Abstract

A femtosecond laser provides an ideal source to investigate the laser-induced damage of a charge-coupled device (CCD) owing to its thermal-free and localized damage properties. For conventional damage mechanisms in the nanosecond laser regime, a leakage current and degradation of a point spread function or modulation transfer function of the CCD are caused by the thermal damages to the oxide and adjacent electrodes. However, the damage mechanisms are quite different for a femtosecond laser. In this paper, an area CCD was subjected to Ti: sapphire laser irradiation at 800 nm by 100 fs single pulses. Electric-induced oxide breakdown is considered to be the primary mechanism to cause a leakage current, and the injured oxide is between the gate and source in the metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) structure for one CCD pixel. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are used to investigate the damaged areas and the results show that the electrodes and the oxide underneath are not directly affected by the femtosecond laser, which helps to get rid of the conventional damage mechanisms. For the primary damage mechanism, direct damage by hot carriers, anode hole injection, and an enlarged electric field in the insulating layer are three possible ways to cause oxide breakdown. The leakage current is proved by the decrease of the resistance of electrodes to the substrate. The output saturated images and the dynamics of an area CCD indicate that the leakage current is from an electrode to a light sensing area (or gate to source for a MOSFET), which proves the oxide breakdown mechanism.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Laser-induced damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 30, 651–657 (1991).
  2. C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Mechanisms for laser-induced functional damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging sensors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5201–5210 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Li, H. B. Shen, L. Li, C. Zhang, S. J. Mao, and Y. B. Wang, “Laser-induced damages to charge coupled device detector using a high-repetition-rate and high-peak-power laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 221–227 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. D. Qiu, Z. Zheng, R. Wang, T. Jiang, and X. A. Cheng, “Mechanism research of pulsed-laser induced damage to CCD imaging devices,” Acta Opt. Sinica 31, 0214006 (2011).
  5. J. J. Jiang, F. Luo, and J. G. Chen, “Research on femtosecond laser induced damage to CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 515–517 (2005).
  6. S. Y. Huang, Y. S. Zhang, B. Q. Tang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, and Z. G. Xiao, “Damage effect on CCD detector irradiated by 500  fs laser pulse,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 1445–1448 (2005).
  7. Q. Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, E. W. Dai, C. H. Zhou, and C. S. Zhu, “Direct writing computer-generated holograms on metal film by an infrared femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 13, 2089–2092 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. L. Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S395–S398 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).
  12. J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 19–25 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. B. Shen, X. J. Shen, B. Zhou, S. J. Mao, N. Jiang, and G. Li, “Experimental study of 532  nm pulsed laser irradiating CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 21, 1449–1454 (2009).
  14. S. I. Takagi and M. Takayanagi, “Carrier transport properties of thin gate oxides after soft and hard breakdown,” Microelectron. Eng. 59, 5–15 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Cester, “Wear-out and breakdown of ultra-thin gate oxide after irradiation,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1137–1139 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Tomita, H. Utsunomiya, Y. Kamakura, and K. Taniguchi, “Hot hole induced breakdown of thin silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3664–3666 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. C. Yeo, Q. Liu, and C. M. Hu, “MOSFET gate oxide reliability: anode hole injection model and its applications,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 11, 849–886 (2001).
  18. H. Abe, “Solid state image sensor,” U.S. patent6,521,920 B2 (18February2003).
  19. Z. Zhen, “Laser-induced dazzling phenomena in visible light CCD and their mechanisms,” Ph.D. dissertation (National University of Defense Technology, 2010).
  20. K. F. Schuegraf and C. M. Hu, “Hole injection SiO2 breakdown model for very low voltage lifetime extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 761–767 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. M. Hu and Q. Lu, “A unified gate oxide reliability model,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (1999), pp. 47–51.
  22. D. A. Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2011), pp. 380–384.

2013

G. Li, H. B. Shen, L. Li, C. Zhang, S. J. Mao, and Y. B. Wang, “Laser-induced damages to charge coupled device detector using a high-repetition-rate and high-peak-power laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 221–227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

D. D. Qiu, Z. Zheng, R. Wang, T. Jiang, and X. A. Cheng, “Mechanism research of pulsed-laser induced damage to CCD imaging devices,” Acta Opt. Sinica 31, 0214006 (2011).

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

2009

H. B. Shen, X. J. Shen, B. Zhou, S. J. Mao, N. Jiang, and G. Li, “Experimental study of 532  nm pulsed laser irradiating CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 21, 1449–1454 (2009).

2005

J. J. Jiang, F. Luo, and J. G. Chen, “Research on femtosecond laser induced damage to CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 515–517 (2005).

S. Y. Huang, Y. S. Zhang, B. Q. Tang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, and Z. G. Xiao, “Damage effect on CCD detector irradiated by 500  fs laser pulse,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 1445–1448 (2005).

