Abstract

A method to optimize the gain of a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) is presented by using a genetic algorithm (GA), which can determine the parameters of FOPA and avoid the trouble of trial and error to achieve it. The effect of pump depletion on the gain characteristic of the FOPA is emphasized, and the effects of the fiber length, the wavelength, and the power of two pumps on bandwidth, flatness, and magnitude of the gain spectrum are also studied. According to the presentation, fiber length and the wavelength of the two pumps are selected to be the variable parameters in the GA. When the parameters of the fiber are determined, with the numerical simulation, the optimum combination scheme between those chosen variables could be obtained by the algorithms with the result of the gain optimization of FOPA.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18, 4130–4137 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “40  Gb/s all-optical regeneration based on the pump depletion effect in fiber parametric amplification,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 63–71 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. E. Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 950–957 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. C. Ho, K. Uesaka, M. Marhic, Y. Akasaka, and L. G. Kazovsky, “200-nm-bandwidth fiber optical amplifier combining parametric and Raman gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 977–981 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Da Ros, K. Rottwitt, and C. Peucheret, “Gain optimization in fiber optical parametric amplifiers by combining standard and high-SBS threshold highly nonlinear fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2012, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CM4N.5.
  7. K. Xu, H. Y. Liu, Y. T. Dai, J. Wu, and J. T. Lin, “Synthesis of broadband and flat parametric gain by idler loss in optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 790–794 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. M. E. Marhic, K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 10, 1133–1141 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).
  20. M. E. Marhic, Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers, Oscillators and Related Devices (Academic, 2008).
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    [CrossRef]

2012

N. E. Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Xu, H. Y. Liu, Y. T. Dai, J. Wu, and J. T. Lin, “Synthesis of broadband and flat parametric gain by idler loss in optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 790–794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

M. Jamshidifar, A. Vedadi, and M. E. Marhic, “Continuous-wave one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier with 270  nm gain bandwidth,” IEEE. Opt. Commun. 35, 1–2 (2009).

2008

A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “40  Gb/s all-optical regeneration based on the pump depletion effect in fiber parametric amplification,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 63–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Gao, J. Wang, C. Jiang, W. Hu, and H. Ren, “Two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers using optimized photonic crystal fiber by genetic algorithm.” Appl. Phys. B 84, 433–438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tian, X. Xiao, S. Gao, S. Lu, and C. Yang, “Ultra-flat and broadband two-pump optical parametric amplifiers using a single-section highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 263, 116–119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. E. Marhic, K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 10, 1133–1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Gao, C. Jiang, W. S. Hu, and J. Wang, “Optimized design of two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier with two-section nonlinear fibers using genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 12, 5603–5613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, C. G. Wang, J. W. Shu, C. Jiang, and W. S. Hu, “Design of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1652–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, “Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency,” IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Ho, K. Uesaka, M. Marhic, Y. Akasaka, and L. G. Kazovsky, “200-nm-bandwidth fiber optical amplifier combining parametric and Raman gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 977–981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. E. Goldberg, “Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning,” Mach. Learn. 3, 95–99 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

Akasaka, Y.

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18, 4130–4137 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, “Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency,” IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “40  Gb/s all-optical regeneration based on the pump depletion effect in fiber parametric amplification,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 63–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Da Ros, F.

F. Da Ros, K. Rottwitt, and C. Peucheret, “Gain optimization in fiber optical parametric amplifiers by combining standard and high-SBS threshold highly nonlinear fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2012, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CM4N.5.

Dahdah, N. E.

N. E. Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y. T.

K. Xu, H. Y. Liu, Y. T. Dai, J. Wu, and J. T. Lin, “Synthesis of broadband and flat parametric gain by idler loss in optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 790–794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

N. E. Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M.

M. Gao, J. Wang, C. Jiang, W. Hu, and H. Ren, “Two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers using optimized photonic crystal fiber by genetic algorithm.” Appl. Phys. B 84, 433–438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M. Y.

Gao, S.

Y. Tian, X. Xiao, S. Gao, S. Lu, and C. Yang, “Ultra-flat and broadband two-pump optical parametric amplifiers using a single-section highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 263, 116–119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, D. E.

D. E. Goldberg, “Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning,” Mach. Learn. 3, 95–99 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Govan, D. S.

N. E. Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, “Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency,” IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hedekvist, P.-O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, M. C.

Hu, W.

