Abstract

We report on the synthesis and characteristics of a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) switchable grating based on nano-Ag particles. The influence of doping different concentrations of nano-Ag on the diffraction efficiency, driving voltage, and response time of the H-PDLC grating is investigated. The best grating characteristics were achieved with 0.05% nano-Ag doping. Calculated and experimental results reveal that the improvement of the characteristics is likely due to the surface plasmon effect of nano-Ag.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. H. Nataj, E. Mohajerani, J. Hossein, and A. Jannesari, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal enhanced by introducing urethane trimethacrylate,” Appl. Opt. 51, 697–703 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Li, Z. Fan, J. Li, Y. Zhao, and Y. Sun, “Polarization microscopy study on piezo-optical effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 816001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Jia, B. Zhang, Y.-J. Liu, and K. Xu, “Optimization of diffraction properties for holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 52, 91–95 (2003).
  5. J. Zheng, G. Sun, Y. Jiang, T. Wang, A. Huang, Y. Zhang, P. Tang, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, and S. Yin, “H-PDLC based waveform controllable optical choppers for FDMF microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 2216–2224 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. S. Drzaic and A. M. Gonzales, “Refractive index gradients and light scattering in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1332–1334 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Yang, “New directions in recent liquid crystal studies the progress in foundational research of non-display application of liquid crystals,” Prog. Phys. 28, 107–129 (2008).
  9. J. C. Lin and P. L. Taylor, “Polymerization-induced phase separation of a liquid crystal-polymer mixture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 237, 25–31 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Mucha, “Polymer as an important component of blends and composites with liquid crystals,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 837–873 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Ma, H. Yang, J. Liu, Z. Ni, D. Tang, and J. Yao, “Influences of shape on extinction spectrum for metal nanoparticles,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30, 2629–2633 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Klostman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer 45, 7213–7218 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 01, 1544–1552 (2011).
  15. O. V. Yaroshchuk and L. O. Dolgov, “Electro-optics and structural of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with nanoparticles of inorganic materials,” Opt. Mater. 2, 1097–1102 (2007).
  16. S. Eren San, M. Okutan, O. Köysal, and Y. Yerli, “Carbon nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 212–215 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Gan and Y. Wang, “Breaking through the optical diffraction limits, developing the nano-optics and photonics,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 900104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission gratings,” Polymer 43, 7335–7344 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1685–1706 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. C. Howells and L. A. Schlie, “Transient terahertz reflection spectroscopy of undoped InSb from 0.1 to 1.1  THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 550–552 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).
  23. G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035–1047 (1997).
  24. S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 331–366 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453–1465 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. K. Shriyan and A. K. Fontecchio, “Analysis of effects of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on electro-optic polymer/liquid crystal thin film gratings,” Opt. Express 8, 24842–24852 (2010).
  27. V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 1134–1137 (2000).

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

J. Zheng, G. Sun, Y. Jiang, T. Wang, A. Huang, Y. Zhang, P. Tang, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, and S. Yin, “H-PDLC based waveform controllable optical choppers for FDMF microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 2216–2224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 01, 1544–1552 (2011).

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Gan and Y. Wang, “Breaking through the optical diffraction limits, developing the nano-optics and photonics,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 900104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Fan, J. Li, Y. Zhao, and Y. Sun, “Polarization microscopy study on piezo-optical effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 816001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

W. Ma, H. Yang, J. Liu, Z. Ni, D. Tang, and J. Yao, “Influences of shape on extinction spectrum for metal nanoparticles,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30, 2629–2633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Shriyan and A. K. Fontecchio, “Analysis of effects of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on electro-optic polymer/liquid crystal thin film gratings,” Opt. Express 8, 24842–24852 (2010).

2008 (2)

F. Yang, “New directions in recent liquid crystal studies the progress in foundational research of non-display application of liquid crystals,” Prog. Phys. 28, 107–129 (2008).

S. Eren San, M. Okutan, O. Köysal, and Y. Yerli, “Carbon nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 212–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

O. V. Yaroshchuk and L. O. Dolgov, “Electro-optics and structural of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with nanoparticles of inorganic materials,” Opt. Mater. 2, 1097–1102 (2007).

