Abstract

Curvature wavefront sensors (WFSs), which obtain the wavefront aberrations from two defocused intensity images at each side of the pupil plane, have shown to be highly efficient for astronomical applications. We propose here an alternative defocusing mechanism for curvature sensors, based on an electrowetting-based variable focus liquid lens. Typically, the sampling rates of a WFS for active optics are of the order of 0.01 Hz, and the focus modulation can be done by simply moving the detector back and forth. On the other hand, adaptive optics may require speeds of up to several hundred hertz, and the modulation is then done by using a fast vibrating membrane mirror. We believe variable focus liquid lenses may be able to perform this focus modulation, reducing the overall size of the system and without the need of extra moving parts. We have done a full characterization of the Varioptic Arctic 416 liquid lens, and we have evaluated its potential performance in different curvature configurations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. 17, R705–R774 (2005).
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  3. R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  7. X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
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  16. J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  27. R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
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2012

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. N. Kellerer and A. M. Kellerer, “Error propagation: a comparison of Shack–Hartmann and curvature sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 28, 801–807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2-ms response and 80.3-nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Proc. SPIE 7594, 759407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hart, “Recent advances in astronomical adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 49, D17–D29 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. L. Lee and C. F. Yang, “Numerical simulation for meniscus shape and optical performance of a MEMS-based liquid micro-lens,” Opt. Express 16, 19995–20007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, “A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system,” Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S330–S336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Boccas and T. Vucina, “Performance and upgrades of active optics on Gemini telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. 17, R705–R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Takato, T. Usuda, and W. Tanaka, “Performance of active mirror support of Subaru telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 675–679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Cuevas, “AO curvature system for segmented primary telescopes,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. 266, 568–576 (2002).

2001

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensing,” J. Refractive Surg. 17, 573577 (2001).

2000

S. Guisard, L. Noethe, and J. Spyromilio, “Performance of active optics at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 154–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988

1978

J. W. Hardy, “Active optics-A new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Amico, P.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andelman, D.

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anguiano, G.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arciniega, S.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, R.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avila, R.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baret, J. C.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. 17, R705–R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch size with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Hulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, 1988), pp. 693–703.

Bello, C. D.

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bello, D.

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blain, C.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boccas, M.

M. Boccas and T. Vucina, “Performance and upgrades of active optics on Gemini telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bringas, V.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, E.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cavaller, L.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chapa, O.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chavoya, A.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. C. Y.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chock, L.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cobos, F.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, A.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, D. X.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, S.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Cuevas, “AO curvature system for segmented primary telescopes,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. 266, 568–576 (2002).

Deng, Y.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Devaney, N.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dorantes, A.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Espejo, C.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farah, A.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Femenia, B.

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flores, R.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuensalida, J. J.

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garfias, F.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Godoy, J.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, J. L.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guisard, S.

S. Guisard, L. Noethe, and J. Spyromilio, “Performance of active optics at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 154–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, “Active optics-A new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hart, M.

Hattori, M.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayano, Y.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, R.

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hernández, H.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ibanez, F.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, M.

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2-ms response and 80.3-nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Proc. SPIE 7594, 759407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

James, E.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jochum, L.

J. Castro, C. D. Bello, L. Jochum, and N. Devaney, “Image quality and active optics for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 386–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kellerer, A. M.

Kellerer, A. N.

Kolb, J.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krogmann, F.

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, “A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system,” Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S330–S336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuntschner, H.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lara, G.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

Li, L.

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, A. V.

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, L.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lyke, J.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Madec, P. Y.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mastromarino, J.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Medeiros, D.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mönch, W.

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, “A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system,” Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S330–S336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Montoya, J. M.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, D.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mugele, F.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. 17, R705–R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nava, R.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neyman, C.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noethe, L.

S. Guisard, L. Noethe, and J. Spyromilio, “Performance of active optics at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 154–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oku, H.

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2-ms response and 80.3-nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Proc. SPIE 7594, 759407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Panteleev, S.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H. R.

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Platt, B. C.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensing,” J. Refractive Surg. 17, 573577 (2001).

Prieur, J.-L.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qu, C.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Renders, C. A.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, M.

N. Devaney, D. Bello, B. Femenia, J. Castro, A. V. Lopez, M. Reyes, and J. J. Fuensalida, “Preliminary design and plans for the GTC adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 913–923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

Sánchez, B.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarazin, M.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shack, R.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensing,” J. Refractive Surg. 17, 573577 (2001).

Shamai, R.

R. Shamai, D. Andelman, B. Berge, and R. Hayes, “Water, electricity, and between. On electrowetting and its applications,” Soft Matt. 4, 38–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

S. Guisard, L. Noethe, and J. Spyromilio, “Performance of active optics at the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 4003, 154–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stalcup, T.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D.