M. Gao, J. Wang, C. Jiang, W. Hu, and H. Ren, “Two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers using optimized photonic crystal fiber by genetic algorithm.” Appl. Phys. B 84, 433–438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W. S.

W. Zhang, C. G. Wang, J. W. Shu, C. Jiang, and W. S. Hu, “Design of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1652–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Gao, C. Jiang, W. S. Hu, and J. Wang, “Optimized design of two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier with two-section nonlinear fibers using genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 12, 5603–5613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jamshidifar, M.

N. E. Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamshidifar, A. Vedadi, and M. E. Marhic, “Continuous-wave one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier with 270  nm gain bandwidth,” IEEE. Opt. Commun. 35, 1–2 (2009).

Jiang, C.

M. Gao, J. Wang, C. Jiang, W. Hu, and H. Ren, “Two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers using optimized photonic crystal fiber by genetic algorithm.” Appl. Phys. B 84, 433–438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Gao, C. Jiang, W. S. Hu, and J. Wang, “Optimized design of two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier with two-section nonlinear fibers using genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 12, 5603–5613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, C. G. Wang, J. W. Shu, C. Jiang, and W. S. Hu, “Design of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1652–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kakande, J.

Karlsson, M.

Kazovsky, L. G.

M. E. Marhic, K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 10, 1133–1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Ho, K. Uesaka, M. Marhic, Y. Akasaka, and L. G. Kazovsky, “200-nm-bandwidth fiber optical amplifier combining parametric and Raman gain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 977–981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lantz, E.

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. T.

K. Xu, H. Y. Liu, Y. T. Dai, J. Wu, and J. T. Lin, “Synthesis of broadband and flat parametric gain by idler loss in optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 790–794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

K. Xu, H. Y. Liu, Y. T. Dai, J. Wu, and J. T. Lin, “Synthesis of broadband and flat parametric gain by idler loss in optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 790–794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

Y. Tian, X. Xiao, S. Gao, S. Lu, and C. Yang, “Ultra-flat and broadband two-pump optical parametric amplifiers using a single-section highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 263, 116–119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lundström, C.

Maillotte, H.

Marhic, M.

Marhic, M. E.

N. E. Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamshidifar, A. Vedadi, and M. E. Marhic, “Continuous-wave one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier with 270  nm gain bandwidth,” IEEE. Opt. Commun. 35, 1–2 (2009).

M. E. Marhic, K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 10, 1133–1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers, Oscillators and Related Devices (Academic, 2008).

McKinstrie, C. J.

Murdoch, S. G.

Mussot, A.

Ott, J. R.

Parmigiani, F.

Petropoulos, P.

Peucheret, C.

F. Da Ros, K. Rottwitt, and C. Peucheret, “Gain optimization in fiber optical parametric amplifiers by combining standard and high-SBS threshold highly nonlinear fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2012, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CM4N.5.

Provino, L.

Ren, H.

M. Gao, J. Wang, C. Jiang, W. Hu, and H. Ren, “Two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers using optimized photonic crystal fiber by genetic algorithm.” Appl. Phys. B 84, 433–438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Rottwitt, K.

H. Steffensen, J. R. Ott, K. Rottwitt, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Full and semi-analytic analyses of two-pump parametric amplification with pump depletion,” Opt. Express 19, 6648–6656 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Da Ros, K. Rottwitt, and C. Peucheret, “Gain optimization in fiber optical parametric amplifiers by combining standard and high-SBS threshold highly nonlinear fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2012, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CM4N.5.

Shu, J. W.

W. Zhang, C. G. Wang, J. W. Shu, C. Jiang, and W. S. Hu, “Design of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1652–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steffensen, H.

Sylvestre, T.

Syvridis, D.

A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “40  Gb/s all-optical regeneration based on the pump depletion effect in fiber parametric amplification,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 63–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Tian, X. Xiao, S. Gao, S. Lu, and C. Yang, “Ultra-flat and broadband two-pump optical parametric amplifiers using a single-section highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 263, 116–119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

Uesaka, K.

Vedadi, A.

M. Jamshidifar, A. Vedadi, and M. E. Marhic, “Continuous-wave one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier with 270  nm gain bandwidth,” IEEE. Opt. Commun. 35, 1–2 (2009).

Wang, C. G.

W. Zhang, C. G. Wang, J. W. Shu, C. Jiang, and W. S. Hu, “Design of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1652–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

M. Gao, J. Wang, C. Jiang, W. Hu, and H. Ren, “Two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers using optimized photonic crystal fiber by genetic algorithm.” Appl. Phys. B 84, 433–438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Gao, C. Jiang, W. S. Hu, and J. Wang, “Optimized design of two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier with two-section nonlinear fibers using genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 12, 5603–5613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. Y.