2004 (2)

J. Klostman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer 45, 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

Y. Jia, B. Zhang, Y.-J. Liu, and K. Xu, “Optimization of diffraction properties for holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 52, 91–95 (2003).

M. Mucha, “Polymer as an important component of blends and composites with liquid crystals,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 837–873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 331–366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (2)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 1134–1137 (2000).

1997 (1)

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035–1047 (1997).

1996 (1)

S. C. Howells and L. A. Schlie, “Transient terahertz reflection spectroscopy of undoped InSb from 0.1 to 1.1  THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 550–552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

P. S. Drzaic and A. M. Gonzales, “Refractive index gradients and light scattering in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1332–1334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lin and P. L. Taylor, “Polymerization-induced phase separation of a liquid crystal-polymer mixture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 237, 25–31 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, F.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 01, 1544–1552 (2011).

Brandelik, D. M.

Bunning, T. J.

J. Klostman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer 45, 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Castagna, R.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 1134–1137 (2000).

Chandra, S.

Crawford, G. P.

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission gratings,” Polymer 43, 7335–7344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Criante, L.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 1134–1137 (2000).

Dai, S.

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dolgov, L. O.

O. V. Yaroshchuk and L. O. Dolgov, “Electro-optics and structural of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with nanoparticles of inorganic materials,” Opt. Mater. 2, 1097–1102 (2007).

Drzaic, P. S.

P. S. Drzaic and A. M. Gonzales, “Refractive index gradients and light scattering in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1332–1334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 331–366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, J. H.

B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eren San, S.

S. Eren San, M. Okutan, O. Köysal, and Y. Yerli, “Carbon nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 212–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Z. Li, Z. Fan, J. Li, Y. Zhao, and Y. Sun, “Polarization microscopy study on piezo-optical effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 816001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fontecchio, A. K.

S. K. Shriyan and A. K. Fontecchio, “Analysis of effects of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on electro-optic polymer/liquid crystal thin film gratings,” Opt. Express 8, 24842–24852 (2010).

Gan, F.

F. Gan and Y. Wang, “Breaking through the optical diffraction limits, developing the nano-optics and photonics,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 900104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gonzales, A. M.

P. S. Drzaic and A. M. Gonzales, “Refractive index gradients and light scattering in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1332–1334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guymon, C. A.

J. Klostman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer 45, 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hossein, J.

Howells, S. C.

S. C. Howells and L. A. Schlie, “Transient terahertz reflection spectroscopy of undoped InSb from 0.1 to 1.1  THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 550–552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, A.

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jamil, M.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 01, 1544–1552 (2011).

Jannesari, A.

Jeon, Y. J.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 01, 1544–1552 (2011).

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, B. Zhang, Y.-J. Liu, and K. Xu, “Optimization of diffraction properties for holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 52, 91–95 (2003).

Jiang, Y.

Klostman, J.

J. Klostman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer 45, 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Köysal, O.

S. Eren San, M. Okutan, O. Köysal, and Y. Yerli, “Carbon nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 212–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Z. Li, Z. Fan, J. Li, Y. Zhao, and Y. Sun, “Polarization microscopy study on piezo-optical effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 816001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, Z. Fan, J. Li, Y. Zhao, and Y. Sun, “Polarization microscopy study on piezo-optical effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 816001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. C.

J. C. Lin and P. L. Taylor, “Polymerization-induced phase separation of a liquid crystal-polymer mixture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 237, 25–31 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 331–366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

W. Ma, H. Yang, J. Liu, Z. Ni, D. Tang, and J. Yao, “Influences of shape on extinction spectrum for metal nanoparticles,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30, 2629–2633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y.-J.

Y. Jia, B. Zhang, Y.-J. Liu, and K. Xu, “Optimization of diffraction properties for holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 52, 91–95 (2003).

Lucchetta, D. E.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 1134–1137 (2000).

Ma, W.