Q. Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, E. W. Dai, C. H. Zhou, and C. S. Zhu, “Direct writing computer-generated holograms on metal film by an infrared femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 13, 2089–2092 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. L. Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Cester, “Wear-out and breakdown of ultra-thin gate oxide after irradiation,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1137–1139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. C. Yeo, Q. Liu, and C. M. Hu, “MOSFET gate oxide reliability: anode hole injection model and its applications,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 11, 849–886 (2001).

S. I. Takagi and M. Takayanagi, “Carrier transport properties of thin gate oxides after soft and hard breakdown,” Microelectron. Eng. 59, 5–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S395–S398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Tomita, H. Utsunomiya, Y. Kamakura, and K. Taniguchi, “Hot hole induced breakdown of thin silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3664–3666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. F. Schuegraf and C. M. Hu, “Hole injection SiO2 breakdown model for very low voltage lifetime extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 761–767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Laser-induced damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 30, 651–657 (1991).

Abe, H.

H. Abe, “Solid state image sensor,” U.S. patent6,521,920 B2 (18February2003).

Baudach, S.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S395–S398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Becher, M. F.

C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Mechanisms for laser-induced functional damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging sensors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5201–5210 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Laser-induced damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 30, 651–657 (1991).

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S395–S398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cester, A.

A. Cester, “Wear-out and breakdown of ultra-thin gate oxide after irradiation,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1137–1139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. C.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. E.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. M.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. G.

J. J. Jiang, F. Luo, and J. G. Chen, “Research on femtosecond laser induced damage to CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 515–517 (2005).

Cheng, O.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X. A.

D. D. Qiu, Z. Zheng, R. Wang, T. Jiang, and X. A. Cheng, “Mechanism research of pulsed-laser induced damage to CCD imaging devices,” Acta Opt. Sinica 31, 0214006 (2011).

Chimier, B.

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

Chu, A. K.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W. L.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, B. S.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, C. H.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, E. W.

Davies, B. L.

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. L. Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. G.

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. L. Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. H.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, T. Y.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. M.

Y. C. Yeo, Q. Liu, and C. M. Hu, “MOSFET gate oxide reliability: anode hole injection model and its applications,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 11, 849–886 (2001).

K. F. Schuegraf and C. M. Hu, “Hole injection SiO2 breakdown model for very low voltage lifetime extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 761–767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Hu and Q. Lu, “A unified gate oxide reliability model,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (1999), pp. 47–51.

Huang, C. T.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, Y. S. Zhang, B. Q. Tang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, and Z. G. Xiao, “Damage effect on CCD detector irradiated by 500  fs laser pulse,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 1445–1448 (2005).

Itina, T.

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

Jiang, J. J.

J. J. Jiang, F. Luo, and J. G. Chen, “Research on femtosecond laser induced damage to CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 515–517 (2005).

Jiang, N.

H. B. Shen, X. J. Shen, B. Zhou, S. J. Mao, N. Jiang, and G. Li, “Experimental study of 532  nm pulsed laser irradiating CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 21, 1449–1454 (2009).

Jiang, T.

D. D. Qiu, Z. Zheng, R. Wang, T. Jiang, and X. A. Cheng, “Mechanism research of pulsed-laser induced damage to CCD imaging devices,” Acta Opt. Sinica 31, 0214006 (2011).

Jiang, X. W.

Kamakura, Y.

T. Tomita, H. Utsunomiya, Y. Kamakura, and K. Taniguchi, “Hot hole induced breakdown of thin silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3664–3666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S395–S398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. J.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lassonde, P.

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

Légaré, F.

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

Lenzner, M.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, H. B. Shen, L. Li, C. Zhang, S. J. Mao, and Y. B. Wang, “Laser-induced damages to charge coupled device detector using a high-repetition-rate and high-peak-power laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 221–227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Shen, X. J. Shen, B. Zhou, S. J. Mao, N. Jiang, and G. Li, “Experimental study of 532  nm pulsed laser irradiating CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 21, 1449–1454 (2009).

Li, L.

G. Li, H. B. Shen, L. Li, C. Zhang, S. J. Mao, and Y. B. Wang, “Laser-induced damages to charge coupled device detector using a high-repetition-rate and high-peak-power laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 221–227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Y. C. Yeo, Q. Liu, and C. M. Hu, “MOSFET gate oxide reliability: anode hole injection model and its applications,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 11, 849–886 (2001).

Lo, W. H.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

C. M. Hu and Q. Lu, “A unified gate oxide reliability model,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (1999), pp. 47–51.

Luo, F.

J. J. Jiang, F. Luo, and J. G. Chen, “Research on femtosecond laser induced damage to CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 515–517 (2005).

Mao, S. J.

