Abstract

Curvature wavefront sensors (WFSs), which obtain the wavefront aberrations from two defocused intensity images at each side of the pupil plane, have shown to be highly efficient for astronomical applications. We propose here an alternative defocusing mechanism for curvature sensors, based on an electrowetting-based variable focus liquid lens. Typically, the sampling rates of a WFS for active optics are of the order of 0.01 Hz, and the focus modulation can be done by simply moving the detector back and forth. On the other hand, adaptive optics may require speeds of up to several hundred hertz, and the modulation is then done by using a fast vibrating membrane mirror. We believe variable focus liquid lenses may be able to perform this focus modulation, reducing the overall size of the system and without the need of extra moving parts. We have done a full characterization of the Varioptic Arctic 416 liquid lens, and we have evaluated its potential performance in different curvature configurations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. 17, R705–R774 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, “A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system,” Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S330–S336 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. L. Lee and C. F. Yang, “Numerical simulation for meniscus shape and optical performance of a MEMS-based liquid micro-lens,” Opt. Express 16, 19995–20007 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2-ms response and 80.3-nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Proc. SPIE 7594, 759407 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128–1130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. W. Hardy, “Active optics-A new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Hart, “Recent advances in astronomical adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 49, D17–D29 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Guisard, L. Noethe, and J. Spyromilio, “Performance of active optics at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 154–164 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Takato, T. Usuda, and W. Tanaka, “Performance of active mirror support of Subaru telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 675–679 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Boccas and T. Vucina, “Performance and upgrades of active optics on Gemini telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627339 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Roddier, “Curvature sensing and compensation: a new concept in adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1223–1225 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensing,” J. Refractive Surg. 17, 573577 (2001).
  22. A. N. Kellerer and A. M. Kellerer, “Error propagation: a comparison of Shack–Hartmann and curvature sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 28, 801–807 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Cuevas, “AO curvature system for segmented primary telescopes,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. 266, 568–576 (2002).
  26. J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch size with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Hulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, 1988), pp. 693–703.
  27. R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. T. Welford, Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical Systems (Academic, 1974).

2012 (3)

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Kellerer and A. M. Kellerer, “Error propagation: a comparison of Shack–Hartmann and curvature sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 28, 801–807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Hart, “Recent advances in astronomical adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 49, D17–D29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2-ms response and 80.3-nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Proc. SPIE 7594, 759407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Lee and C. F. Yang, “Numerical simulation for meniscus shape and optical performance of a MEMS-based liquid micro-lens,” Opt. Express 16, 19995–20007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, “A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system,” Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S330–S336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Boccas and T. Vucina, “Performance and upgrades of active optics on Gemini telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. 17, R705–R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. Takato, T. Usuda, and W. Tanaka, “Performance of active mirror support of Subaru telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 675–679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Cuevas, “AO curvature system for segmented primary telescopes,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. 266, 568–576 (2002).

2001 (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensing,” J. Refractive Surg. 17, 573577 (2001).

2000 (2)

S. Guisard, L. Noethe, and J. Spyromilio, “Performance of active optics at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 154–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1978 (1)

J. W. Hardy, “Active optics-A new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Amico, P.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andelman, D.

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anguiano, G.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arciniega, S.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, R.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avila, R.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baret, J. C.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. 17, R705–R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch size with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Hulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, 1988), pp. 693–703.

Bello, C. D.

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bello, D.

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blain, C.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boccas, M.

M. Boccas and T. Vucina, “Performance and upgrades of active optics on Gemini telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bringas, V.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, E.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cavaller, L.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chapa, O.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chavoya, A.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. C. Y.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chock, L.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cobos, F.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, A.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, D. X.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, S.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Cuevas, “AO curvature system for segmented primary telescopes,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. 266, 568–576 (2002).

Deng, Y.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Devaney, N.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dorantes, A.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Espejo, C.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farah, A.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Femenia, B.

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flores, R.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuensalida, J. J.

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garfias, F.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Godoy, J.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, J. L.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guisard, S.

S. Guisard, L. Noethe, and J. Spyromilio, “Performance of active optics at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 154–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, “Active optics-A new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hart, M.

Hattori, M.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayano, Y.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, R.

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hernández, H.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ibanez, F.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, M.

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2-ms response and 80.3-nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Proc. SPIE 7594, 759407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

James, E.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jochum, L.

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kellerer, A. M.

Kellerer, A. N.

Kolb, J.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krogmann, F.

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, “A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system,” Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S330–S336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuntschner, H.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lara, G.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

Li, L.

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, A. V.

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, L.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lyke, J.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Madec, P. Y.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mastromarino, J.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Medeiros, D.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mönch, W.

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, “A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system,” Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S330–S336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Montoya, J. M.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, D.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mugele, F.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. 17, R705–R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nava, R.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neyman, C.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noethe, L.

S. Guisard, L. Noethe, and J. Spyromilio, “Performance of active optics at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 154–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oku, H.

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2-ms response and 80.3-nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Proc. SPIE 7594, 759407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Panteleev, S.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H. R.

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Platt, B. C.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensing,” J. Refractive Surg. 17, 573577 (2001).

Prieur, J.-L.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qu, C.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Renders, C. A.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, M.

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

Sánchez, B.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarazin, M.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shack, R.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensing,” J. Refractive Surg. 17, 573577 (2001).

Shamai, R.

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

S. Guisard, L. Noethe, and J. Spyromilio, “Performance of active optics at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 154–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stalcup, T.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

N. Takato, T. Usuda, and W. Tanaka, “Performance of active mirror support of Subaru telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 675–679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, H.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, W.

N. Takato, T. Usuda, and W. Tanaka, “Performance of active mirror support of Subaru telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 675–679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tejada, C.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toral, R.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, P.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tukker, T. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Usuda, T.

N. Takato, T. Usuda, and W. Tanaka, “Performance of active mirror support of Subaru telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 675–679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van As, M. A. J.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vernin, J.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vucina, T.

M. Boccas and T. Vucina, “Performance and upgrades of active optics on Gemini telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical Systems (Academic, 1974).

Wetherell, E.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. F.

Zappe, H.

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, “A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system,” Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S330–S336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. (1)

S. Cuevas, “AO curvature system for segmented primary telescopes,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. 266, 568–576 (2002).

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. (1)

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. 17, R705–R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Refractive Surg. (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensing,” J. Refractive Surg. 17, 573577 (2001).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. W. Hardy, “Active optics-A new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (9)

S. Guisard, L. Noethe, and J. Spyromilio, “Performance of active optics at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 154–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Takato, T. Usuda, and W. Tanaka, “Performance of active mirror support of Subaru telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 675–679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Boccas and T. Vucina, “Performance and upgrades of active optics on Gemini telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2-ms response and 80.3-nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Proc. SPIE 7594, 759407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, “A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system,” Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S330–S336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soft Matt. (1)

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch size with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Hulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, 1988), pp. 693–703.

W. T. Welford, Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical Systems (Academic, 1974).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics