Abstract

We present a method to calibrate a high-resolution wavefront (WF)-correcting device with a single, static camera, located in the focal-plane; no moving of any component is needed. The method is based on a localized diversity and differential optical transfer functions to compute both the phase and amplitude in the pupil plane located upstream of the last imaging optics. An experiment with a spatial light modulator shows that the calibration is sufficient to robustly operate a focal-plane WF sensing algorithm controlling a WF corrector with 40,000 degrees of freedom. We estimate that the locations of identical WF corrector elements are determined with a spatial resolution of 0.3% compared to the pupil diameter.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. U. Keller, V. Korkiakoski, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Extremely fast focal-plane wavefront sensing for extreme adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844721 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. L. Codona, N. Doble, “Experimental evaluation of differential OTF (dOTF) wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476R (2012).
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  5. J. L. Codona, “Differential optical transfer function wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 52, 097105 (2013).
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  13. M. Kasper, D. Mawet, C. Verinaud, “Roadmap for PCS,” in Third International Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes (2013).
  14. L. A. Poyneer, B. Bauman, S. Cornelissen, J. Isaacs, S. Jones, B. A. Macintosh, D. W. Palmer, “The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 7931, 793104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Give’on, B. Kern, S. Shaklan, D. C. Moody, L. Pueyo, “Broadband wavefront correction algorithm for high-contrast imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910A (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246–1254 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515–7534 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2013

J. L. Codona, “Differential optical transfer function wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 52, 097105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

C. U. Keller, V. Korkiakoski, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Extremely fast focal-plane wavefront sensing for extreme adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Korkiakoski, C. U. Keller, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Experimental validation of optimization concepts for focal-plane image processing with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84475Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Codona, “Theory and application of differential otf (dotf) wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476P (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Codona, N. Doble, “Experimental evaluation of differential OTF (dOTF) wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476R (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

L. A. Poyneer, B. Bauman, S. Cornelissen, J. Isaacs, S. Jones, B. A. Macintosh, D. W. Palmer, “The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 7931, 793104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

2009

G. R. Brady, J. R. Fienup, “Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology,” Appl. Opt. 48, 442–449 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Give’on, B. Kern, S. Shaklan, D. C. Moody, L. Pueyo, “Broadband wavefront correction algorithm for high-contrast imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910A (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515–7534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246–1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

1982

1972

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Aller-Carpentier, E.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

Andrei, R.

V. Korkiakoski, C. U. Keller, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Experimental validation of optimization concepts for focal-plane image processing with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84475Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. U. Keller, V. Korkiakoski, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Extremely fast focal-plane wavefront sensing for extreme adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Antichi, J.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

Basden, A. G.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baudoz, P.

Bauman, B.

L. A. Poyneer, B. Bauman, S. Cornelissen, J. Isaacs, S. Jones, B. A. Macintosh, D. W. Palmer, “The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 7931, 793104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beuzit, J.-L.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515–7534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brady, G. R.

G. R. Brady, J. R. Fienup, “Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology,” Appl. Opt. 48, 442–449 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charton, J.

Codona, J. L.

J. L. Codona, “Differential optical transfer function wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 52, 097105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Codona, “Theory and application of differential otf (dotf) wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476P (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Codona, N. Doble, “Experimental evaluation of differential OTF (dOTF) wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476R (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cornelissen, S.

L. A. Poyneer, B. Bauman, S. Cornelissen, J. Isaacs, S. Jones, B. A. Macintosh, D. W. Palmer, “The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 7931, 793104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dandy, S.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

Delboulbé, A.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

Dillon, D.

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doble, N.

J. L. Codona, N. Doble, “Experimental evaluation of differential OTF (dOTF) wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476R (2012).
[CrossRef]

Doelman, N.

C. U. Keller, V. Korkiakoski, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Extremely fast focal-plane wavefront sensing for extreme adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Korkiakoski, C. U. Keller, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Experimental validation of optimization concepts for focal-plane image processing with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84475Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dohlen, K.

Doyon, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erikson, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, S.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedrigo, E.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

G. R. Brady, J. R. Fienup, “Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology,” Appl. Opt. 48, 442–449 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2758–2769 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fraanje, R.

C. U. Keller, V. Korkiakoski, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Extremely fast focal-plane wavefront sensing for extreme adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Korkiakoski, C. U. Keller, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Experimental validation of optimization concepts for focal-plane image processing with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84475Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515–7534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Ghiglia, D. C.

D. C. Ghiglia, M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping-Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

Give’on, A.

A. Give’on, B. Kern, S. Shaklan, D. C. Moody, L. Pueyo, “Broadband wavefront correction algorithm for high-contrast imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goodsell, S. J.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, B.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246–1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Graham, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. J.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246–1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Isaacs, J.

L. A. Poyneer, B. Bauman, S. Cornelissen, J. Isaacs, S. Jones, B. A. Macintosh, D. W. Palmer, “The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 7931, 793104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S.

L. A. Poyneer, B. Bauman, S. Cornelissen, J. Isaacs, S. Jones, B. A. Macintosh, D. W. Palmer, “The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 7931, 793104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, M.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515–7534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kasper, D. Mawet, C. Verinaud, “Roadmap for PCS,” in Third International Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes (2013).

Keller, C. U.

V. Korkiakoski, C. U. Keller, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Experimental validation of optimization concepts for focal-plane image processing with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84475Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. U. Keller, V. Korkiakoski, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Extremely fast focal-plane wavefront sensing for extreme adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kern, B.

A. Give’on, B. Kern, S. Shaklan, D. C. Moody, L. Pueyo, “Broadband wavefront correction algorithm for high-contrast imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koppa, P.

Korkiakoski, V.

C. U. Keller, V. Korkiakoski, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Extremely fast focal-plane wavefront sensing for extreme adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Korkiakoski, C. U. Keller, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Experimental validation of optimization concepts for focal-plane image processing with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84475Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorincz, E.

Love, G. D.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lowman, A. E.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246–1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

L. A. Poyneer, B. Bauman, S. Cornelissen, J. Isaacs, S. Jones, B. A. Macintosh, D. W. Palmer, “The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 7931, 793104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mann, S.

S. Mann, R. Picard, “Being ‘undigital’ with digital cameras: extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed pictures,” (M.I.T. Media Lab Perceptual Computing Section, 1994).

Mawet, D.

M. Kasper, D. Mawet, C. Verinaud, “Roadmap for PCS,” in Third International Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes (2013).

Moody, D.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246–1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moody, D. C.

A. Give’on, B. Kern, S. Shaklan, D. C. Moody, L. Pueyo, “Broadband wavefront correction algorithm for high-contrast imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morzinski, K.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mouillet, D.

Myers, R. M.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicolle, M.

Niessner, A. F.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246–1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ódomján, L.

Oppenheimer, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D. W.

L. A. Poyneer, B. Bauman, S. Cornelissen, J. Isaacs, S. Jones, B. A. Macintosh, D. W. Palmer, “The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 7931, 793104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petit, C.

Phillion, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Picard, R.

S. Mann, R. Picard, “Being ‘undigital’ with digital cameras: extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed pictures,” (M.I.T. Media Lab Perceptual Computing Section, 1994).

Pinna, E.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

L. A. Poyneer, B. Bauman, S. Cornelissen, J. Isaacs, S. Jones, B. A. Macintosh, D. W. Palmer, “The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 7931, 793104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Preis, O.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

Pritt, M. D.

D. C. Ghiglia, M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping-Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

Pueyo, L.

A. Give’on, B. Kern, S. Shaklan, D. C. Moody, L. Pueyo, “Broadband wavefront correction algorithm for high-contrast imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Puget, P.

Puglisi, A.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabou, P.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

Reményi, J.

Rousset, G.

Saddlemyer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, J.-F.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, P. Puget, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515–7534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Severson, S. A.

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shaklan, S.

A. Give’on, B. Kern, S. Shaklan, D. C. Moody, L. Pueyo, “Broadband wavefront correction algorithm for high-contrast imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246–1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soummer, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, S.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tordo, S.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tozzi, A.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trauger, J. T.

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246–1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Várhegyi, P.

Veran, J.-P.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verhaegen, M.

V. Korkiakoski, C. U. Keller, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Experimental validation of optimization concepts for focal-plane image processing with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84475Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. U. Keller, V. Korkiakoski, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Extremely fast focal-plane wavefront sensing for extreme adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Verinaud, C.

M. Kasper, D. Mawet, C. Verinaud, “Roadmap for PCS,” in Third International Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes (2013).

Vérinaud, C.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vernet, E.

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. K.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zielinski, T. P.

T. P. Zielinski, “Robust image-based wavefront sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Rochester, 2011).

Zins, G.

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

Appl. Opt.

G. R. Brady, J. R. Fienup, “Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology,” Appl. Opt. 48, 442–449 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Eng.

J. L. Codona, “Differential optical transfer function wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 52, 097105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Optik

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Proc. SPIE

A. E. Lowman, J. T. Trauger, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, “High-contrast imaging testbed for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1246–1254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, L. Poyneer, “The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: current results and coronagraphic upgrade,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

E. Vernet, M. Kasper, C. Vérinaud, E. Fedrigo, S. Tordo, N. Hubin, S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, A. G. Basden, S. J. Goodsell, G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, “Extreme adaptive optics system optimization with the high order test bench,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722K (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Antichi, C. Vérinaud, O. Preis, A. Delboulbé, G. Zins, P. Rabou, J.-L. Beuzit, S. Dandy, J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, E. Aller-Carpentier, M. Kasper, N. Hubin, “FFREE: a Fresnel-FRee experiment for EPICS, the EELT planets imager,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773639 (2010).