G. Li, H. B. Shen, L. Li, C. Zhang, S. J. Mao, and Y. B. Wang, “Laser-induced damages to charge coupled device detector using a high-repetition-rate and high-peak-power laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 221–227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Shen, X. J. Shen, B. Zhou, S. J. Mao, N. Jiang, and G. Li, “Experimental study of 532  nm pulsed laser irradiating CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 21, 1449–1454 (2009).

Neamen, D. A.

D. A. Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2011), pp. 380–384.

Qiu, D. D.

D. D. Qiu, Z. Zheng, R. Wang, T. Jiang, and X. A. Cheng, “Mechanism research of pulsed-laser induced damage to CCD imaging devices,” Acta Opt. Sinica 31, 0214006 (2011).

Qiu, J. R.

Rode, A. V.

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. L. Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanner, N.

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

Schuegraf, K. F.

K. F. Schuegraf and C. M. Hu, “Hole injection SiO2 breakdown model for very low voltage lifetime extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 761–767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sentis, M.

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

Shen, H. B.

G. Li, H. B. Shen, L. Li, C. Zhang, S. J. Mao, and Y. B. Wang, “Laser-induced damages to charge coupled device detector using a high-repetition-rate and high-peak-power laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 221–227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Shen, X. J. Shen, B. Zhou, S. J. Mao, N. Jiang, and G. Li, “Experimental study of 532  nm pulsed laser irradiating CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 21, 1449–1454 (2009).

Shen, X. J.

H. B. Shen, X. J. Shen, B. Zhou, S. J. Mao, N. Jiang, and G. Li, “Experimental study of 532  nm pulsed laser irradiating CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 21, 1449–1454 (2009).

Shih, J. M.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, S. I.

S. I. Takagi and M. Takayanagi, “Carrier transport properties of thin gate oxides after soft and hard breakdown,” Microelectron. Eng. 59, 5–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takayanagi, M.

S. I. Takagi and M. Takayanagi, “Carrier transport properties of thin gate oxides after soft and hard breakdown,” Microelectron. Eng. 59, 5–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, B. Q.

S. Y. Huang, Y. S. Zhang, B. Q. Tang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, and Z. G. Xiao, “Damage effect on CCD detector irradiated by 500  fs laser pulse,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 1445–1448 (2005).

Taniguchi, K.

T. Tomita, H. Utsunomiya, Y. Kamakura, and K. Taniguchi, “Hot hole induced breakdown of thin silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3664–3666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. L. Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, T.

T. Tomita, H. Utsunomiya, Y. Kamakura, and K. Taniguchi, “Hot hole induced breakdown of thin silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3664–3666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Utéza, O.

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

Utsunomiya, H.

T. Tomita, H. Utsunomiya, Y. Kamakura, and K. Taniguchi, “Hot hole induced breakdown of thin silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3664–3666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

Walser, R. M.

C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Mechanisms for laser-induced functional damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging sensors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5201–5210 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Laser-induced damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 30, 651–657 (1991).

Wang, R.

D. D. Qiu, Z. Zheng, R. Wang, T. Jiang, and X. A. Cheng, “Mechanism research of pulsed-laser induced damage to CCD imaging devices,” Acta Opt. Sinica 31, 0214006 (2011).

Wang, Y. B.

G. Li, H. B. Shen, L. Li, C. Zhang, S. J. Mao, and Y. B. Wang, “Laser-induced damages to charge coupled device detector using a high-repetition-rate and high-peak-power laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 221–227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. J.

S. Y. Huang, Y. S. Zhang, B. Q. Tang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, and Z. G. Xiao, “Damage effect on CCD detector irradiated by 500  fs laser pulse,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 1445–1448 (2005).

Watkins, S. E.

C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Mechanisms for laser-induced functional damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging sensors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5201–5210 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Laser-induced damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 30, 651–657 (1991).

Xia, G. R.

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Z. G.

S. Y. Huang, Y. S. Zhang, B. Q. Tang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, and Z. G. Xiao, “Damage effect on CCD detector irradiated by 500  fs laser pulse,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 1445–1448 (2005).

Yeo, Y. C.

Y. C. Yeo, Q. Liu, and C. M. Hu, “MOSFET gate oxide reliability: anode hole injection model and its applications,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 11, 849–886 (2001).

Zhang, C.

G. Li, H. B. Shen, L. Li, C. Zhang, S. J. Mao, and Y. B. Wang, “Laser-induced damages to charge coupled device detector using a high-repetition-rate and high-peak-power laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 221–227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. Z.

C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Mechanisms for laser-induced functional damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging sensors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5201–5210 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Laser-induced damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 30, 651–657 (1991).

Zhang, Y.

