Abstract

Irreversible changes in the refractive index of a dye-doped polymer film by photo induced bleaching were measured with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The decrease in the refractive index of the film for various laser powers and various radiation times has been investigated. A beam-processing machine with two simultaneous outputs has been designed to make use of this change in the refractive index to fabricate a channel waveguide. This method is simple and one step, and does not involve any solvent or mask; and also due to photobleaching, the pattern is not reversible.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Eldada and L. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. E. McKenna, J. Xue, A. Verdoni, M. Yetzbacher, R. Fan, and A. Mickelson, “Kinetic model of irreversible photobleaching of dye-doped polymer waveguide materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1294–1301 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kainoa, “Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240–3244 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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2007

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, “Photobleaching fabrication of microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221–2223 (2006).

2004

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606–8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. McKenna, J. Xue, A. Verdoni, M. Yetzbacher, R. Fan, and A. Mickelson, “Kinetic model of irreversible photobleaching of dye-doped polymer waveguide materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1294–1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, Z. Cheng, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer microring filters and modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968–1975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Eldada and L. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kainoa, “Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240–3244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, “Waveguide fabrication using organic nonlinear optical materials,” J. Opt. A 2, R1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1995

1993

F. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, and G. L. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, “Photobleaching fabrication of microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221–2223 (2006).

Cheng, Z.

Dalton, L. R.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, “Photobleaching fabrication of microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221–2223 (2006).

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, Z. Cheng, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer microring filters and modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968–1975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Derose, C. T.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada and L. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, R.

Feng, W.

Francis, C. V.

F. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, and G. L. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kainoa, “Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240–3244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, K.

Hooker, R. B.

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606–8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, “Photobleaching fabrication of microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221–2223 (2006).

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, “Waveguide fabrication using organic nonlinear optical materials,” J. Opt. A 2, R1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kainoa, T.

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kainoa, “Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240–3244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, “Photobleaching fabrication of microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221–2223 (2006).

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McKenna, E.

Mickelson, A.

Mickelson, A. R.

Misemer, D. K.

F. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mohapatra, S. K.

F. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moshrefzadeh, F. S.

F. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, M.

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

Onodera, S.

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kainoa, “Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240–3244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paloczi, G. T.

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606–8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pyayt, A.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, “Photobleaching fabrication of microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221–2223 (2006).

Rabiei, P.

Radcliffe, M. D.

F. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rochford, K. B.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, and G. L. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shacklette, L.

L. Eldada and L. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kainoa, “Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240–3244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. L.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, and G. L. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Sugihara, O.

Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verdoni, A.

Xue, J.

Yariv, A.

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606–8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yetzbacher, M.

Zanoni, R.

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, and G. L. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, “Photobleaching fabrication of microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221–2223 (2006).

Adv. Mater.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Rochford, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, and G. L. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. Eldada and L. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Zhou, A. Pyayt, L. R. Dalton, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Chen, “Photobleaching fabrication of microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2221–2223 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kainoa, “Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240–3244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. A

T. Kaino, “Waveguide fabrication using organic nonlinear optical materials,” J. Opt. A 2, R1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606–8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for two-branch direct writing. Mj(j=1,2): mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output of objective lens.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

UV–visible absorption spectrum of the DR1/PMMA film before and after 35 min exposure. Laser wavelength and intensity were 532 nm and 0.1W/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Maximum absorption peak of the film at different exposure times. Laser wavelength and intensity were 532 nm and 0.4W/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Refractive index changes. Left: constant exposure power (320 mW) at different exposure times. Right: constant exposure time (180 s) at different exposure powers. Laser wavelength and exposed area were 532 nm and 12.5×102cm2, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Waveguide fabricated with the DLW process.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Channel waveguide with a cross section of 5μm×20μm. The image was produced by an optical microscope.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

AFM surface scan showing the surface profile of one of the clads of the channel waveguide made by photobleaching.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Changes in the color of the sample (photobleaching) over the exposed area.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Refractive index at various points in the waveguide cross section.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Fundamental mode of the waveguide at 633 nm.

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