W. Ma, H. Yang, J. Liu, Z. Ni, D. Tang, and J. Yao, “Influences of shape on extinction spectrum for metal nanoparticles,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30, 2629–2633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mohajerani, E.

Montemezzani, G.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035–1047 (1997).

Mucha, M.

M. Mucha, “Polymer as an important component of blends and composites with liquid crystals,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 837–873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nataj, N. H.

Natarajan, L. V.

J. Klostman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer 45, 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

W. Ma, H. Yang, J. Liu, Z. Ni, D. Tang, and J. Yao, “Influences of shape on extinction spectrum for metal nanoparticles,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30, 2629–2633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nie, Q.

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Okutan, M.

S. Eren San, M. Okutan, O. Köysal, and Y. Yerli, “Carbon nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 212–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qi, J.

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission gratings,” Polymer 43, 7335–7344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J. T.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 01, 1544–1552 (2011).

Sarkar, M. D.

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission gratings,” Polymer 43, 7335–7344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlie, L. A.

S. C. Howells and L. A. Schlie, “Transient terahertz reflection spectroscopy of undoped InSb from 0.1 to 1.1  THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 550–552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, C. K.

Shriyan, S. K.

S. K. Shriyan and A. K. Fontecchio, “Analysis of effects of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on electro-optic polymer/liquid crystal thin film gratings,” Opt. Express 8, 24842–24852 (2010).

Simoni, F.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 1134–1137 (2000).

Siwecki, S. A.

Song, B.

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

Sun, Y.

Z. Li, Z. Fan, J. Li, Y. Zhao, and Y. Sun, “Polarization microscopy study on piezo-optical effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 816001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

J. Klostman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer 45, 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

W. Ma, H. Yang, J. Liu, Z. Ni, D. Tang, and J. Yao, “Influences of shape on extinction spectrum for metal nanoparticles,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30, 2629–2633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, P.

Taylor, P. L.

J. C. Lin and P. L. Taylor, “Polymerization-induced phase separation of a liquid crystal-polymer mixture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 237, 25–31 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

J. Klostman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer 45, 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, and S. A. Siwecki, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 3004–3012 (2002).

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vita, F.

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 1134–1137 (2000).

Wang, T.

Wang, X.

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

F. Gan and Y. Wang, “Breaking through the optical diffraction limits, developing the nano-optics and photonics,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 900104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

White, T. J.

J. Klostman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer 45, 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. G.

B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

Y. Jia, B. Zhang, Y.-J. Liu, and K. Xu, “Optimization of diffraction properties for holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 52, 91–95 (2003).

Xu, T.

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang, “New directions in recent liquid crystal studies the progress in foundational research of non-display application of liquid crystals,” Prog. Phys. 28, 107–129 (2008).

Yang, H.

W. Ma, H. Yang, J. Liu, Z. Ni, D. Tang, and J. Yao, “Influences of shape on extinction spectrum for metal nanoparticles,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30, 2629–2633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

W. Ma, H. Yang, J. Liu, Z. Ni, D. Tang, and J. Yao, “Influences of shape on extinction spectrum for metal nanoparticles,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30, 2629–2633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yaroshchuk, O. V.

O. V. Yaroshchuk and L. O. Dolgov, “Electro-optics and structural of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with nanoparticles of inorganic materials,” Opt. Mater. 2, 1097–1102 (2007).

Yerli, Y.

S. Eren San, M. Okutan, O. Köysal, and Y. Yerli, “Carbon nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 212–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

Zgonik, M.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035–1047 (1997).

Zhang, B.

Y. Jia, B. Zhang, Y.-J. Liu, and K. Xu, “Optimization of diffraction properties for holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 52, 91–95 (2003).

Zhang, W.

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, Y.

Z. Li, Z. Fan, J. Li, Y. Zhao, and Y. Sun, “Polarization microscopy study on piezo-optical effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 816001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

Zhuang, S.