S. Y. Huang, Y. S. Zhang, B. Q. Tang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, and Z. G. Xiao, “Damage effect on CCD detector irradiated by 500  fs laser pulse,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 1445–1448 (2005).

Zhang, Y. S.

S. Y. Huang, Y. S. Zhang, B. Q. Tang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, and Z. G. Xiao, “Damage effect on CCD detector irradiated by 500  fs laser pulse,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 1445–1448 (2005).

Zhao, Q. Z.

Zhen, Z.

Z. Zhen, “Laser-induced dazzling phenomena in visible light CCD and their mechanisms,” Ph.D. dissertation (National University of Defense Technology, 2010).

Zheng, Z.

D. D. Qiu, Z. Zheng, R. Wang, T. Jiang, and X. A. Cheng, “Mechanism research of pulsed-laser induced damage to CCD imaging devices,” Acta Opt. Sinica 31, 0214006 (2011).

Zhou, B.

H. B. Shen, X. J. Shen, B. Zhou, S. J. Mao, N. Jiang, and G. Li, “Experimental study of 532  nm pulsed laser irradiating CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 21, 1449–1454 (2009).

Zhou, C. H.

Zhu, C. S.

Acta Opt. Sinica

D. D. Qiu, Z. Zheng, R. Wang, T. Jiang, and X. A. Cheng, “Mechanism research of pulsed-laser induced damage to CCD imaging devices,” Acta Opt. Sinica 31, 0214006 (2011).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S395–S398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon-modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Tomita, H. Utsunomiya, Y. Kamakura, and K. Taniguchi, “Hot hole induced breakdown of thin silicon dioxide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3664–3666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Dai, T. C. Chang, A. K. Chu, Y. J. Kuo, S. H. Ho, T. Y. Hsieh, W. H. Lo, C. E. Chen, J. M. Shih, W. L. Chung, B. S. Dai, H. M. Chen, G. R. Xia, O. Cheng, and C. T. Huang, “Hot carrier effect on gate-induced drain leakage current in high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 012106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Cester, “Wear-out and breakdown of ultra-thin gate oxide after irradiation,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1137–1139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

High Power Laser and Particle Beams

J. J. Jiang, F. Luo, and J. G. Chen, “Research on femtosecond laser induced damage to CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 515–517 (2005).

S. Y. Huang, Y. S. Zhang, B. Q. Tang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, and Z. G. Xiao, “Damage effect on CCD detector irradiated by 500  fs laser pulse,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 17, 1445–1448 (2005).

H. B. Shen, X. J. Shen, B. Zhou, S. J. Mao, N. Jiang, and G. Li, “Experimental study of 532  nm pulsed laser irradiating CCD,” High Power Laser and Particle Beams 21, 1449–1454 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

K. F. Schuegraf and C. M. Hu, “Hole injection SiO2 breakdown model for very low voltage lifetime extrapolation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 761–767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.

Y. C. Yeo, Q. Liu, and C. M. Hu, “MOSFET gate oxide reliability: anode hole injection model and its applications,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 11, 849–886 (2001).

Microelectron. Eng.

S. I. Takagi and M. Takayanagi, “Carrier transport properties of thin gate oxides after soft and hard breakdown,” Microelectron. Eng. 59, 5–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. Z. Zhang, S. E. Watkins, R. M. Walser, and M. F. Becher, “Laser-induced damage to silicon charge-coupled imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 30, 651–657 (1991).

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

G. Li, H. B. Shen, L. Li, C. Zhang, S. J. Mao, and Y. B. Wang, “Laser-induced damages to charge coupled device detector using a high-repetition-rate and high-peak-power laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 221–227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. L. Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

B. Chimier, O. Utéza, N. Sanner, M. Sentis, T. Itina, P. Lassonde, F. Légaré, F. Vidal, and J. C. Kieffer, “Damage and ablation thresholds of fused-silica in femtosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 094104 (2011).

Other

H. Abe, “Solid state image sensor,” U.S. patent6,521,920 B2 (18February2003).

Z. Zhen, “Laser-induced dazzling phenomena in visible light CCD and their mechanisms,” Ph.D. dissertation (National University of Defense Technology, 2010).

C. M. Hu and Q. Lu, “A unified gate oxide reliability model,” in IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (1999), pp. 47–51.

D. A. Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2011), pp. 380–384.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-sectional view of a CCD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output images with corresponding energy fluences.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical microscopy and SEM images of damaged areas. (a) Optical image of three different areas, (b) SEM image of damaged area at the energy fluence of 268mJ/cm2, (c) SEM image of (b) after corroding the W-shield, (d) the enlarged area of (c), (e) the enlarged central area of (c) after removing the fused silica, and (f) the enlarged central area of (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Doping distribution in bulk silicon.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Resistance of Vertical Electrodes to Substrate under Different Stages (Unit: MΩ)

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