Somsubhra, K. D. Sathis, N. Parthiban, and B. David, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy: a review,” Int. J. Biol. Pharm. Res. 32, 82–88 (2012).

Stushnoff, C.

R. L. Remmele, C. Stushnoff, and J. F. Carpenter, “Real-time in situ monitoring of lysozyme during lyophilization using infrared spectroscopy–dehydration stress in the presence of sucrose,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1548–1555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sunesson, A.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suryanarayanan, R.

R. K. Cavatur and R. Suryanarayanan, “Characterization of phase transitions during freeze-drying by in situ X-ray powder diffractometry,” Pharm. Dev. Technol. 3, 579–586 (1998).

Svanberg, S.

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uneus, L.

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Veale, J. R.

D. I. Duncan, J. R. Veale, I. Cook, and K. Ward, “Using laser-based headspace moisture analysis for rapid nondestructive moisture determination of sterile freeze-dried product,” Lighthouse Instruments White Paper.

Wallin, S.

Ward, K.

D. I. Duncan, J. R. Veale, I. Cook, and K. Ward, “Using laser-based headspace moisture analysis for rapid nondestructive moisture determination of sterile freeze-dried product,” Lighthouse Instruments White Paper.

Welch, J. V.

J. P. Connelly and J. V. Welch, “Monitor lyophilization with mass spectrometer gas analysis,” J. Parenter. Sci. Technol. 47, 70–75 (1993).

Whiting, E. E.

E. E. Whiting, “New empirical approximation to the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, E.

M. J. P. Marques, L. C. Loch, E. Wolff, and D. N. Rutledge, “Monitoring freeze drying by low resolution pulse NMR: determination of sublimation endpoint,” J. Food. Sci. 56, 1707–1710 (1991).

Yu, X. L.

Zhao, Y.

AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. (1)

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, S. A. Luthra, and M. J. Pika, “Optimization of the secondary drying step in freeze drying using TDLAS technology,” AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech. 12, 379–387 (2011).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biodynamica (1)

A. P. Mackenzie, “Apparatus for microscopic observations during freeze-drying,” Biodynamica 9, 213–222 (1964).

Chem. Eng. Process. (1)

N. Genin, F. René, and G. Corrieu, “A method for on-line determination of residual water content and sublimation end-point during freeze drying,” Chem. Eng. Process. 35, 255–263 (1996).

Dev. Biol. Stand. (1)

S. L. Nail and W. Johnson, “Methodology for in-process determination of residual water in freeze-dried products,” Dev. Biol. Stand. 74, 137–151 (1991).

Int. J. Biol. Pharm. Res. (1)

C. Priyadarshini, G. Somsubhra, K. D. Sathis, N. Parthiban, and B. David, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy: a review,” Int. J. Biol. Pharm. Res. 32, 82–88 (2012).

J. Food. Sci. (1)

M. J. P. Marques, L. C. Loch, E. Wolff, and D. N. Rutledge, “Monitoring freeze drying by low resolution pulse NMR: determination of sublimation endpoint,” J. Food. Sci. 56, 1707–1710 (1991).

J. Parenter. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. P. Connelly and J. V. Welch, “Monitor lyophilization with mass spectrometer gas analysis,” J. Parenter. Sci. Technol. 47, 70–75 (1993).

J. Pharm. Sci. (2)

W. Y. Kuu, S. L. Nail, and G. Sacha, “Rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in response to step-changes in pressure set-point during freeze-drying,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 1136–1154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Schneid, H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, and M. J. Pikal, “Non-invasive product temperature determination during primary drying using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 98, 3406–3418 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

E. E. Whiting, “New empirical approximation to the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. (3)

T. P. Lin, C. C. Hsu, B. D. Kabakoff, and T. W. Patapoff, “Application of frequency-modulated spectroscopy in vacuum seal integrity testing of lyophilized biological products,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 58, 106–115 (2004).

N. Milton, M. J. Pikal, M. L. Roy, and S. L. Nail, “Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement as a method of monitoring product temperature during lyophilization,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 7–16 (1997).

M. J. Pikal and S. Shah, “Intravial distribution of moisture during the secondary drying stage of freeze drying,” PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 51, 17–24 (1997).

Pharm. Dev. Technol. (1)

R. K. Cavatur and R. Suryanarayanan, “Characterization of phase transitions during freeze-drying by in situ X-ray powder diffractometry,” Pharm. Dev. Technol. 3, 579–586 (1998).

Pharm. Res. (1)

R. L. Remmele, C. Stushnoff, and J. F. Carpenter, “Real-time in situ monitoring of lysozyme during lyophilization using infrared spectroscopy–dehydration stress in the presence of sucrose,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1548–1555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pharm. Technol. (1)

H. Gieseler, W. J. Kessler, M. Finson, S. J. Davis, P. A. Mulhall, V. Bons, D. J. Debo, and M. J. Pikal, “Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying,” Pharm. Technol. 96, 1776–1793 (2007).

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

http://www.cactus2000.de .

D. I. Duncan, J. R. Veale, I. Cook, and K. Ward, “Using laser-based headspace moisture analysis for rapid nondestructive moisture determination of sterile freeze-dried product,” Lighthouse Instruments White Paper.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup for measurements of pressure and H 2 O concentration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top graph: line strengths for water vapor absorption at 300 K in the 1–2 μm region based on the HITRAN database. Bottom graph: the selected H 2 O line and the neighboring H 2 O and CO 2 lines.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Profile of the measured signal (A), the referenced signal (B), and the differential signal (C).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Respective differential absorption signals measured in different H 2 O N 2 mixtures.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of pressures (top) and H 2 O concentration (bottom) from the sensor with the known values.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Precision of the TDLAS sensor evaluated using 30 successive measurements for a gas mixture with relatively low pressure (105 Torr) and H 2 O concentration (3.6%).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measurements of pressure and H 2 O concentration for 20 samples of commercial freeze-dried product.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Spectroscopic Parameters for the Selected H 2 O Transition Based on HITRAN 2008 [22]

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ ( ν ) = ( I t I 0 ) ν = exp [ α ( ν ) ] = exp [ j S j ( T ) P x i L ϕ j ( ν ) ] .
A = + α i ( ν ) d ν = P x i S ( T ) L = P i S ( T ) L ,
Δ ν D = ( 7.1623 × 10 7 ) ν 0 T M ,
Δ ν C = P 2 γ = P i x i 2 γ i ,
Δ ν C = P air 2 γ air + P H 2 O 2 γ H 2 O ,
x H 2 O = P H 2 O / P = P H 2 O / ( P air + P H 2 O ) .

Metrics