H. Kuntschner, P. Amico, J. Kolb, P. Y. Madec, R. Arsenault, M. Sarazin, and D. Summers, “Operational concept of the VLT’s adaptive optics facility and its instruments,” Proc. SPIE 8448, 844808 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

N. Takato, T. Usuda, and W. Tanaka, “Performance of active mirror support of Subaru telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 675–679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, H.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, W.

N. Takato, T. Usuda, and W. Tanaka, “Performance of active mirror support of Subaru telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 675–679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tejada, C.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toral, R.

S. Cuevas, B. Sánchez, V. Bringas, C. Espejo, R. Flores, O. Chapa, G. Lara, A. Chavoya, G. Anguiano, S. Arciniega, A. Dorantes, J. L. Gonzalez, J. M. Montoya, R. Toral, H. Hernández, R. Nava, N. Devaney, J. Castro, L. Cavaller, A. Farah, J. Godoy, F. Cobos, C. Tejada, and F. Garfias, “Site acceptance of the commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670X (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, P.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tukker, T. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Usuda, T.

N. Takato, T. Usuda, and W. Tanaka, “Performance of active mirror support of Subaru telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 675–679 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van As, M. A. J.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vernin, J.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibanez, J. Vernin, J.-L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir. II. Wind profile statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vucina, T.

M. Boccas and T. Vucina, “Performance and upgrades of active optics on Gemini telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 627339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

O. Guyon, C. Blain, H. Tamaki, Y. Hayano, M. Hattori, and M. Watanabe, “Improving the sensitivity of astronomical curvature wavefront sensor using dual-stroke curvature,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 655–664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical Systems (Academic, 1974).

Wetherell, E.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P.

J. C. Y. Chin, P. Wizinowich, R. Campbell, L. Chock, A. Cooper, E. James, J. Lyke, J. Mastromarino, O. Martin, D. Medeiros, D. Morrison, C. Neyman, S. Panteleev, T. Stalcup, P. Tucker, E. Wetherell, and M. van Dam, “Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474F (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. F.

Zappe, H.

F. Krogmann, W. Mönch, and H. Zappe, “A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system,” Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S330–S336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Hu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, C. Qu, L. Lu, X. Ma, X. Zhang, and Y. Deng, “Electrowetting based infrared lens using ionic liquids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 213505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf.

S. Cuevas, “AO curvature system for segmented primary telescopes,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. 266, 568–576 (2002).

Eur. Phys. J. E

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. Li, C. Liu, H. R. Peng, and Q. H. Wang, “Optical switch based on electrowetting liquid lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. 17, R705–R774 (2005).
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J. Refractive Surg.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensing,” J. Refractive Surg. 17, 573577 (2001).

Opt. Express

Opt. Rev.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Internal structure of liquid lens Arctic 416. The materials 1, 2, and 3 are oil, water solution, and borosilicate glass, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical setup with ZYGO interferometer and liquid lens. One half of the light beam is reflected inside the interferometer, and the other half goes through the transmission sphere, TS, is collimated by the liquid lens, LVO, and reflected in a flat mirror, M2. We show the configuration for negative, positive, and zero powers of the liquid lens, and two examples of the WFE surface at 0Vrms and 60Vrms.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmittance of the Varioptic lens in the visible and near infrared. The lens is operated with a voltage of 40.9Vrms, for which it has zero power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup to measure the optical power as a function of input voltage. LVO represents the Varioptic liquid lens, and L0 is an additional lens of known focal length, f0=101.5mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Variation of the optical power as a function of the voltage. The dashed line is the linear fit P=1.1Vrms45.2. In the top-left corner of the plot, we present measures repeated for two different lenses, L1 and L2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical arrangement, corresponding to the illustration of Fig. 4(a), for the measurement of focal lengths and chromatic focal shifts.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Focal length as a function of wavelength for three different input voltages. We show the first three measured values (diamonds) together with the set of values obtained in ZEMAX (crosses). The dotted lines represent fits to Eq. (3) for each case.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Form of the operation AC signal, as measured with an oscilloscope, directly from the fabrication voltage supply of 887 Hz.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Diagram of the experimental setup to measure the response time of the liquid lens.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Frequency response diagram, corresponding to power jumps of 10m1 (crosses) and 5m1 (diamonds).

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Refractive Index (nD) and Abbe Number (ν) of the Lens Materials

Tables Icon

Table 2. Liquid Lens Aberrations, in Units of He–Ne Wavelengtha

Tables Icon

Table 3. Focal Lengths (in mm) Measured for Three Wavelengths at Three Different Voltages

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1S=1S+1f0,
f=S+f0Sf0Sd.
f(λ)=a0+a1λ2.
ν=fDfCfF.
ν=14.7±0.1.

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