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer, B. Bauman, S. Cornelissen, J. Isaacs, S. Jones, B. A. Macintosh, D. W. Palmer, “The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 7931, 793104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Give’on, B. Kern, S. Shaklan, D. C. Moody, L. Pueyo, “Broadband wavefront correction algorithm for high-contrast imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910A (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. U. Keller, V. Korkiakoski, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Extremely fast focal-plane wavefront sensing for extreme adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844721 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Korkiakoski, C. U. Keller, N. Doelman, R. Fraanje, R. Andrei, M. Verhaegen, “Experimental validation of optimization concepts for focal-plane image processing with adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84475Z (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Codona, “Theory and application of differential otf (dotf) wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476P (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Codona, N. Doble, “Experimental evaluation of differential OTF (dOTF) wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84476R (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Mann, R. Picard, “Being ‘undigital’ with digital cameras: extending dynamic range by combining differently exposed pictures,” (M.I.T. Media Lab Perceptual Computing Section, 1994).

D. C. Ghiglia, M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping-Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

M. Kasper, D. Mawet, C. Verinaud, “Roadmap for PCS,” in Third International Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes (2013).

T. P. Zielinski, “Robust image-based wavefront sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Rochester, 2011).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulated example of a PSF. Left, WF having a large defocus; 30 rad peak-to-valley, on top of a high-order component with peak-to-valley 2 rad. The WF is obtained from laboratory measurements (see Section 4.A), scaled to a size of 334 × 334 pixels. Middle, perfect circular pupil having the same size. Right, the resulting image (shown area is 220 × 220 pixels, the total simulated size is 1146 × 1146 pixels).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated dOTF ( P d ). The array size is 1146 × 1146 pixels. Left, modulus— N 1 indicates the pupil diameter in pixels, and N 2 is the size of the whole dOTF array. Right, phase.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Moduli of the simulated terms in Eq. (5), Ψ * Ψ d ; Ψ * Ψ d ; and Ψ d * Ψ d .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Illustration of the change in the pupil plane, measured by the dOTF method. Top left, Δ ϕ . Top right, Δ A . Bottom, vertical cuts of Δ ϕ and Δ A .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Illustration of the SLM mask we used to create the diversity for the dOTF method. Black circle shows the modified diversity pixels, gray pixels show the estimated pupil border.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic view of our optical setup.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

One dOTF used for the SLM calibration. The arrays are 640 × 640 pixels wide. Upper, modulus; lower, phase.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Examples of SLM calibration. Upper row, recorded images; middle row, dOTF moduli; lower row, unwrapped dOTF phase. Left column, reference (all SLM pixels at zero); right column, half of SLM pixels set to maximum control voltage.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Examples of SLM calibration. Left, ratio of dOTF moduli in Fig. 8. Right, difference of dOTF phase in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

SLM calibration results. Phase and transmittance as a function of applied SLM control signal value. Two independent measurement series are shown. Note that the phase plots overlap.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Example of the SLM registration determination. Top, SLM pixels that were modified and a linear fit along its center. Middle, pupil phase recorded by the dOTF method and a linear fit. Bottom, red lines show all the SLM pixel modifications. Crosses show the intersections of dOTF measured lines mapped onto the SLM coordinates using an optimal affine transform. Gray area shows estimated pupil location.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Illustration of the F&F performance, PSF images raised to the 0.2 power. The images have a size of 160 × 160 pixels. Left, before SLM correction (Strehl ratio 0.80). Right, after F&F has converged (Strehl ratio 0.93).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Details of Used Hardware

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p = F { A exp ( i ϕ ) } [ F { A exp ( i ϕ ) } ] * ,
P = A exp ( i ϕ ) * A exp ( i ϕ ) ,
P = Ψ * Ψ ,
P 2 = ( Ψ + Ψ d ) * ( Ψ + Ψ d ) ,
P d = P 2 P = Ψ * Ψ d + Ψ * Ψ d + Ψ d * Ψ d .
P d ( x , y ) = Ψ * Ψ d Ψ * δ d , ( x , y ) D ,
P d ( x , y ) = Ψ * Ψ d Ψ * δ d , ( x , y ) D ,
Δ ϕ = phase ( Ψ 2 * Ψ d 2 ) phase ( Ψ * Ψ d ) ,
Δ A = | Ψ 2 * Ψ d 2 | | Ψ * Ψ d | ,
w = N arr N pup ,
s k = Ω 1 I Ω 1 I k ,
e = i = 1 16 A t [ x meas ( i ) y meas ( i ) 1 ] [ x SLM ( i ) y SLM ( i ) ] 2 ,
A t = [ 1.687 0.029 235.9 0.044 1.704 483.1 ] ,

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