M. E. Marhic, K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 10, 1133–1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

K. Xu, H. Y. Liu, Y. T. Dai, J. Wu, and J. T. Lin, “Synthesis of broadband and flat parametric gain by idler loss in optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 790–794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

Y. Tian, X. Xiao, S. Gao, S. Lu, and C. Yang, “Ultra-flat and broadband two-pump optical parametric amplifiers using a single-section highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 263, 116–119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

K. Xu, H. Y. Liu, Y. T. Dai, J. Wu, and J. T. Lin, “Synthesis of broadband and flat parametric gain by idler loss in optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 790–794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. Q.

Yang, C.

Y. Tian, X. Xiao, S. Gao, S. Lu, and C. Yang, “Ultra-flat and broadband two-pump optical parametric amplifiers using a single-section highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 263, 116–119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, C. G. Wang, J. W. Shu, C. Jiang, and W. S. Hu, “Design of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1652–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Gao, J. Wang, C. Jiang, W. Hu, and H. Ren, “Two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers using optimized photonic crystal fiber by genetic algorithm.” Appl. Phys. B 84, 433–438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, “Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency,” IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194–196 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

M. E. Marhic, K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 10, 1133–1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. E. Dahdah, D. S. Govan, M. Jamshidifar, N. J. Doran, and M. E. Marhic, “Fiber optical parametric amplifier performance in a 1-Tb/s DWDM communication system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 950–957 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. Zhang, C. G. Wang, J. W. Shu, C. Jiang, and W. S. Hu, “Design of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers by genetic algorithm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1652–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Opt. Commun.

M. Jamshidifar, A. Vedadi, and M. E. Marhic, “Continuous-wave one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier with 270  nm gain bandwidth,” IEEE. Opt. Commun. 35, 1–2 (2009).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Mach. Learn.

D. E. Goldberg, “Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning,” Mach. Learn. 3, 95–99 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. Tian, X. Xiao, S. Gao, S. Lu, and C. Yang, “Ultra-flat and broadband two-pump optical parametric amplifiers using a single-section highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 263, 116–119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Xu, H. Y. Liu, Y. T. Dai, J. Wu, and J. T. Lin, “Synthesis of broadband and flat parametric gain by idler loss in optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 790–794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

A. Bogris and D. Syvridis, “40  Gb/s all-optical regeneration based on the pump depletion effect in fiber parametric amplification,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 63–71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

M. E. Marhic, Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers, Oscillators and Related Devices (Academic, 2008).

F. Da Ros, K. Rottwitt, and C. Peucheret, “Gain optimization in fiber optical parametric amplifiers by combining standard and high-SBS threshold highly nonlinear fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2012, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CM4N.5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Gain curves of two-pump FOPA with pump depletion. (a) Best result after GA iteration, where the length of HNLF is L=106m and the wavelengths of the two pumps are λp1=1591.5nm, λp2=1521.0nm. (b), (c), (d) Some of the results in the process of GA iteration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Energy transformation between the signal and pump light in the FOPA, where λp1=1591.5nm, λp2=1521.0nm, λs=1550.0nm. (b) Gain of the signal power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Signal gain curves of two-pump FOPA with different fiber lengths where the λp1=1591.5nm, λp2=1521.0nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Signal gain curves of two-pump FOPA with different pump power and modest fiber length where the λp1=1591.5nm, λp2=1521.0nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Gain curves of two-pump FOPA with different fiber parameters from Fig. 1 where γ=40W1km1 and β4=1.0×1056s4m1.

Equations (7)

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dPp1dz=4γ(Pp1Pp2PsPi)1/2sinθ,
dPp2dz=4γ(Pp1Pp2PsPi)1/2sinθ,
dPsdz=4γ(Pp1Pp2PsPi)1/2sinθ,
dPidz=4γ(Pp1Pp2PsPi)1/2sinθ,
dθdz=Δβ+γ(Pp1+Pp2PsPi)+2γ[(Pp1Pp2Pi/Ps)1/2+(Pp1Pp2Ps/Pi)1/2(Pp2PsPi/Pp1)1/2(Pp1PsPi/Pp2)1/2]cosθ,
F=i=13Ai×fi,
Pi=Fi/j=1nFj,

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