Acta Opt. Sin. (4)

W. Ma, H. Yang, J. Liu, Z. Ni, D. Tang, and J. Yao, “Influences of shape on extinction spectrum for metal nanoparticles,” Acta Opt. Sin. 30, 2629–2633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, T. Xu, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, X. Wang, B. Song, W. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Influence of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion properties in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped bismuth germanate glasses,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 0730002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Gan and Y. Wang, “Breaking through the optical diffraction limits, developing the nano-optics and photonics,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 900104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Fan, J. Li, Y. Zhao, and Y. Sun, “Polarization microscopy study on piezo-optical effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” Acta Opt. Sin. 31, 816001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

Y. Jia, B. Zhang, Y.-J. Liu, and K. Xu, “Optimization of diffraction properties for holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal,” Acta Phys. Sin. 52, 91–95 (2003).

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Optical properties and ultrafast dynamics of metallic nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 331–366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. C. Howells and L. A. Schlie, “Transient terahertz reflection spectroscopy of undoped InSb from 0.1 to 1.1  THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 550–552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Drzaic and A. M. Gonzales, “Refractive index gradients and light scattering in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1332–1334 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, “Bragg gratings in an acrylate polymer consisting of periodic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal planes,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1533–1538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Eren San, M. Okutan, O. Köysal, and Y. Yerli, “Carbon nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 212–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Sci. (1)

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 01, 1544–1552 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Liq. Cryst. (1)

B. G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, and J. W. Doane, “Response times and voltages for PDLC light shutters,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453–1465 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

J. C. Lin and P. L. Taylor, “Polymerization-induced phase separation of a liquid crystal-polymer mixture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 237, 25–31 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

S. K. Shriyan and A. K. Fontecchio, “Analysis of effects of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on electro-optic polymer/liquid crystal thin film gratings,” Opt. Express 8, 24842–24852 (2010).

J. Zheng, G. Sun, Y. Jiang, T. Wang, A. Huang, Y. Zhang, P. Tang, S. Zhuang, Y. Liu, and S. Yin, “H-PDLC based waveform controllable optical choppers for FDMF microscopy,” Opt. Express 19, 2216–2224 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

O. V. Yaroshchuk and L. O. Dolgov, “Electro-optics and structural of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with nanoparticles of inorganic materials,” Opt. Mater. 2, 1097–1102 (2007).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035–1047 (1997).

Polymer (2)

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission gratings,” Polymer 43, 7335–7344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Klostman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer 45, 7213–7218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Vita, D. E. Lucchetta, R. Castagna, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, “Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 3800, 1134–1137 (2000).

Prog. Phys. (1)

F. Yang, “New directions in recent liquid crystal studies the progress in foundational research of non-display application of liquid crystals,” Prog. Phys. 28, 107–129 (2008).

Prog. Polym. Sci. (1)

M. Mucha, “Polymer as an important component of blends and composites with liquid crystals,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28, 837–873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for nano-Ag doped H-PDLC grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Model constructed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmittance curve of model.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectra of H-PDLC gratings doped with different concentrations of nano-Ag.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Atomic force microscope (AFM) images of each sample doped with different concentrations of nano-Ag: (a) 0% Ag, (b) 0.025% Ag, (c) 0.05% Ag, (d) 0.1% Ag, and (e) 0.2% Ag.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of H-PDLC grating diffraction pattern: (a) doped 0% nano-Ag and (b) doped 0.05% nano-Ag.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Relationship between the diffraction efficiency and the drive voltage for each sample.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

FE-SEM images of H-PDLC diffraction gratings doped with (a) 0% nano-Ag and (b) 0.05% nano-Ag.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Effect of probe angular polarization on first-order diffraction efficiency of the H-PDLC gratings doped with different levels of nano-Ag.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Rise and Fall Times of Nano-Ag Doped H-PDLC Grating with Different Concentrations

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε(ω)=εωP2ω2+iγω,
ξ=sin2(πdΔnλ(cosθScosθP)1/2)e2xd,
Δn=(n¯LC-Richn¯P-Rich)2,
VC=d03a(σLCσP+2)(K(l21)ε0Δε)1/2,
τon=γ1ΔεE2+k(l21)/a2,
τoff=γ1a2k(l21),

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