Abstract

The light distribution of a light-emitting diode (LED), using remote phosphor with a patterned sapphire substrate, is evaluated in this study. Three kinds of substrates of the remote phosphors, including planar sapphire (PS), partially patterned sapphire (PPS), and fully patterned sapphire (FPS) are prepared. The LED with the remote phosphor of FPS delivers much better uniformity of the correlated color temperature (CCT) in a far-field pattern than the CCT obtained in the cases of PS and PPS. The results are majorly attributed to the improvement in the scattering ability of the blue light in the FPS; thereby increasing the excitation of the phosphor particles in comparison to the ability of the device assembled with the remote phosphor of PS or PPS.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AIGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687–1689 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A930–A936 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765–1767 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. F. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Xian, and G. Wang, “Study of phosphor thermal-isolated packaging technologies for high-power white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1121–1123 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid State Electron. 52, 962–967 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, and Y. P. Huang, “Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs,” Opt. Express 18, A201–A206 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Yang, S. Wang, Z. Lv, and S. Liu, “Color deviation controlling of phosphor conformal coating by advanced spray painting technology for white LEDs,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2075–2079 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 433–440 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. T. Lee and T. J. Wu, “Light distribution and light extraction improvement mechanisms of remote GaN-based white light-emitting-diodes using ZnO nanorod array,” J. Lumin. 137, 143–147 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013

L. Yang, S. Wang, Z. Lv, and S. Liu, “Color deviation controlling of phosphor conformal coating by advanced spray painting technology for white LEDs,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2075–2079 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Lee and T. J. Wu, “Light distribution and light extraction improvement mechanisms of remote GaN-based white light-emitting-diodes using ZnO nanorod array,” J. Lumin. 137, 143–147 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, and Y. P. Huang, “Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs,” Opt. Express 18, A201–A206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid State Electron. 52, 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. F. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Xian, and G. Wang, “Study of phosphor thermal-isolated packaging technologies for high-power white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1121–1123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AIGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. C.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, A.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cen, S.

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, H. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. J.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. J.

Chien, S. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Craford, G.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B. F.

B. F. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Xian, and G. Wang, “Study of phosphor thermal-isolated packaging technologies for high-power white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1121–1123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid State Electron. 52, 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haase, A.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haitz, R.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Han, H. V.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, P.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. T.

Huang, Y. P.

Hung, C. W.

Jin, S.

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuna, L.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. T.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. T.

C. T. Lee and T. J. Wu, “Light distribution and light extraction improvement mechanisms of remote GaN-based white light-emitting-diodes using ZnO nanorod array,” J. Lumin. 137, 143–147 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leising, G.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid State Electron. 52, 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. T.

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liang, P.

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

L. Yang, S. Wang, Z. Lv, and S. Liu, “Color deviation controlling of phosphor conformal coating by advanced spray painting technology for white LEDs,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2075–2079 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Y.

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. B.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Z.

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AIGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AIGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pachler, P.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AIGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sher, C. W.

Shih, M. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, C.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y. E.

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tasch, S.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. C.

Tsai, H. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid State Electron. 52, 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Xian, and G. Wang, “Study of phosphor thermal-isolated packaging technologies for high-power white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1121–1123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Wenzl, F. P.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

B. F. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Xian, and G. Wang, “Study of phosphor thermal-isolated packaging technologies for high-power white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1121–1123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. J.

C. T. Lee and T. J. Wu, “Light distribution and light extraction improvement mechanisms of remote GaN-based white light-emitting-diodes using ZnO nanorod array,” J. Lumin. 137, 143–147 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xian, Y. L.

B. F. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Xian, and G. Wang, “Study of phosphor thermal-isolated packaging technologies for high-power white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1121–1123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid State Electron. 52, 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yeh, C. C.

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R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid State Electron. 52, 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid State Electron. 52, 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

B. F. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Xian, and G. Wang, “Study of phosphor thermal-isolated packaging technologies for high-power white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1121–1123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B. M.

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zinterl, E.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
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S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Fan, H. Wu, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Xian, and G. Wang, “Study of phosphor thermal-isolated packaging technologies for high-power white light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1121–1123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Yu, S. Jin, S. Cen, and P. Liang, “Effect of the phosphor geometry on the luminous flux of phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1765–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol.

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 433–440 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

C. T. Lee and T. J. Wu, “Light distribution and light extraction improvement mechanisms of remote GaN-based white light-emitting-diodes using ZnO nanorod array,” J. Lumin. 137, 143–147 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23, 265201 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustrations of reflector cups assembled with blue LEDs and remote phosphors of (a) PS, (b) PPS, and (c) FPS.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM images of (a) PS, (b) PPS, and (c) FPS. (d) Their cross-sectional profiles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross-sectional SEM images of (a) remote phosphor of FPS and (b) its patterned structure; the inset is the magnified version. (c) Plane view of SEM image of patterned structure of FPS; the inset is its magnified version. (d) Cross-sectional view and (e) plane view of SEM images of phosphor layer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Electroluminescence spectra and (b) CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates of remote phosphors of PS, PPS, and FPS pumped by blue LEDs under 350 mA.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Light output power and luminous flux of remote phosphors of PS, PPS, and FPS pumped by blue LEDs under 350 mA.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Light projection of remote phosphor of PS pumped by LEDs under 350 mA. (c) Its corresponding CCT values at nine locations. (b) Light projection of remote phosphor of FPS pumped by LEDs under 350 mA. (d) Its corresponding CCT values at nine locations.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η=PyPPy,
YBR=PyPb,
ΔCCTrms=1ni=1nΔCCTi2,

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